usability

SEO and Usability

At first glance, search engine optimization (SEO) and usability seem to be quite distinct topics:

  • SEO is about attracting people to your site in the first place by making sure it shows up in search queries.
  • Usability is about people’s behavior after they arrive on your site, with the main goal being to increase the conversion rate.

Basically, SEO happens before the first click, and usability takes over from there. Both need to be good for a website to succeed. Having great SEO but lousy usability means that you’ll get lots of traffic, but the visitors won’t turn into customers. Conversely, a site with great usability but lousy SEO simply won’t get many visitors, so it doesn’t really matter how good it is.

Although they focus on different phases of the lead-generation funnel, there are many ways in which SEO and usability support each other and a few ways in which they conflict .

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Sometimes, more actually is more.

I routinely read the Washington Post online during the week, and for a while, I was also reading the New York Times. It was the latter experience that made me realize how incredibly annoying the user experience is at washingtonpost.com. Where do I start?

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6. Oktober 2017

Von hinten durch den Messenger ins Terminal

Ich möchte Fotos von meinem Android-Smartphone mithilfe einem “Terminal” genannten Computer der Drogerie Rossmann ausdrucken. Ich habe die Auswahl, Dateien per WLAN, Bluetooth oder USB-Kabel zu übertragen. Bluetooth will nicht klappen. Ich versuche es per USB-Kabel. Es strecken sich mir 4 verschiedene USB-Kabel entgegen. Glücklicherweise ist auch USB-C dabei, sonst hätte ich eines aus meinem Rucksack kramen müssen, und an eines der frontalen USB-Buchsen stecken müssen.

Zu meiner Überraschung scannt der Computer gleich anscheinend das gesamte Dateisystem auf meinem Handy. Anschließend stellen sich zwei Probleme. Einerseits weiß ich nicht, wo Google Photos die Fotos auf meinem Dateisystem ablegt, und ob überhaupt. Andererseits möchte ich nicht mithilfe des Terminalcomputer mein Handy durchsuchen, denn mir ist der Salat aus privaten Fotos, Memes, die in irgendeinem Chat an mich geschickt wurden, oder die ich mal produziert und versendet habe, vor den vorbeigehenden Kunden etwas peinlich. Ich ärgere mich, dass man so wenig Kontrolle darüber hat, was überhaupt auf das Terminal gelangt oder zumindest was darauf angezeigt wird.

Ich trenne die Verbindung und überlege, wie ich möglichst schnell die Fotos an einen Ort im Dateisystem schaffen kann, der schnell zugänglich ist – wegen der Peinlichkeit und damit es sich nicht noch länger hinauszieht. Die Fotos lagern bei Google Photos meines Wissens nur in der Cloud und man bekommt in der Galerie Thumbnails zu sehen, die beim genau ansehen höher auflösend nachgeladen werden und beim Teilen an andere (als Datei, nicht als Link) in hoher Auflösung heruntergeladen werden. Ich weiß, dass der Messenger WhatsApp einen eigenen Ordner für gesendete Dateien hat.

Also denke ich mir, ist es ein zielführender Hack, die Fotos aus Google Photos (als Datei) in WhatsApp mit jemandem zu teilen. Ich kann sie meines Wissens nicht an mich selbst schicken, da WhatsApp das nicht zulässt (ergibt Sinn). Also schicke ich sie an meine Freundin, da ich ihr wenig später sowieso die Fotodrucke zeigen will und ihr leicht erklären kann, was der Unsinn soll.

Die Fotos laden glücklicherweise schnell hoch. Dann gehe ich mit einer Dateimanagement-App in das mir bekannte Verzeichnis, markiere die Fotos, lege einen schnell zugänglichen Ordner nahe der Wurzel des Dateisystems namens “drucken” an, und kopiere sie dorthin. Es ist eine Drittanbieter-App, denn komischerweise wird Android nicht mit einem allgemeinen Dateibrowser ausgeliefert. Dann wieder ans Terminal, den Scanvorgang abwarten, schnell ins “drucken”-Verzeichnis und die Drucke in Auftrag geben.

