us imperalism


The War Boys call him “lucky,” to be favored by the Imperator.

The Sisters call him her “support/partner.”

Furiosa calls him “reliable.”

Max thinks the correct term they’re looking for is “furniture.”

But all things considered, he’s been used for worse before. He doesn’t mind being of use to Furiosa.

I said I wanted to draw a series of doodles of Furiosa using Max as various forms of furniture mostly to lean upon…and him making bemused grumpy faces.

The Throne is especially for bonehandledknife 

Names and naming

Mad Max Fury Road is full of names: weird, inventive, evocative names. But it also uses them brilliantly. There’s so much information packed into what names are spoken, when and how.

Names and titles are a classic way of revealing hierarchy. Joe is named repeatedly, and each time it shows his relationship with the person naming him. Nux’s “Immortan! Immortan Joe!” is all about his godlike status. The Organic Mechanic’s “Joe” is deliberately casual, not actively disrespectful but certainly not worshipful. 

Then there’s the ongoing tension in what Joe calls Angharad: “Splendid” most of the time, reverting to her proper name at moments of stress, when he really needs her to listen. In the canyon scene, he goes from “Splendid, that’s my child, my property” when he’s trying to rebuke her to “Angharad! Get out!” when he realises she’s at risk of hitting the rock.  It’s implied that she rejects “Splendid” – certainly the other wives only ever call her Angharad. (More generally, the wives use each other’s names simply, to get each other’s attention: I don’t get any sense of hierarchy from it.)

Other names are hardly ever spoken. Furiosa doesn’t call the wives anything. Charlize Theron has said this was because she is trying not to get emotionally attached.

On screen, Furiosa explicitly uses names to form connections. When she asks for Max’s name, it’s a deliberate attempt to achieve emotional engagement, because she needs him on side. And it’s rare for her: not only does she not name the wives, she doesn’t use the war rig crew’s names, either. In a movie that keeps its dialogue sparse, every word counts - and every omitted word counts, too.

Within the Citadel hierarchy, war boys don’t get named by anyone but each other. “I’ve got a war boy, running on empty,” says the Organic Mechanic. An imperator later uses exactly the same phrasing to introduce Nux to Joe: “I’ve got a war boy, says he was on the war rig”. It suggests that, from the top of the Citadel hierarchy, war boys are seen as interchangeable. One describes Nux as if he were a machine; the other - “says he was on the war rig” - implies his lower status, framing his evidence as hearsay. It’s clearly a huge honour for Joe to ask Nux his name. It’s also the only time we see a Citadel full-life acknowledge a war boy’s name.  

War boys in this film are both abusers and victims - terribly fragile, desperate for attention from the powerful class that exploits and uses them, not questioning its values. They go unnamed by their superiors, but they name each other as often as possible: “Morsov!” “Slit, what’s happening?” Though Nux shouts “Crew, out of the way!” at Ace - maybe they don’t know names beyond their own crews, or maybe he just doesn’t recognise Ace from behind.

They use names to encourage each other. Just look at the way they all shout Morsov’s name before witnessing him. “Witness me” is a plea for affirmation: see what I’m doing, make it mean something. Witnessing is an act of performative masculinity - I liked @bookishandi‘s post on witnessing Nux’s death. But it’s also framed as an act of mutual support (which I think is why it’s taken off so much in fandom).  Morsov’s death - which is really the viewer’s introduction to “witnessing” as a concept - is part of a scene that shows us the war rig crew working smoothly together.

The exception is Slit, who tries to undermine his colleagues instead, shouting “Mediocre, Morsov!” rather than “witness”, or telling Nux that Joe wasn’t looking at him, “He was scanning the horizon”. And of course Slit is the most insecure of the lot, begging for any scrap of attention: “I got the blood bag’s boot! Take me, I got his boot!”  

Imperators, and others from the Citadel’s powerful classes, are clearly known by their names. “Furiosa, she took a lot of stuff from Immortan Joe”, for instance. There’s no sense that war boys give this recognition to anyone not at the top of that hierarchy. The war boy who tells Nux about Furiosa talks about the wives as things - “stuff”, “prize breeders”. Nux’s own reaction to the wives - “so shiny, so chrome” - sees them as objects rather than people. And of course he goes on calling Max “blood bag”, even when he thinks they’re on the same side. It’s not a conscoius insult; it clearly doesn’t occur to him that Max might mind - any more than Nux minded the way the Organic Mechanic or the imperator talked about him.

