LazyTown, meme show supreme, is a good show to use for practice! The show has been dubbed into nearly 32 languages, according to the Wikipedia, so there should be something for everyone. It is faster than Peppa Pig and I’d recommend it mostly to people at B1/B2 level, but it can be good just to let the language wash over you for the immersion. It’s use of songs are quite nice breaks between dialogue too. There is also generally a lot of it free on YouTube, which is nice
These are some of the terms and definitions that I personally use. They change a lot as I get new info and I didn’t create any of the words lol. Other people have other definitions and I’m not trying to insinuate that mine are the “right” meanings. They’re simply just my thoughts on things.
Spirits: Funny enough, the hardest thing for me to define. I want to say anything that doesn’t exist in the physical realm, aka anything without matter. But there’s a difference between spirits and simply energy and that’s where things get fuzzy. Also, there’s a lot of things that don’t have matter that I wouldn’t consider spirits just because of that such as concepts like justice or things like heat (aka a non woo energy).
Etheric Copy: Also known as the “energy body”.
This is actually more so a type of energy that makes up a spirit than the spirit itself but I felt it was worth mentioning. It applies to the spirit that lies within physical beings, living and nonliving and is the energetic form and feeling that their spirit takes. Sometimes the etheric copy isn’t an exact copy of the physical form where one’s etheric copy can have aspects of their astral form, such as wings on a human’s copy.
Entities: Living spirits that are still going about their lives. They can grow, have families, withdraw money from the bank, die, etc. They can be super complex beings or just simple, mindless creatures. The important things are that they can still age and that they don’t have physical bodies.
Ghosts: The spirits of the dead, whether they were originally physical or not. These are the spirits that you’d meet from the bones and remains of earthly organisms but you can also meet ghosts from entities that have passed. Usually hang out in graveyards, places that they used to live, or the respective netherworld of their culture. If you kill an entity, you might still need to deal with their ghost.
[Name] Guardian: A spirit that encompasses many other spirits. For example, a “species spirit” which is a spirit of an entire species of organism, not just an individual, would fall under this. (They aren’t literally made of the individuals that fall under them). I also just sometimes write the name in all caps like COFFEE for Coffee Guardian.
Nonliving Spirits: The spirits of objects. These can have an etheric copy if working with physical objects but it also applies to objects in the nonphysical worlds. Usually are dormant and need an energy input to be “awakened”. They usually like to do what they were made for, examples being hammer spirits that like to hammer, lamps that like to be turned on, etc. On the other hand, some nonliving spirits have the strength of gods but their nonliving nature means that they’re not actively looking for worshipers or to strengthen their power like most true gods (Ex- the Sun and the Moon).
Demons: A “catch-all” term for the diverse group of spirits that usually live in the lower realms of the astral. They also usually work in “darker” magics but there’s some who are “lighter” and others who don’t do any magic. A lot of spirits with different names, appearances, cultures, personalities etc. fit under this broad classification. Think about how we use Kingdom Animalia to describe thousands of species that share only a few characteristics.
Gods: Strong entities with access to power levels and areas of the universe that are inaccessible to humans and other spirits. For example, humans can create life by using their personal will and energy (and perhaps that of spirit allies too) to make thoughtforms and the like whereas gods can create life (and free will from the get go) simply by using the energy from a life-creating domain of the universe. The more connections they have to these domains, the stronger they become. A lot of their strength also comes from worship and its many forms though not all gods are a part of a religion and not all gods interact with humans. They can also form different “aspects” which are like different versions of themselves that are usually influenced by the way their followers worship and work with them. They can create these without influence though it’s not as easy.
Servitors: Simple, mindless spirits that are created from a human’s (can be an entity’s too probably) will and energy. Programmed for one certain task and are fed through the creator’s energy aka their creator giving them attention. The creator can dismantle them and incorporate their energy into new servitors, back into themselves (not recommended), release their energy into the universe, or forget about them so that they disappear into the universe on their own. They lack a mind, free will, personality, emotions, etc. unless they’ve gone rogue. A rogue servitor is one that their creator no longer has full control over and no, that’s not a good thing.