Das Terminal verlangt, dass man das Gerät jetzt vom USB-Interface trennt und macht auch nicht weiter, bevor man es tatsächlich macht. Ein bisschen, wie ein Geldautomat, der erst das Geld rausrückt, wenn man die Karte abzieht. Ein kluger Trick, damit niemand das Telefon bzw. die Karte am Automaten vergisst. Das Drucken ist schnell, spuckt mir schön analoge Fotos aus, die ich mit analogem Bargeld bezahle. 

Bequem wäre wohl, wenn das Rossmann-Terminal direktes Drucken aus Google-Photos-Alben anböte (oder habe ich das nur übersehen?). Andererseits möchte ich gar nicht die Hegemonie der Clouds, wie sie derzeit bestehen, noch weiter stützen.

(Lutz Büch)

1911: Frederick Taylor publishes Principles of Scientific Management which describes time and motion studies and methods for improving industrial efficiency.

1916: Frank and Lillian Gilbreth reduce work motions into smaller steps and pioneer ways of making work faster and easier from bricklaying to clerical work. They applied this method during World War I by showing soldiers how to assemble and disassemble weapons in the dark.

1936: The Palm Beach Post publishes an advertisement for a new Frigidaire highlighting usability as one of its features.

1943: Alphonse Chapanis, a lieutenant in the U.S. Army, shows that “pilot error” can be greatly reduced through the more intuitive layout of airplane cockpits.

1947: John E Karlin at Bell Labs is named head of the newly-formed User Preference Department (later renamed the Human Factors department) where he would help perfect the modern numeric dialing system and keypad still in use today.

1954: Paul Fitts publishes a paper in the Journal of Experimental Psychology that describes a mathematical model used to predict the time it takes to move to a target based on its size and distance (which became known as Fitts’ Law).

1956: The psychologist George Miller coins the phrase “the magic number seven plus or minus two” from a variety of experimental results indicating that humans have trouble holding more than five to nine items (chunks) simultaneously in working memory.

1957: The Human Factors Society is formed.

1967: Micheal Scriven writes about formative and summative evaluations in the education literature as applied to student learning and assessment. These terms would later be applied to different types of usability evaluations.

1979: Permanent Labs at companies like IBM perform what we now would call Summative usability testing. The first scientific publication with usability in its title appears, The Commercial Impact of Usability in Interactive Systems by John Bennett.

1980: Ericson and Simon publish “Verbal Reports as Data” which focuses on using the Think Aloud Method that would later come to dominate usability tests.

Alphonse Chapanis’ student, Jeff Kelley, is credited with coining the term “Oz Paradigm” which we now refer to as the “Wizard of Oz” method.

1981: Alphonse Chapanis and colleagues publish Tutorials for the First-Time Computer User which describes usability as more of a formative than summative activity. They suggested that observing about five to six users using the software will reveal most of the problems in a usability test.

1982: Wanting a more precise estimate of a sample size than 5-6, Jim Lewis published the first paper describing how the binomial distribution can be used to model the sample size needed to find usability problems. It is based on the probability of discovering a problem with probability ‘p’ for a given set of tasks and user population given a sample size 'n’.

Clayton Lewis publishes an IBM technical report using Herb Simon’s Thinking Aloud" Method in Cognitive Interface Design.

1983: The Psychology of Human Computer Interaction is published by researchers at Carnegie Mell on and Xerox PARC (Stuart Card, Thomas Moran & Allen Newell). This seminal book explains GOMS and Keystroke Level Modeling based on the earlier work of Taylor, Fitts and Gilbreth.

The first CHI Conference was held in Boston as part of ACM’s SIGCHI subgroup.

1984: Apple introduces the Macintosh during the 1984 Super Bowl, making the case that ease of use sells.

Smith and Moser publish 997 guidelines for Designing User Interface Software.

The Human Factor, by Harry Hersh and Dick Rubinstein, both at Digital Equipment Corporation, is published. It is the first book-length description of human-computer interaction.

1985: J. Gould and Clayton Lewis publish the influential paper, “Designing for Usability: Key Principles and What Designers Think”. They discuss an early and continual focus on users as well as empirical measurement and iterative design.

Computer Usability Testing & Evaluation by Richard Spencer is published.