Then there’s the scene when Furiosa greets the Vuvalini. Here’s what she says:

“I am one of the Vuvalini, the Many Mothers. My initiate mother was K.T. Concannon. I am the daughter of Mary Jobassa. My clan was Swaddle Dog.” 

This is a speech proving her identity, but how she does it is so revealing. She doesn’t use her own name at all. Instead, it’s all about a web of relationships, of connections, the ways in which she belongs. (She’s also proving that she belongs by demonstrating knowledge of Vuvalini society.) She lists her initiate mother before her birth mother – her place in the community before her lineage. Her tenses are interesting, too. Her clan was Swaddle Dog – she’s left, the clan may no longer exist, she’s talking about the past. But when she talks about being Vuvalini, it’s “I am”.  Even though she’s asking for recognition, it has none of the war boys’ neediness – she’s naming what she is, how she chooses to see herself. She’s not seeking approval or affirmation. 

And though the Vuvalini team work is smooth, they do it without shouting names – to the point where most of the Vuvalini characters don’t have names at all (which is very unhelpful for fandom, George). Citadel naming is intensely hierarchical, about who does, and doesn’t, get respect. Vuvalini naming is about community, identities built up through choices and relationships.

Of course, the film’s most powerful naming scene has nothing to do with the Citadel or the Vuvalini: it’s Max telling Furiosa his name. (OH MY HEART.) It’s the conclusion of Max’s emotional arc, his return to being a human being: accepting a name, accepting his own identity. Crucially, he accepts it by sharing it. Throughout the film, names are meaningful because they’re how people connect with each other. In the “My name is Max” scene, we see Max choosing to do that. Engage to heal. 

University classes are a monster you can’t prepare for until you’re in them. I have been through every up and down with schoolwork possible in the past year, so here are some tips that can hopefully help you avoid those downs:

Choosing and Registering for Your Classes

  • Make sure to thoroughly check both your major requirements and your gen ed requirements. Normally, you’ll have an advisor to help you make sure you’re on track, but Vandy doesn’t assign first-year engineering students one until after registration when school starts, and I didn’t have an advisor for this year’s registration either due to my major change, so I’ve spent hours and hours doing this on my own. There’s often recommended courses and example schedules in the course catalog that tell you what classes you should be taking at this point in time. Pay attention to that and you should be fine. For example, you have to have taken a first-level writing class to qualify for junior standing here. Those are the little things you have to look out for. To keep track of it all, I have a spreadsheet I use for planning my sophomore - senior years that lists all the requirements I need to meet in terms of hours and courses in order to graduate on time. I plug in possible courses and see which requirement they would fulfill and when. You can check it out here to see what I mean, it’s very helpful.
  • Find at least one fun elective to take if at all possible. It gets very tiring when all you have on your schedule are really difficult classes that you don’t enjoy. Try to find at least one class that you’re genuinely interested in to help get you excited for the day. Each of my last semesters, my schedule consisted of a calculus class, a lab science, a comp sci class, and Italian. Italian was the only fun one that I enjoyed going to. It really helps you out. You’re not just in college to get your degree, you’re there to discover what you really want to do, so feel free to explore your catalog and take something completely out of character just because you want to. Bonus if it fills some kind of requirement (Italian filled my Foreign Language Proficiency and one of my International Cultures reqs.).
  • Have multiple versions of your schedule based on which classes you may or may not get into. I don’t know about your school, but at Vanderbilt, class registration is literally like the Hunger Games. You’re assigned an enrollment date based on your year (seniors get to go first, then juniors, etc.) and at 8 am on that day, you refresh the website and either enroll in your classes or get placed on the wait list for it. If you’re a freshman, you’re basically screwed because you go last, and so you could have planned out your perfect schedule only to find they’ve all filled up the day before your enrollment period starts. To avoid having to scramble, have multiple versions of your schedule, with back ups and substitutions for every class. This way, you won’t be surprised when you go to enroll and all but one of your classes are filled, then you have to search for other classes, but at that point, all that’s left are scraps that don’t fit your requirements. Plan plan plan and practice clicking the enroll button on all your classes as fast as you can for when the clock strikes 8.
  • You have freedom over your schedule now; take advantage of that! No more 8-3 Monday through Friday; you can take classes whenever you want. I prefer to have all my classes on MWF in a block of a few hours and only one or no class on TR. Of course, sometimes you’re going to have to take classes at less optimal times, but do try to accommodate yourself and take classes at times you know will be good for you. Lots of people prefer to start early and finish early, while I like to start no earlier than 11, even if I don’t finish until 5. The best part of college is you can do what you want.
  • Don’t take 8 ams. I’m repeating this cause it’s important. I swear, you’ll regret it. In high school, I woke up every morning early as hell to catch my bus at 6:30, but in college, it was nearly impossible for me to get up for my 11 am only three times a week. Don’t ever take an 8 am by choice. And if you have no choice, good luck lol.
  • Don’t be afraid to drop a class. If you’re doing terribly in a class or you absolutely can’t stand it, drop the class. There’s a very little chance that if you’re failing during the first half of the semester, you’ll be able to change your grade dramatically in the second half. Maybe you decided to be an overzealous freshman and signed up for the maximum number of hours possible and now you’re drowning. Drop a class! Sometimes, a course is going to do more harm to you than good, so it’s best to get rid of it than have an F or a W on your transcript.
  • Use RateMyProfessor! I totally forgot about this when I originally posted this and it’s already got almost 1,000 notes but hopefully people see this. RateMyProfessor is so fucking useful. It’s IMPERATIVE that you check this website before you enroll in classes. Someone at Vandy actually made a Chrome extension for our enrollment website that automatically shows a professor’s ranking while you’re looking for classes. Obviously, take it with a grain of salt, and make sure the reviews actually make valid points about the workload and class and isn’t just someone bitter about failing. I took calc with a professor who taught at my high school just cause she taught at my high school even though her reviews said she was insanely difficult and the class was near impossible to pass. Guess what? They were right and I failed as did a big chunk of everyone else in her class. You don’t have to let RMP dictate your schedule, but definitely check it out, and if everyone says the professor is awful, don’t fucking take them. 