Thoughtforms: Essentially the same thing as a servitor but they’re usually more complex with thoughts, feelings, minds and potentially more than one task programmed into them. Just like servitors, they’re dependent on their creator for food but a properly made thoughtform would have another food source that they can rely on. Initially, they lack knowledge beyond what their creator already knows and free will, however, through experience and interactions with others they can gain both of those things. The only way to know if a TF truly has free will is if they go against the task they were programmed for (a companion TF no longer wants to be a companion, a guardian TF no longer feels the need to guard what they were instructed to, etc.). When they have completed their task, they can be “put to rest” and released into the universe or released as an independent being since they do have the other food source. They can also go rogue if they become independent without their creator’s “permission” and can be dangerous to the creator and others depending on how they gained their independence (*cough* abused/neglected TFs ).
Egregores: Spirits that are created from the will and energy of multiple people. Pop-Culture spirits are the most obvious example but egregores can be created by a small group of people like a coven or just a bunch of friends too. Like thoughtforms and servitors, they are fed by attention and smaller egregores can die if they aren’t given enough attention and don’t have an alternative food source. I find that similar to gods, these usually have “aspects” with different facets depending on how many people were involved in their creation (the more people, the more aspects). They’re more powerful than thoughtforms.
Godforms: Human-created gods. Usually come from extremely successful egregores that obtained the attention and energy of many, many people. I’d say characters like Pikachu or Harry Potter have reached this level or perhaps even the spirit of the USA or McDonald’s. They can also be intentionally created gods like if a group of people began worshiping a being as if they were a god. While egregores are usually controlled in some form by the people that created them, godforms are completely independent and no longer require their attention just to exist. But just like gods, more attention means more power so they probably seek out more “followers” by trying to expand their influence. I don’t know for sure if they have connections to the exclusive domains of the universe that regular gods have but I can see things like the USA godform gaining access to the same domains that war gods have or Pikachu being connected to an electricity domain like Zeus is.
Some would argue that all gods are actually godforms but I don’t know enough about the nature and origins of gods to make that judgement. (I’ve seen “megregore” used as a term for a godform that isn’t “religiously” worshiped but I personally don’t differentiate the two).
Local spirits are the spirits that are constantly around us, in the forests, on the beaches, in schools, in homes, etc. They can be ghosts, mythological creatures, entities never mentioned in lore before and more. Their personalities and friendliness towards humans can vary quite a bit, especially depending on where you live. Think of them as your spirit neighbors. Some might remain as such for the entire time that you know them, others might become your companions or maybe even your rivals! The important thing is that you respectfully interact with them and be aware of their boundaries.
There’s two main ways that I’ve found to make contact with local spirits: call them to you or go outside and meet them in the places they live. Calling them to you is actually kind of a similar concept to conjuring except that you are only calling to the spirits that live in your area and that there’s no guarantee that they’ll show up. Going out is like a scientist going on a field study for an organism that they’re interested in: might find them, might not, and if it’s spirits we’re talking about then might find but they don’t want to be interacted with.
That’s the biggest thing to remember when working with local spirits, that not all spirits are interested in interacting with humans. In fact, many spirits couldn’t care less about humans or even actively have ways to prevent humans from meeting them. You should respect spirits that don’t want to be worked with. If you really want to work with a particular group then you could try negotiating with them or slowly building up a relationship with them in order to see if they will eventually be willing. Just don’t force any spirit to interact or speak with you, that will end badly for you every time.
Spirit work isn’t always the safest thing and there’s many ways that you can be harmed. The most important thing to have is a protective circle. It will protect you from many things and can actually be very versatile. Obviously this is hard to make when going out and meeting spirits so we’ll separate the safety procedures for each technique.
Going Out to Meet the Spirits
When going out not only is it harder to bring and set up materials, you’re also in public a lot of the time which limits what you can do. That is why personal warding is important. Personal warding can take the form of energy shields, protective amulets, etc. These are things that should be prepared before going out with the intent of meeting spirits so that they are ready in case you do get attacked.
Calling the Spirits
Calling the spirits comes with the risk of inviting unknown entities into your home. That is why it is important to have wards and a protective circle. The circle will protect you if they try to attack you during the meeting while the wards will prevent them from getting back in after being banished. Generic wards are basic spirit work stuff so I’m not going to go into them here.
