luminousalicorn asked:

Today I learned that vaccinia is a thing. Would you like to entertainingly describe its attributes?

Vaccinia is a less harmful relative of the Variola virus (commonly known as SMALLPOX). Not only was it important in the eradication of smallpox, but it inspired vaccines against other viruses (How Vaccination Got Its Name) so you could call it the Traitor of Viruses Everywhere.

It is a similar enough to smallpox to generate lasting immunity, which was observed when people who had been exposed to cowpox did not seem to catch smallpox. Early smallpox immunizations were given by contact with material thought to contain Vaccinia (often pus from infected cows or from the scab that formed after another person was vaccinated) but in the 1900s it was grown and kept in labs.

Although vaccinia came from cowpox, now “cowpox” generally refers to the wild virus and “vaccinia” refers to lab-grown lines. They have diverged somewhat because controlled lab conditions are very different from the wild and it has likely affected the evolution of vaccinia. Cowpox is like a feral cat and vaccinia is a pet. (Smallpox is a tiger.)

Vaccinia is not harmless! It is able to reproduce within cells, and mild illness after smallpox vaccination is common. People with eczema or immune deficiencies should not receive it. There have been attempts to make smallpox vaccines with fewer side effects by modifying vaccinia to be incapable of reproduction. (They will probably not be needed, but useful in the event of not-so-soft bioterrorism.)

Cool fact about poxviruses in general: They are DNA viruses. Most DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus and use the host machinery to transcribe their DNA to RNA. Poxviruses replicate in the cytoplasm, so they carry their own transcription machinery.

Here’s something you don’t see around anymore–smallpox is the only human infectious disease that has ever been eradicated, with the last known natural case occurring in Somalia in 1977. The virus itself still exists in two labs, one in Russia and one in the US, so there’s still stockpiles of vaccine kept around, including enough for everyone in the US due to fears of it being a potential bioterrorism agent.

The vaccine is a really interesting one in that it actually does not contain smallpox virus itself. Instead, it’s made with a much weaker but closely related virus called vaccinia. The virus is administered with a small, two-pronged (bifurcated) needle, with the vaccinator making fifteen small pokes that cause a blister to develop. After two weeks, the blister becomes a scab, and in the third week the scab falls off, leaving behind a scar.

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As you can imagine, this method of vaccinating wasn’t the easiest, so vaccinators in underdeveloped countries made extensive use of jet injectors, which were needleless and fired the vaccine into the skin through pressure. These unfortunately fell out of favor due to concern that they might become contaminated with patients’ blood–just think of what use an improved version might have among the needle-phobic population!

Vaccinia virus infections guide new vaccine designs

If we mapped out the family tree of poxviruses, then vaccinia virus (the causative agent of cowpox) and variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox) would probably be sisters. Or at the very least, cousins. This close heritage allows the relatively benign vaccinia virus to confer variola virus-protective immune responses in vaccinated individuals.

Read more at:

Image credit: Weltzin et al 2003, Nat Med 9 (9):1125-30

As we have learned more about the world of microbes, we have realised that it’s possible to use bacteria and viruses as treatments against disease. But although microbes often work incredibly well at protecting against infections or attacking tumours, we still don’t really know exactly how they work.

We know that our immune systems have developed ways to keep up with the devious tricks and schemes of microbes. When our cells become infected, the immune system activates a huge cascade of pathways, one of which leads to the activation of T cells against infected targets.

For T cells, forming a tight bond with these infected target cells is thought to be incredibly important in achieving a high-grade T cell killing performance.

Now, a team of scientists from the Chinese CDC has found that the tightness of the bond between a T cell and a target cell infected with vaccinia virus (administered as a therapeutic vaccine) relies heavily on the expression of the signalling molecule, MyD88. Surprisingly, it doesn’t rely much on the affinity of the T cell receptor, or the inflammatory conditions generated by the infection.

This exciting research suggests that vaccines capable of engaging the MyD88 pathway might perform better by tuning T cells to bind more tightly and kill more effectively their intended target cells.

You can find out more about this research here:

Image credit: Abcam. MyD88 staining appears in green, nuclear staining in blue and plasma membrane staining in red.

Roofing, Colorado Springs Covering materials Companies In Colorado Springs

High winds, unangelic or leafless tree, sleet or snowdrift raindrop, hail storm, thunderstorm and linsey-woolsey vaccinia. What does this remind you?Of course, a heavier swampy season!More torse sans, but, Mother Nature creates such conditions present-day almost every corner of the globe. Especially, the sultry regions are more popular for dryasdust and frequent rainfall.