Attending Your Classes

  • Establish a connection with your professor early. I recommended introducing yourself on the first day of class just so they know your name and face in another post. It’d be even better to attend an office hour or review session or something. Just make sure they know you. It’ll be easier to communicate when you need something later in the semester if it isn’t their first time seeing you.
  • Actually use this connection with your professors. In my experience, they can be pretty understanding and when you’re in a bad place, they’ll likely help you out. If something is preventing you from doing your best in class, go to them for help (I didn’t go to many office hours but I wish I did! Who better to explain to you something you don’t understand than the person who grades you on it?) or explain to them your situation. I had professors let me take tests late and redo assignments due to my mental health after I explained to them I wasn’t just a terrible student; if it wasn’t for this, I would’ve failed all of their classes. Maybe at the end of the semester they’ll drop one of your wonky grades or bump you up that extra half point you need. Your professors are a resource, and it’s up to you to use it.
  • Take notes however you want. I used my laptop in some, paper in others, and even my iPad and a stylus for calculus. In all of your classes will be a mixture of different techniques and no one cares what you do. Whatever works best for you and helps you get down the most information is what you should do. Also, you don’t have to write down everything. If your professor uses slides and posts them for you to download, you don’t really have to write down anything at all unless they add extra points, so that’s really convenient. 
  • You don’t have to sit in the front. As long as you can see and hear, which you’ll likely be able to due to large projection screens and microphones, it literally doesn’t matter where you sit. In my experience, the professors call on people from every part of the lecture hall, so everyone gets an equal chance at participation. It’s up to yourself to make sure you can pay attention, not your seat.
  • Do your best to attend every single class meeting. It’s inevitable that you’re going to miss class at some point; you will get sick, you won’t have finished an assignment, you’ll need a mental health day, something will happen. Missing class can too easily become a habit if you do it often, so try to never do it. Don’t force yourself to go if you can’t handle it, obviously your health always comes first, but I mean don’t skip cause you want to sleep in or cause you just don’t feel like going. If you do have to miss class and 1) you have a good reason for it (i.e. sickness) and 2) it’s a class small enough that your professor will notice you’re not there, email them and let them know why, just so they’re aware you’re not just skipping to skip.  
  • Try to make friends in your classes. A little study group would be even better. It’ll be really useful to have someone who can help you with a homework question you don’t understand or send you their notes when you miss a class. It can also be great to study with other people, depending on how you study best. I’ve had friends in all my classes so far and it’s been a great help, even if we just complained about the test we just failed then went to get pizza.