A circle, however, can be made in many different ways. The most important thing to keep in mind is that it has protective elements that you feel are helpful to you, not what some list on the internet says. You could take from traditional circles and use them as a template for creating your own or you can completely make a new style of circle. The possibilities are endless! Some things you might want to include are protective stones, the names of deities you work with, protective words or sigils, candles, etc. Any physical item you use should have a designated spot for it. Your orientation of the elements of the circle is also important, or well it can be if you ascribe that importance! Perhaps you use the four elements to protect you in your circle and you associate them with a particular direction for example.
When you decide on what the circle should look like, practice making and using it! You can draw it out on an old sheet so that you don’t have to keep remaking it, you can set out physical items in the shape of a circle or you can create it with energy if you’re good at that. However you make it, it’s important to get used to being in it and the energy that goes into “activating” it. Activating it usually involves calling upon whatever makes up the circle to protect you. Sticking with the element example, you’d activate is by calling for Fire, Water, Earth, and Air to protect you. Once you are done with the circle, you must close it. This usually means allowing whatever you called upon to depart but in the reverse order from before. Try it out, play around with it, find or create whatever procedure that is comfortable to you.
When speaking with spirits, do not let them in no matter how much they try to persuade you. Also, do not leave the circle until you are sure that they are gone. That’s why you should keep any banishing tools and the like on hand so you don’t have to run and fetch them. If you don’t follow both of those rules then what’s the point of making the circle?
[There’s many different ways to use a circle, this is just a generic explanation of it].
Calling the Spirits to You
This process includes creating a call of energy and sending it out into the “energy network” of your local area. Spirits in the area can hear this call and choose whether or not to answer it and show up.
Tools needed: An offering for the spirit that you are calling, any banishing tools, any physical items that make up your circle, a wand if you need/use one, and any communication tools if you need them.
Making the Call: Cast your circle, set your offering outside of it and get into a clear state of mind where you can access your energy. Say the call, either out loud or in your head, doesn’t matter. It can be anything but basically along the lines of “I call to any [spirit name] that would be interested in speaking with me for [an interview]. In return, I have an offering of [the offering]”. You can call them for any reason but like I’ve mentioned before, they’re not obligated to come. As you say the call, form the energy of your words into a ball of energy in front of you. This is where you can use your wand to help channel the energy easier. Visualization also helps here. Once it is formed and stable, send it out in all directions into the environment. I usually just shoot a quick burst of energy at it to give it the momentum to move fast but you can flick your wrist/wand or do whatever it is you normally do to send energy out.
Even after you finish saying the call, you can feed more energy into the energy ball if you want the call to be “louder” and travel farther. This can be dangerous though because since the call is made from your energy, it is connected to you and that’s how the spirits who answer your call can find you. When the call reaches the limits of its strength it disappears and all links to you are gone. However, the stronger you make it, the longer it is out in the environment and the more likely unexpected spirits can trace you. So basically, don’t make the call too powerful.
Meeting the Spirit: If the call isn’t made too strong (aka the amount of energy that the sample call above makes) then at most, it should take 10 minutes for the call’s energy to die out (usually not actually that long but it’s good to be safe). After you finish speaking with the spirit, thank them for coming and allow them to leave. Make sure that they are actually gone before closing your circle. If a spirit doesn’t appear within that time you can either resend the call or close your circle and try again later.
Notes: Creating the call doesn’t guarantee that a spirit will show up. It also doesn’t mean that the spirit who shows up is the spirit that you called to. I mean in the four years that I’ve been using this technique, I’ve never had the “wrong” spirit show up but I find it very hard to believe that it’s not possible. Both of these are reasons why it’s important to have the basic techniques for being able to sense a spirit’s presence and determine their identity.
Going Out and Meeting Spirits
This process is much more straightforward. You essentially go out to places in your area like beaches, parks, schools, etc., see if you can sense any spirits, and then see if any are interested in talking with you.
Tools needed: Any protective amulets or items that you have and an offering for any spirits you may come across
I don’t have much explanation for this because it ain’t much more complex than that. If you don’t know who you’re going to meet, generic offerings to bring include water, alcohol, bread, rice, tobacco, etc. If you know of an offering that the spirits where you’re headed would prefer then bring that. No matter what you bring do not leave anything that will pollute the environment. Any food offerings you bring should be in a container and then properly disposed of, not thrown on the ground for example.