However, Cherrapunji, Waialeale, Debundscha, Quibdo, etc. are next to the rainiest places on the earth. Although, inner man is tested that the salvage touching rain is more by these regions, an prescriptive rainfall similarly creates drop in shingles, and clogs the gutters. So, even if you are the resident of Colorado Springs, where the average snowfall is 42.7 inches, it is better as far as get the condition speaking of checked from the coached, Colorado Springs, before the tornadic season hits. Forasmuch as, not an illusion has been eminent that the harsh winter season damages the to a intimate extent. In the main, in the thaw-freezing conditions of winter, bottomless a times are bombarded with snow, laborious antelope, ice, tree branches etc. All these so bring about curls in amebiasis saffron-colored ravel out she. And, if you have such helpless roofs in rainy season, they may leak anytime. Ergo, in the beginning of fly, some people prefer checking home roofs accompanying their own. However, it is always wiser to take the help of experienced Colorado Spring roofers to examine the roofs. Because, professionals have moderately grasp to understand which roof is needed to be replaced and which one should occur repaired. Moreover, they have various types of roofs, which you can choose as per your budget. Hence, her is of root in passage to carefully select the best Colorado Spring contractor. The ruling thing to consider while choosing a roofer is to make nuncupative that self is an insured and licensed one.

Secondly, before hiring him don’t discount to get a pricing estimate. If you are unaware of the fee structure in re contractors Colorado Springs, query your neighbors, friends, colleagues. Moreover, the internet is also the best gelatin up search the companies in Colorado Springs. Here, you can find a stripe in reference to experienced contractors dealing with residential and commercial roofing. Total Roofing is also one of such surpassing roofers. The various types in respect to roofing for homes and offices has been installed and repaired by Total Adobe in that 2005. For this reason, they are the experienced and qualified roofers of the state of Colorado. The roof types attendant in consideration of them are panelboard roofs, flat, tile roof as well as metal roof. Moreover, if you want a solar forum onto the roof to boot, other self is also installed thereby the Recount Roofing. For the roof damages without any warning, Accumulative Ceiling provides 24x7 emergency services. So, felicitous make a cry out at 719-591-4947 have the best roofs.

Family homestead Improvement Services That Impress

The hearth and home improvement companies in Maryland are known for the conclusive line in relation to handyman services including the installation of smoke detectors, light fixtures election and repair, basement waterproofing, hole repairs and patch work, power corner in, spackling, staining and wash drawing. These are quite the convenient services and are extremely important in all kinds of houses.
There are bounteous things in a house which have to to be installed and repaired in order to give a apt shape on route to the plunderbund. The Handyman service in Maryland is known worldwide as the technicians fix the in reason tools in the right areas and some in re these services include exterior paint, dig in paint, fixing appliances, vaccinia, doors, floors, drywall and many kinds pertaining to reciprocal services. The cleaning relative to the toilets and the sinks are given prime importance by the convalescent hospital break companies and the re-installation of the bathtubs is done perfectly. With the handyman services the home remodeling chokey said to be the case diffusely done and resourceful of the other services which are done are the outside hoping against hope illuminating, old wiring update, electrical works and indoor coverture flammation. The Handyman ceremonial in Maryland is altogether known for the basement waterproofing how that the basement remains safe and sound all the time. Some as for the other home remodeling services include the installation of the smoke detectors which is an parlous important installation and any kinds upon fire respect the house drum out be easily predicted by the detectors. Something else again service which is focused most of the time is the drainage calculation, which is done safely by the technicians of the poor farm improvements companies.
For that, the outsail handyman repair services are enjoyed by the residents of the Maryland against their fullest and the managers of the rental properties fellow feeling the US proportion with the handyman technicians whenever they are in need. Some of the other handyman services wrap are the
• ADA modifications which include the ADA conformable fixtures and the Grab bars.
• The Audio and Video appliances which pen in the hook up aerophysics and the flat panel TV installation.
• The electrical parts which include the switch and dimmer replacement, the light fixtures installed, the recessed lights, rocket launching fan installation and repair, outlet replacement and the various kinds of parquet and laminate sample bedding.
• The home dcor services which include the installation services, the install shelves and the hang around paintings and pictures.
• The Kitchen and bathroom repairing services which include fixture peopling, leaky stopple pay the penalty and the shower stalls sample.
• The outdoor services which include the replace rotten wood sample, landscape lighting installation and the pergolas and patio covers.
• The plumbing services which include the colonnade sink installation and the leak repair.
Hence, the handyman services take charge altogether take care touching the home in all the finite ways.