Tackling the Coursework

  • Make a REALISTIC study schedule. The key word here is realistic. During winter break I made a study schedule that started with me waking up at 8 am every morning to go work out and ended with me going to sleep promptly at 11 or midnight after spending literally the entire day studying with breaks only for meals. No breaks on weekends, no room to socialize, and I thought this would be perfectly fine for me to follow. Of course, I didn’t last a week because that was fucking ridiculous. You don’t need to schedule every hour of your day; college doesn’t work like that. Just do something simple, an hour for a class or maybe less depending on how hard it is and if you have a test coming up. Trust your instincts. There’s no need to go overboard, and you don’t need to spend six hours a day working, just dedicate a time to studying and stick with that.
  • Explore study techniques until you find one that works for you. Everyone doesn’t study the same, so if you do what everyone else is doing you might not get the results you want. Even if you had a great system in high school, it might not be fitting for college, so check out a bunch of different methods and see how you do with them. Once you find the best way you study, you’ll be unstoppable when exam time comes.
  • Start your assignments early, as soon as you can after they’re assigned. There’s nothing worse than having a bunch of assignments/tests/papers due on the same day and you haven’t finished any of them. Trust me, it is so much less stressful to complete an assignment as soon as you can after it’s been assigned so you don’t have to worry about it anymore. Putting things off has much more severe consequences than it did in high school and you will regret procrastinating. If you have a weekly assignment due every Friday, try to complete them by Wednesday every week. At the very least, start an assignment the day you get it even if you can’t finish it that day. It’s a lot easier to do something after you’ve already begun working on it, and that one thing you do is progress.
  • The name of the college game is prioritization. If college teaches you anything, it’s how to prioritize your duties. You need to create a hierarchy of importance for your classes and types of assignments. For me, calculus assignments were always done first because that was the most difficult class and the one I absolutely needed to pass, and Italian was always done last cause it was my easiest class and I could complete even our biggest assignments in one day. You’re going to have a very large amount of work and sometimes you have to sacrifice finishing a small homework assignment to finish a huge paper or study for an exam. I liked to complete my hardest/longest assignments right when I got back from class to get them over with and leave my easier ones for later. Prioritizing is essential if you want to succeed in university, so learn how to do it immediately! 
  • Remember that uni is really difficult and your grades don’t define you. Something I learned the hard way is that sometimes you can try really really hard, do the best you can, and still fail. That’s just life. Sometimes you have to do something a million times before you get it right, or before you discover that it just isn’t right for you at all. I worked harder than I ever had this past year, and what I got in return was two failed classes, two D’s, academic probation, and a 2.3 GPA. Actually, my current GPA isn’t even a 2.3, it’s a 2.295, which is probably blasphemy to the studyblr community, but this shit happens. It happens to all of us and it sucks. It can be really shitty to feel like your effort wasn’t reflected in your result. What you need to do is adjust your expectations and keep working hard. After you hit your stride, your grades could be great in no time. Or you could discover that math or science or english just isn’t for you. Maybe you’ll discover university as a whole isn’t right for you, and that’s okay! Bad grades, whether you define that as a B or an F, don’t mean you’re a bad student or a bad person. You do what you can, and then let go of what you can’t control. The sooner you grasp this idea, and the sooner you learn to be gentle with yourself, the easier a time you’ll have.

So I feel like I forgot a lot of things but also this is pretty long so I’m going to end the post here. If you have any further questions or topics for a post you’d like to see, my inbox is always open. I don’t know which post is coming next, but I’ll keep you posted. Thanks for reading and I hope this helped you out!

Previous Posts:

The Older Man *smut*- Thomas Shelby

Request// Can you do a imagine of Tommy where the reader is younger than him? @yomairagotpb

Request// Would you consider doing a Tommy Shelby imagine where the reader is quite a bit younger than Tommy and a family friend that helps with the business killing. The reader doesn’t date or anything until Tommy finally professes his feelings and takes her virginity A bit rough Dirty smut pretty please

*You asked for smut and I’m about to hella deliver. Cover your eyes if you can’t handle dirty words! In all honesty, it’s my best attempt after a week of contemplation. Someone please teach me the secret to writing good smut!! I’m going to try to put out at least one more work before Friday because I’m getting my wisdom teeth taken out and no one would want to read anything I right then haha. xoxox*


Same time every week. Like clockwork. Tommy knew to have your pay ready and on his desk by noon every Wednesday so you could pick it up before going to the market. This had been ‘the usual’ for years, and it seemed you had fooled Thomas into even enjoying your momentary visits. Of course, all the men in the shop had if he were to be honest. There was only one notion that had kept him from lashing out passively in a jealous pique or even pursuing you further when he realized just how enamored he’d become with you: you were younger buy some extent, nearby 10 years.