1986: John Brooke at Digital Equipment Corporation creates a “quick and dirty” questionnaire to assess the usability of software. The System Usability Scale (SUS) has gone on to become the mostly widely used questionnaire for evaluation perceptions of system usability.

The first local chapter of SIGCHI is started in Boston a few months after the annual SIGCHI conference is held there.

1987: Designing the User Interface (1st edition) by Ben Shneiderman is published. It is now in its fifth edition.

The Questionnaire For User Interaction Satisfaction (QUIS) is published based on the work at Ben Shneiderman’s HCI lab at the University of Maryland.

1988: John Whiteside at Digital Equipment Corporation and John Bennett at IBM published a number of chapters and papers on the topic of “usability engineering” (Whiteside, Bennett, & Holtzblatt,1988) which stressed early goal setting, prototyping and iterative evaluation. Joe Dumas, one of the godfathers of usability, attributes these papers and this period as the birth of usability as a profession.

Don Norman publishes the “Psychology of Everyday Things”, which later would be renamed the Design of Everyday Things.

1989: The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), including a questionnaire to measure perceived usefulness and usability, is published by Fred Davis.

1990: Shackel publishes Human Factors and Usability which defined usability as a function of efficiency, effectiveness & satisfaction (the ISO 9241 pt 11 standard). Despite many proposed extensions, we still think of usability in terms of these three aspects.

Peter Polson & Clayton Lewis publish several papers on the Cognitive Walkthrough.

Jakob Nielsen & Rolf Molich publish the seminal paper “Heuristic Evaluation of User Interfaces,” in which they describe this influential discount usability method.

Robert Virzi details three experiments at the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Conference replicating earlier work from Nielsen using the binomial formula for deriving sample sizes for usability studies.

1991: The Usability Professionals Association is formed by a group of CHI attendees including Janice James who along with Ginny Redish would start the usability special interest group in the Society of Technical Communications.

1992: Robert Virzi’s paper “Refining the test phase of usability evaluation: How Many Subjects is Enough?” is published. This, along with his previous paper found that additional subjects are less and less likely to reveal new information in a usability test. The first 4-5 users find ~80% of problems in a usability test (avg. p of .32). Severe problems are more likely to be detected by the first few users.

Jim Lewis publishes the Post Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ).

1993: Usability Engineering by Jakob Nielsen is published.

A Practical Guide to Usability Testing by Joe Dumas & Ginny Redish is published.

Publication of the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI) questionnaire by Jurek Kirakowski at the University of Cork.

A listserve dedicated to usability is started by Tharon Howard and continues to be a popular discussion outlet to this day.

1994: Jeff Rubin publishes The Handbook of Usability Testing.

Cost Justifying Usability by Randolph Bias & Deborah Mayhew is published.

Jim Lewis reexamines Virzi’s claims in the paper “Sample sizes for usability studies: Additional considerations” and finds general support for the claim that additional users are less likely to reveal new information but the sample size is dependent on the problem occurrence. He also found that problem severity and frequency were independent.

1995: Jakob Nielsen publishes the first bi-weekly column on usability on useit.com which continues to this day.

The Usability Professionals’ Association holds its first annual meeting in Portland Maine.

1996: John Brooke publishes the System Usability Scale (SUS) after 10 years of use in industry.

WebEx is founded in California and goes on to develop screen sharing and conferencing software that will be used in moderated remote usability testing.

2000: Don’t Make me Think by Steve Krug is published which brings usability testing to the masses using the same Think Aloud method from Ericson and Simon from 20 years earlier.

2001: American National Standards Institute (ANSI) develops the Common Industry Format for Usability Test Reports (CIF).

2002: The first publications about remote usability testing emerge, including the one by Tom Tullis et al on “An Empirical Comparison of Lab and Remote Usability Testing of Web Sites”.

2003: Observing the User Experience is published.

2006: Methods of automating heretofore expensive and time consuming usability studies using software and crowdsourcing are published.

2008: Tom Tullis and Bill Albert publish Measuring the User Experience, the first book dedicated to measuring usability, which for the last decade had turned increasingly qualitative.

2010: Beyond the Usability Lab: Conducting Large-Scale User Experience Studies is published.

2012: UPA changes its name to the User Experience Professionals Association (UxPA).