Set out the offering and ask if anyone wants it. You can also respectfully approach anyone you see and ask if they would want it. If they decline your offer, then don’t press them. Just give them a “okay, sorry for bothering you” and leave. Be respectful when interacting with them, you are on their territory after all.
Also be smart about who you approach. If someone’s energy makes you feel uncomfortable or they’re a species or have an affiliation with a group that is known to be hostile, then be aware that you may need to defend yourself if you choose to approach them and things go sour. Of course not all bad-feeling spirits are actually bad, not all good-feeling spirits are actually good, and first impressions can be misleading. Just trust your intuition and be prepared for the worst in case it happens.
What to Do if You Are in Danger
It’ll happen. Not all spirits are friendly and many might look at you as prey or something to mess with. The most important thing to do is stay calm. When a spirit attacks, it can be very scary so I know that keeping a clear head isn’t always the easiest of things in that situation. That is why you should develop a clear plan for dealing with attacks beforehand and have all the tools that you need already prepared. If it’ll help, write down a basic procedure for banishing and keep it in your pocket or somewhere else that spirits won’t be able to easily see. That way even if you’re freaking out, you’ll have a lifeline telling you what to do.
Calling the Spirits
If a spirit attacks, tries to force their way into your circle, or suddenly acts hostile, banish immediately. It’s best not to take any chances. Once they are banished, cleanse the area and reinforce your wards. Sometimes spirits may do something that might make you uncomfortable but you don’t feel as though it’s bad enough to warrant forcing them out. You can simply ask them to leave or let them know that the behavior will not be tolerated. If they ignore your request, banish them. It’s possible that a spirit isn’t aware that they might be making you uncomfortable and so talking it out first before immediately jumping to banishing (if they’re not actively attacking you) could be beneficial for both of you. Just remember to be firm in your boundaries and don’t let the spirit persuade you into letting them go.
Reasons not to banish a spirit:
If they look “scary”. Their appearance doesn’t always reflect their personality. For some, that’s just the way that they were born.
If they’re a “demon”. Demon is a very useless, broad term that describes a myriad of entities all of which have different personalities and moralities. “Demon” is not the equivalent of “evil”.
Going out and Meeting the Spirits
The difference here is that you can’t really banish spirits when you visit them at their homes. That’d be like going over to a friend’s house and trying to kick them out. If a spirit attacks you while you’re away from your protected space, the best you can do is get out of there. If you came prepared with proper protection then it should be able to buy you enough time to escape. Depending on the situation, the attacking spirit may or may not be interested in chasing you. So, sometimes “escaping” can be simply removing yourself from the area immediately as the spirit is just acting aggressive so that you’ll back off. But other times, you may need to do a little more than that. If you suspect that you got followed home, perform a banishing of your property and cleanse yourself and the area. Then reinforce your wards.
The one thing that I have to say is that you need to be cognizant of why that spirit is attacking you. More specifically, you need to be aware of when your actions provoke a spirit to attack. Did you infringe upon their territory? Did you bother them after they told you that they didn’t want to interact? You are out in their realm, just as a spirit that you invite into your house should respect you, you should respect spirits when you meet them at their homes.
Which Process Should You Use?
It depends on what “level” of spirit work you’re at and what you want to accomplish. Calling a spirit to you is definitely requires an intermediate skill level in energy and spirit work whereas going out and meeting them only requires that you be able to sense and communicate with spirits. However, when you call a spirit to you, they’re more likely to be willing to talk since that’s what they came for according to your call. You’re also more protected since you’re able to have your circle and tools right at hand. Spirits that you simply meet outside aren’t always going to want to speak and it’s a bit harder to protect against them. So which process should you use? Both.
Not all spirits are interested in answering a call but they may be willing to talk with you come across them when outside. Sometimes, you need a long conversation with a spirit which is where calling them will be more useful. Calling them might even seem more convenient but I think that it’s important that you learn about the spirits around you by going out and meeting them before calling them to you. It not only helps you get a better idea of the community but it also lets spirits get a better idea of who you are.