It didn’t help that your family was one of very little the Shelbys could call friends because if a rendezvous were to come about, all secrets would come to light in the eyes of your mother and father. In truth, your position in the company was no longer what it used to be, though they didn’t need to know that. Your father had served in the war, and while he would never be able to walk again, you thanked the Lord everyday that he even came home, consumed at the time on how his older age than most boys he fought with would not excuse him from enemy fire. Your mother had worked in a factory while your dad was away, but to make ends meet, you took up a position at Shelby Company Ltd. the woman you knew as you own aunt Polly had offered you while her nephews were on the battlefront. When the war had ended and the boys had come home, you were sure you would be unemployed. In truth it had been a surprise to all how useful and imperative you became. The only catch was that you duties became more than just helping keep the books like when you were 14. Tommy had gotten you in on exporting malt whiskey to the United States and even ending a couple of the sad lives of those who fucked over the Peaky Blinders. Not that you would say so, but you liked to think of yourself as the first ‘peaky boy.’ Now you were a lone wolf, only ever stopping in when you were called and for your pay as well as weekly updates.

Keep reading

ruby-orchideous  asked:

is there a sort of cheat sheet of when to use each spanish tense?

There’s not a hard and fast cheat sheet exactly, and it’s easier to understand in context and with examples but I’ll go over what I can as quickly as I can.

This is going to be very informal and possibly have some typos so bear with me.

I did a bigger post on all of this for my masterpost if you want to see a really longer and more in-depth version with more sources and posts

First, moods. Because the linguistic moods encompass different tenses and you sort of have to know them.


Indicative is honestly… so hard to describe. Because it’s really just anything that isn’t subjunctive or imperative. It’s used as basic statements that are clear and contain no doubt [subjunctive], and they’re not commands [imperative]. The indicative mood contains the majority of all the tenses you’re going to learn in Spanish. Some of these tenses are easier to understand than others.

Honestly, just think of indicative as not subjunctive and not imperative. Its characteristics are so hard to point at like “there! that’s what it is!” so it’s easier to say what it isn’t.

Anyway, here are all the tenses that show up in indicative.

  1. Present
  2. Preterite
  3. Imperfect
  4. Future
  5. Conditional
  6. The Perfect Tenses*
    Present perfect
    Future perfect
    Conditional perfect

*Perfect tenses are as indicative as you want them to be, more on that later


The subjunctive mood is used most often with the idea of doubt. That’s not all it is, but it’s doubt, subjective opinions, polite requests, contrary to fact statements, hypothetical situations.

The subjunctive is easiest to understand when it uses a compound sentence, with one subject acting on the other. For example quiero ir “I want to go” is indicative because it’s what one person wants themselves to do. 

Subjunctive in its easiest to understand form is something like quiero que vayas “I want you to go” where it’s one subject acting on the other.

Subjunctive is also used in expressions like “wherever”, “whatever”, “whoever”, “whenever”, “even though”, and can sometimes be used with the words cuando and si and aunque which are a little iffy.

There are certain phrases that are subjunctive as well, but that’s a bigger thing.

  • Present subjunctive
  • Imperfect subjunctive
  • Future subjunctive [now obsolete, mostly]


Probably the easiest mood to understand. Imperative is used for commands. Affirmative ones are “do it”, negative ones are “don’t do it”.

There does exist an imperative-subjunctive hybrid known as “indirect commands” which are politer than a rough command would be. Subjunctive does polite requests where straight up imperative can sound forceful or brusque. Instead of saying something like habla “speak”, you could say que hables which is “speak” but in a politer way and can sometimes be translated as “may” like… que sean felices “may they be happy”

  • Affirmative commands
  • Negative commands

It’s so easy to understand what imperative mood is that I’m going to leave it here like this and talk about everything else instead. Affirmative and negative commands are really easy to understand.

1. Present Tense

I don’t even know how to properly explain present tense because it’s just so… present tense. It’s things that exist in the present as statements, basic facts, pretty much the same as English present tense. “I am”, “you are”, “they go”, “we see”, the most basic of the basic and it implies there is no change in them as far as it’s not happening in the past, and we’re not really discussing future.

Present tense for Spanish gets a little iffier in that it can also be used for “continuous present” and that means that the present tense can be used alongside or in place of the progressive forms. 

Like nado “I’m swimming” can be used interchangeably with estoy nadando “I’m swimming”. The only real difference is that the progressive forms (-ando, -iendo, sometimes -yendo) can be used in different tenses [estaba nadando “I was swimming”] but it depends on the verb of motion… it expresses continuous motion or movement regardless.