Lo que todo mercadólogo debe saber acerca de Usability

Sabemos que hoy en día la tendencia de la mercadotecnia se enfoca en ofrecer una experiencia centrada en el usuario.  Por otro lado, los diseñadores y mercadólogos debaten entre lo creativo, estético y el branding, dejando a un lado al usuario.  Es aquí donde entra el concepto de Usability o UCD (del inglés User-Centered Design), hoy en día tan popular en los medios digitales pero no por esto menos relevante en muchas otras industrias como la de los productos de consumo o cualquier producto que involucre la interacción con el ser humano.

¿Qué significa?

Según las Normas ISO 9241-11 e ISO 9241-110 describen Usability como una medida con la que un producto se puede usar por usuarios determinados para conseguir objetivos específicos con efectividad, eficiencia y satisfacción en un contexto de uso concreto.

¿Por qué es importante para el mercadólogo?

Resulta impredecible conocer su uso, aplicación y medidas de resultado ya que nos ayudará a maximizar los componentes del marketing mix, homogenizar losCustomer Touch Points (CTP) y ofrecer una mejor experiencia al usuario.  También resulta importante conocer sus implicaciones presupuestales, de recursos así como los tiempos de implementación.

Aplicaciones

Desde las aplicaciones digitales conocidas como son la inspección de páginas web, pasando por el diseño de producto, terminando con aplicaciones más sofisticadas como las de eye tracking para shopper marketers en diseño de embalaje y diseño de POP.

A continuación les comparto las técnicas más utilizadas:

Métodos de Inspección (Realizados por especialistas):
•    Evaluación Heurística: en función de determinados principios o buenas prácticas.

•    Recorrido Cognitivo: evaluación de usabilidad realizando tareas típicas.

•    Focus-Groups: reunión con múltiples participantes para obtener información de sus necesidades, gustos, etc.

•    Personas: arquetipos de usuario para servir de referencia en el proceso de diseño.
Usability tests (Realizados por usuarios)

•    Mock-ups, Wireframes y Paper protoyping: prototipos de baja fidelidad para ser desarrollados y evaluados de manera rápida.

•    Think-Aloud: método con el cual se asigna una tarea a un usuario de prueba, el cual de forma verbal describe los pasos a seguir para completar la tarea asignada.

•    Eye-tracking: uno de los más famosos, se trata de pruebas por medio de dispositivos los cuales graban el movimiento ocular como los de las compañías Mangold e Interactive Minds así como Tobii.

•    Neuroscientific Modelling: este es un sistema más sofisticado al eye-tracking el cual reúne diversos estudios previos, los cuales por medio de estadísticas y modelos predictivos con imágenes, proveen resultados de forma inmediata sin tener que contar con la infraestructura para realizar pruebas de eye-tracking.  Ejemplos: EyeQuant, quien entre sus clientes tiene a Groupon.

•    Mouse-tracking: sin duda el mas conocido y al alcance de muchos por su simplicidad y bajo costo.  Se trata de sistemas que graban el movimiento del mouse así como la posición en donde se hace clic. Ejemplos: eTracker y Optimal Workshop.

por Gunther Soto

Про удобство гаджетов

Гаджет должен походить на природный объект, обладать такой же естественностью внешних свойств. В результате поведение устройства понятно и предсказуемо, значит использовать его будет удобно. А внутренняя структура гаджета должна быть скрыта, она пользователю не важна.

Возьмём в руку небольшой камень. Он твёрдый, тяжелый, крепкий. Эти свойства очевидны. Они стабильны, они не меняются. Мы точно знаем, что произойдёт, если бросить камень в окно. При этом совершенно не важно, из чего состоит камень.
Внешние свойства камня хорошо предсказуемы. Поэтому мы не волнуемся за камень, бросая его обратно на землю, ведь он точно упадет на неё. И мы знаем, как это произойдет. С камнем просто. Камень — отличная штука!

iPhone хороший пример такого естественного подхода к проектированию. Он во многом похож на камень, с ним почти не возникает вопросов. Берёшь в руку и сразу ясно, что это такое, как использовать. К такому «камню» не требуется инструкций, он естественно понятен, а значит удобен.