& Other Ways that They Can Harm You in the Physical Realm
Mostly my UPG but I have heard similar information from others’ experiences
*Always make sure to look into medical and mundane reasons for any harm that may have occurred before ascribing the cause to spirits. *
A human walks along a craggy coast in the middle of the night. The waves violently churn and sputter beneath their feet as they hop from rock to rock. Under the surf something waits, carefully watching the human’s movements. The being has soft, gray skin and a beautiful cerulean tail whose scales reflect the moonlight, but the human lacks the ability to see this. They also don’t see when the creature darts out of the water, sinking her nails into their etheric body and pulling it into the depths. The human stops, gut wrenching, heart pounding, such weird symptoms seemingly brought on with no reason. But then they collect themselves and continue down the beach, feeling oddly different from before.
Most of the time, when a spirit “physically” harms you the damage will be applied to your etheric body. However, sometimes that damage can be translated over into your physical body in some form. For example, a god of cadavers once touched my arm causing a necrosis in the cells of my etheric body that expanded until my skin was a deathly black and the bone was exposed. My physical body was unharmed and showed no signs of the damage that was done to my etheric body however, I did find that the spot was less sensitive until my etheric body was healed. Even now the spot that he touched occasionally feels “off”.
Just like humans, many entities need to eat to survive. They can eat the etheric copies of organisms and objects in the physical world as well as eating other spirits. Unlike entities, most ghosts don’t need to feed but they can if they want to. When a spirit eats it can be described as them absorbing the energy of their food and assimilating it into their energy. However, there are many different biologies and ways of feeding that might follow a different process.
Humans, physical and ghosts, are often prey for predatory species. Don’t think that just because you have the “energy of a dragon” or whatever that no one will attempt to eat you because of that. There’s always someone bigger.
When an entity eats a human they can either take out chunks of your energy or the whole damn thing. This can leave you feeling strange, empty, not fully “there”, and it can definitely affect the strength your magical workings. If you ever do get eaten, fear not! Energy with ties to the physical world (aka your meat body) will eventually reform over time although this can take up to years and can lead to long-lasting damage if a large amount of your energy was taken. So maybe fear a little.
Some entities are parasites that will hide in your etheric body and drain your energy from the inside. Parasites can also be large, regular looking entities that subtly drain you when they’re in your presence.
Entities can also feed on the ambient energies that you give off. For example, a despair demon might feed on the ambient energies of someone who is going through a depressive episode. A feeding like this isn’t directly harming you and can actually be helpful if you have a trusted entity feed on energies that you don’t want lingering around. However, it can be the opposite where an entity will try to milk these energies out of you by, for example, instigating depressive episodes and making you feel shitty.
Attacks and Abuse
Just like physical humans, spirits can punch you, kick you, sexually abuse you, etc. This harm usually takes a form similar to my example with the cadaver god. Depending on the extent of the damage sometimes this can manifest physically. Examples being feeling pain in your face after being slapped by a spirit or having scratches appear where they clawed you. They can also emotionally and psychologically abuse you.
*Always make sure to look into medical and mundane reasons for any harm that may have occurred before ascribing the cause to spirits.*
Not as rare as everyone makes them out to be but still not as common as the others. In my experience this can come in three different forms: possession of the body, possession of the mind, and both combined. When a spirit possesses the body of a human, it can control their movements but the human’s mind is still conscious. When a spirit possesses the mind of a human, it can do things such as hack into their third eye, steal personal information from memories and the like, or even rewire their brain. Possession of the mind is usually a more gradual and subtle process than possession of the body. While this is a post about ways that spirits can harm people I figured that it might pay to mention how possessions aren’t always dangerous and can be done with the consent of the human (I loosely use the term “channeling” to describe consensual possessions).
I mentioned earlier that humans can give off ambient energies that attract spirits, well spirits can also give off their own ambient energies. A spirit’s ambient energy is often an extension of its true energy. This energy often blankets wide areas of space, usually around where the spirit resides, and can influence the events or behaviors of organisms and other spirits that enter it. One example would be a species of spirit that I met called lunar soldiers. When they gathered together, they created an ambient energy of lunacy where those who entered it would behave erratically and often violently. Other examples could be the ambient energy of a murderer’s ghost that influences physical humans around them to commit murder and assault or the ambient energy of a forest causing people to be forgetful and get lost easier. Of course, not all entities have negative ambient energies or even ambient energies at all.