And there are times when present tense is used for short-term future. Like voy a Italia “I’m going to Italy” is implied to be the near future while iré a Italia “I will go to Italy” in future tense expresses more long-term plans.

2. Preterite

The preterite tense [sometimes known as “simple past”] is best understood as completed actions that happened in the past that are uninterrupted. They are used for how things were in a particular moment, and is most often used in definite time phrases where you see a date or time or particular “moment” mapped out. Preterite can be a little clinical if used just by itself, but it’s best for definite facts.

3. Imperfect

The term “imperfect” means an action that is not yet completed. It’s something that was happening before something happened. You use it for narration and description, but there are certain expressions that you only use imperfect for.

For example, imperfect can carry the meaning of “used to (do something)” and that doesn’t exist in preterite. Whether you use imperfect or soler in imperfect, it’s the same general idea… iba al cine “I was going to the movies / I used to go to the movies” and solía ir al cine “I used to go to the movies” are things preterite does not express.

Another common one is that when you’re talking about time in the past I’m pretty sure it’s always imperfect; era la una “it was 1 o’clock”, eran las dos “it was 2 o’clock” etc.

Imperfect can be used for interruptions [interruptions are usually preterite] where… iba al cine cuando empezó a llover “I was going to the movies when it started to rain”. Multiple imperfect tenses mean it’s an uninterrupted narrative, iba al cine, estaba lloviendo, eran las dos y decidí almorzar antes “I was going to the movies, it was raining, it was 2 o’clock, and I decided to eat lunch before”

You run into some iffy territory with expressions like the weather or tener expressions, where usually it would be tenía hambre “I was hungry” but then maybe eran las dos y tuve hambre “it was 2 o’clock and I was feeling hungry (at that time)”. 

Same thing with weather, hacía frío “it was cold” and then hizo mucho frío ayer “it was really cold yesterday” 

A lot of people struggle with imperfect and preterite but together they’re the past tenses.

4. Future 

The future tense is pretty self-explanatory, things happening in the future or the faraway future. It does get translated as “shall” in some contexts, so the Ten Commandments for example take future tense no matarás “thou shalt not kill”. 

5. Conditional

You use this for a future where it’s not exactly certain but you’re more certain than uncertain. It’s not used by all people all the time, and in some places conditional isn’t used at all. But you see it used mostly with imperfect subjunctive, or an implied one.

It would be something like… no lo haría (si lo supiera) “I wouldn’t have done it (if I had known)”

Conditional requires that something happen before it can happen, so it’s something like a sure hypothetical. Like an “if I were in that position, I would feel this way”

When not used with imperfect subjunctive, it gets used most often with poder and deber in the sense of podría “might (do something)” and debería “should (do something)” 

6. The Perfect Tenses

Using haber you can make things “perfect”. If the “imperfect” tense is things that have not been completed, “perfect” is things that have been.

This is like… “I have done”, “I have seen”, “I have gotten”… and it requires some conjugation of haber along with a past participle.

It can exist in indicative or subjunctive, but not imperative. You might see he visto “I’ve seen” or espero que hayas visto “I hope you’ve seen”.

haber is the same thing when you say hay “there is/there are”, or había “there was/there were”

Side Note: haber does conjugate to the preterite tense… hube, hubiste, hubo, hubieron, hubimos but you’re not likely to see it. You might see it used was “there was/were” but rarely.

The difference is that había is more common, and hubo is drastic and only shows up in the event of an emergency so you see it more in news reports.

Like… había lluvia “there was rain” is normal… hubo lluvia “there was rain” makes it sound like a really strong downpour just messed you up. You would normally see it as hubo un accidente “there was an accident”, hubo un terremoto “there was an earthquake”, hubo un diluvio “there was a flood”… not really the everyday kind of thing.

Present subjunctive

Subjunctive happening in the present. These are things like polite requests, doubts, subjective emotions that are happening in the present. These aren’t so clearly defined as I’m putting them, but they help as far as examples.

Polite request: quiero que pongas la mesa “I want you to set the table”

Doubt: dudo que llueva “I doubt it will rain”, no creo que llueva “I don’t believe it will rain”, no pienso que llueva “I don’t think it will rain”, no estoy seguro/a (de) que llueva “I’m not sure if it’ll rain”

Subjective emotions: es importante que vengas “it’s important you come”, es probable que vengas “you’ll probably come”, me alegro (de) que te guste “I’m glad you like it”, me molesta que no me escuchen “it annoys me that they don’t listen”, no me importa lo que digan “I don’t care what they say”

You also get the “whatever”, “whenever” things I mentioned like haz lo que quieras “do whatever you want”

Imperfect subjunctive

You can pretty much divide this into subjunctive in the past and subjunctive in the future. The past is pretty much like present subjunctive just… in the past.

Note: There are 2 forms of imperfect subjunctive. That did mean something in the past, but today it’s really up to you which form you use. Latin America favors the endings of -ara/-iera, Spain prefers -ase/-iese

Again, in older stuff it does mean something different if you see llamara as opposed to llamase, but today not always.

Requests: quería que pusieras la mesa “I wanted you to set the table”, me exigieron que dijera algo “they demanded that I say something”

Doubt: no estaba seguro/a (de) que lloviera “I wasn’t sure it would rain”

Subjective emotions: era muy improbable (de) que estuviera aquí "it was really unlikely that he/she would be here”

You get into murkier water with hypothetical situations and contrary to fact statements which tend to show up with conditional. These are most like when English says “was” and “were” like “even if it was” or “if I were”.

Hypothetical situations:

no se despertaría aunque cayera una bomba “he/she wouldn’t wake up even if a bomb fell”

Contrary to fact statements: 

si fuera rico/a, viajaría  “if I were rich, I would travel”

Future subjunctive

Honestly don’t worry about future subjunctive so much. It only really shows up now in older works or in contracts as si fuere menester “in the event of”. It’s not impossible to see it, but it’s something you see more in older things and is largely obsolete now… it looks like imperfect subjunctive, just with -e endings

Almost all of its functions were given to the imperfect subjunctive which is why it gets used for subjunctive in the past and future

Conjugation Cheat Sheet

Present subjunctive and imperative forms (a lot of time; there are exceptions and irregularities) take their forms from present tense yo forms. Irregularities on the yo form usually exist there too.

Imperfect subjunctive and future subjunctive forms take their conjugational forms from preterite tense 3rd person (for the most part)

Future (indicative) tense and conditional (for the most part with some very notable exceptions) will be the infinitive form just with an accented ending and have the fewest irregular forms of pretty much any tense… hablar goes to… hablaré and hablaría etc.

Spanish Grammar - The Imperative

So I have always found it difficult to wrap my head around all the different forms of the imperative, all the different endings, and all the uses of the imperative in Spanish. For whatever reason, some of it continues to baffle me, whilst other aspects of it have become 2nd nature. Hence, I thought I would make a concise post where I could bring all aspects of the Spanish el imperativo together. So enjoy!! 

The imperative, in general, is used to express a command, demand, instruction or wish. However, when using el imperativo, it is important to identify wether you want to use positive imperative or negative imperative, and wether you wish to convey the imperative in a formal or informal tone. 

Positive Vs. Negative Imperative

There is a very simple difference between these two concepts in Spanish, as there is in English. Positive imperative expresses a command, demand, instruction, or wish, which is intended to be realised. 

For example, in English, the phrase “Eat the apple!” is an example of the positive imperative as you want the apple to be eaten 

Conversely, Negative imperative expresses a command, demand, instruction, or wish, which is not intended to be realised.

For example, in English, the phrase “Don’t eat the apple!” is an example of the negative imperative as you do not want the apple to be eaten. 

The reason why it is important to remember this concept when using el imperativo is because wether the positive or negative imperative is used impacts on how you conjugate the verb. Let’s see how. 

Forming the Negative Imperative

Forming the Negative Imperative in Spanish is very simple to achieve, provided you have a good understanding of the conjugations for the present subjunctive - if not, you might want to scratch up on this first! The following construction is used:

No + present subjunctive

In order to change the subject of the negative imperative, you must therefore change the subject of the present subjunctive accordingly. 

The imperative is primarily used using the 2nd person, however the form you chose will depend on the plurality of the subject, and wether you wish to use a formal or informal tone. The following table shows the forms to use

Hence, match the present subjunctive endings of the above forms with the subject you wish to refer to. For Example:

  • No toques la mesa! = Don’t touch the table! (tú)
  • No toque la mesa! = Don’t touch the table! (usted)
  • No toquéis la mesa! = Don’t touch the table! (vosotros)
  • No toquen la mesa! = Don’t touch the table! (ustedes)

Forming the Positive Imperative

To form the positive imperative, add the following verb-endings to the verb stem:

Note how the usted and ustedes forms are exactly the same as the present subjunctive forms.