The Myths Don’t Lie
My final point is about how the myths and legends of spirits are often correct in describing the harm that spirits can do. Gorgons can turn your body to stone, vampires can feed on your blood, mermaids can drown you (or have ambient energies that make people around them more likely to drown ;D ), etc. It’s just that, most of the time, these things will happen to your etheric body and not your physical one.
*Always make sure to look into medical and mundane reasons for any harm that may have occurred before ascribing the cause to spirits.*
when you’re studying non-stop, working really hard… but eventually, you start
feeling less productive? I’ve come to realize that in such cases it’s good,
even necessary to take a study break. So here’s how to master them!
minutes: just enough time for you to relax a little, but not so much that you
fall completely out of your game.
this totally depends on what you’re studying, how hard it is etc, but normally
I’ll take a study break every hour and a half.
What do you
do during them?
Go to the
bathroom. Wash your face, remove your makeup, go to the toilet if you need to.
food & water. Sometimes, studying can make you hungry, and water’s always
good to have around. I’d tell you to opt for
something healthy when it comes to food, but more often than not I’ll choose to
eat Oreos, biscuits or some other sweets.
Take a nap. This is perhaps the most straightforward one; just lie down for a few minutes. Make sure you’ve set an alarm clock though, or else you will oversleep. Trust me; it’s happened before.
your study space. I have quite a big desk, but sometimes it can feel like the
random items of stationery, pieces of paper, textbooks and other random crap is
just taking over everything. I swear, it really helps if you clean up the
things around you!
Go online. I’m a little reluctant to recommend this because I know how hard it is to stop afterwards, but if you consciously limit yourself and know that you’ll stop after 15-20 minutes, then watching a few YouTube videos, going on tumblr or talking to friends of Facebook can be a great way to relax.
yourself a tea. Or coffee – but personally I’m more of a tea person during
studying. I’ll make myself a nice cup of black tea with lemon and sugar, and afterwards,
everything just goes better.
episode of a TV show/anime. These are slightly longer, but are a great way to
take your mind off whatever you’re studying. I’d recommend watching something
which is short (ie. not a full, hour-long episode of Game of Thrones) – like Friends,
HIMYM or Family Guy. These are great because the shows are pretty episodic, you
won’t feel inclined to keep watching more and more. As for anime, don’t pick one
where you know you won’t be able to stop after one episode. Instead, I’d
recommend something like Hetalia (hilarious; also great if you’re studying Geo
or History), Gintama (pure gold),
Samurai Champloo (the perfect combination of fun and deep).
there you have it: the art of taking a study break. Good luck, everyone!
Hello! I think it’s important to take care of your study space as well as the place you live in, so I created this checklist of activities. Some of them are to be done daily, some weekly and some of them just once a month or so. It’s also a good idea to do these in your study breaks, you are giving your mind a break but staying productive at the same time!
write a shopping list
go grocery shopping
cook the next meal / meal prep
dust the furniture
water your plants
take the trash our
do the recycling
change the towels in your bathroom
change your toothbrush
clean your hairbrush of hair
do the laundry + ironing
open your windows and let some fresh air in
change your bed sheets
make your bed
wash the dishes
tidy that one chair / your bed / your floor of clothes
organise your bookshelf
clean the mirrors
clean your shoes
put toilet cleaner in your toilet
take care of your drains
feed your pet!!
disconnect any electronics if you are not using it
change light bulbs
check the fridge for expired food
clean your make up products and brushes
colour coordinate your wardrobe
bin that one broken thing you’ve been meaning to
call the electrician / plumber if there’s a problem
decorate according to the season
cut the grass
sweep the balcony / terrace
clean the shower and the sink
Feel free to add on if I’ve missed anything. Good luck!
if you have a question/ if you’re confused about something while studying, write it down on a sticky note and put it next to your notes. That way you’ll remember to research it further or ask your teacher, instead of just letting the confusion continue.
- Telle est la question que je voudrais aborder / traiter avec vous maintenant ; Telle est la question à laquelle je voudrais répondre maintenant.
b) Présenter le plan de l’exposé:
- Je traiterai un seul point / plusieurs points / questions… ; J’aborderai / considérerai / examinerai les questions suivantes : … ; Je commencerai par aborder le… ; Le premier point portera sur… ; Ensuite / Par la suite / En second lieu / En second point j’aborderai… Enfin / Pour terminer / Pour conclure je dirai quelques mots au sujet de… ; Je conclurai sur / par… ; Le dernier point abordé / examiné / présenté sera…
c) Présenter chaque partie de l’exposé. Enumérations, alternatives, conclusion:
- Signalons / Disons tout d’abord que… ; Ils ont d’autre part / aussi… ; Cette situation pose d’ailleurs le problème de… ; On notera de même… ; En gros / En somme / Somme toute / En bref / En peu de mots / Enfin bref / Pour conclure… ; Ce qu’il faut retenir de tout cela c’est que… ; Nous pouvons maintenant passer/ Venons-en maintenant à notre dernier point, celui… ; Cela nous amène tout naturellement au dernier point de notre exposé, celui… ; La conclusion de tout cela est… ; Au terme de cette analyse / de cet exposé j’ai tâché de vous exposer…
d) Développer un sujet:
- En faisant des énumérations / En classant: appartient à / fait partie de / entre dans la classe / la catégorie / le groupe de… ; est un type de… ; c’est du même genre de… En comparant: rappelle / c’est comme / fait penser à… ; de même que… ; peut être comparé / assimilé à… ; peut se rapprocher de / être rapproché de… ; est du même type / ordre / de la même nature que… ; présente un rapport / une affinité / un lien / une analogie / une parenté avec… En décrivant / En racontant
e) Mettre en relief un point:
- Soulignons / Signalons / Remarquons (le fait) que… ; On remarquera que… ; J’attire votre attention sur le fait que… ; J’insiste sur le fait que…
f) Faire une transition:
- Pour en revenir / Revenons / Je reviens / J’en reviens à notre propos, je dirais donc que… ; Cette remarque faite, voyons donc maintenant / examinons alors… ; Cela dit, venons-en à présent à notre sujet ; Après avoir examiné / considéré… abordons (maintenant)… ; Il convient / Il y a lieu maintenant / aussi de soulever la question de… ; Le point / la question suivant(e) c’est… ; Cela nous amène / conduit à… ; Je ferme la parenthèse / Fermons la parenthèse ; Reprenons.
g) Proposer un nouveau sujet:
- Pour passer à autre chose ; Pour changer de sujet… ; Et si tu nous parlais de… ? ; Et puis, à part ça,… ? ; Alors, qu’est-ce que vous avez comme remarque à faire là-dessus ?
h) Rejeter un sujet, changer de sujet:
- Ça n’a rien à voir ; Parlons plutôt d’autre chose ; Quel rapport ? ; Quel intérêt ? ; Ce n’est pas le moment ; Changeons de sujet (voulez-vous ?) ; Ce n’est pas le problème ; la question est que…
i) Donner un exemple:
- Tiens, un pamplemousse c’est un agrumes ; Je prendrai l’exemple suivant : … ; Le fait que … a valeur d’exemple ; …illustre bien cette situation / est un bon exemple ; Je vous en donne un exemple. / En voici un exemple ; … entre autres ; Prenons l’exemple de… ; Tenez, si vous le voulez bien : imaginons / imaginez… ; Ainsi dans… on ne compte que… ; Ça me rappelle une histoire… ; Tel est le cas de…
- Je cite : « … » ; … Fin de citation ; …a dit textuellement (deux points, j’ouvre les guillemets) ; Comme dirait X « … »
k) Concéder, objecter (argumentation en deux temps):
- C’est sûr / certain / exact / vrai que… pourtant / cependant / toutefois / seulement… ; Je vous accorde que… n’empêche que… ; Je ne nie pas que… ; cela dit, il reste que… ; J’admets que… ça n’empêche pas du tout que… ; S’il est certain que… il n’en reste pas moins que…
l) Résumer, récapituler:
- Je résume en un mot / en quelques mots / rapidement… ; Pour tout dire… ; En un mot… ; En deux mots… ; Enfin / Somme toute / Tout compte fait / Enfin de compte / Bref… ; En fait / En réalité / La réalité est que… / De fait…
m) Se corriger:
- …, non,… /…, pardon,… /…, non (pardon), pas…mais… /…je voulais dire… ou plutôt……ou pour être plus précis / ou plus exactement / ou plus précisément…