Examples of the Positive Imperative in use:

  • Habla conmigo = Speak to me
  • Come rápido porque tenemos prisa = Eat quickly as we are in a hurry
  • Hablad en voz baja = Speak quietly 
  • Escribid enseguida = Write straight away

Unfortunately, however, there are some irregular forms of verbs for the tú form of the positive imperative, all of which must be mesmerised. They are:

  1. Decir = Di
  2. Hacer = Haz
  3. Ir = Ve
  4. Oír = Oye
  5. Poner = Pon
  6. Salir = Sal
  7. Ser = Sé
  8. Tener = Ten
  9. Venir = Ven

Using personal pronouns with the Imperative

In order to use object or reflexive pronouns with the positive imperative, one must simply add the appropriate pronoun to the end of the conjugated verb. If you wish to use an indirect object pronoun and an direct object pronoun at the same time - place the indirect object pronoun first. You must then add a tilde where the stress should normally be.

For example:

  • ¡Levántate! = Get up! (tú)
  • Hazme el favor de poner la mesa = Lay the table, please
  • Dimelo ahora mismo = Tell me right now!
  • Váyase = Go away! (usted)
  • ¡Dénmelos! = Give me them / Give them to me

To use the personal pronouns with the negative imperative, you ust place them immediately before the verb. If both direct and indirect object pronouns are being used at the same time, the indirect object pronoun must come first. 

For example:

  • No te levantes = Don’t get up
  • ¡No se vaya! = Don’t go away
  • No me los den = Don’t give me them / Don’t give them to me

The First Person Plural Imperative

This refers to the english construction “Let’s….”, for example “Let’s go to the beach!”. It is very simple to form in Spanish, as in order to form it, all you have to do is use the first person plural form of the present subjunctive.

For example:

  • Hablemos = Let’s talk
  • No entremos = Let’s not go in
  • Hagámoslo ahora mismo = Let’s do it right now

Notice how personal pronouns can be implemented right at the end of the conjugated verb, with a tilde used in order to retain the original stress of the word. It also should be noted that in reflexive verbs, the final -s of the nosotros form of the verb is omitted. 

For example:

  • Vámonos = Let’s go  
  • Levantémonos = Let’s get up  
  • Divirtámonos = Let’s have a good time 

It also important to note that these forms of the “Let’s…” construction are rarely used in colloquial Spanish. Normally you would use the construction: Vamos a + Infinitive. Use whatever you prefer

The Imperative ‘que’

The Imperative ‘que’ is a very nifty feature of Spanish. It is used at the beginning of a sentence and is immediately followed by the subjunctive, and is used to express a wish or command. You here it frequently in colloquial dialogue and in television, so it’s definitely worth revising!

For example:

  • ¡Que gane el mejor! = May the best man win!
  • Que espere un momento = Tell him/her/them to wait a minute
  • Que entren todos = Let them all come in

Hopefully you all find this useful! 

The reference for this post is primarily Muñoz, P, and Thacker, P. (2012), A Spanish Learning Grammar, Third Edition, London, however I have added in notes from my Spanish 1B classes at the University of Edinburgh. I do not own the first image. 

Chihokogate is overwhelmingly romantic; fight me

I’ve seen people describe the “Overcome Chihoko” story in a number of ways–Victor being Extra, crackfic, something written purely for laughs, and so forth. And yes, I think all of those things are true, to a certain extent, but I’m not sure we appreciate exactly how lovely of an instance of crackfic this is.

More below the cut.

Keep reading

How to remember verb endings in French?

No matter what verb tense you’re using, verbs can only ever end like:

-s, -e, -x, -ai with je

-s, -x with tu

-d,-a,-t,-e with il/elle/on

-ons with nous

-ez with vous

-ent,-ont with ils/elles

I’m aware this doesn’t tell you the full endings, but try to remember that endings with je form the word “sexai” (which I know isn’t actually a word but there’s sex in it) and endings in il/elle/on form the word “date”.

Just simple things to help you remember it can never be “ils finirons”, “nous mangeont” or “il fais”!

*i’m a native French and “sexai” and “date” have saved my life so many times when dealing with weird tenses like the passé simple

***I didn’t count the imperative with tu because then the possible endings would be -s,-e,-x but this can get confusing. Just remember that with tu the -e ending is only ever used in the imperative.

pomrania  asked:

Is there anything you can tell me about Mando colour symbolism that isn't already on that "armour colour" post? I'm planning out a Sabine POV story where it would be relevant.

Well, yes and no. I went over the “facts” of colors and mandalorian color theory. What I can do now is kind of dig deeper into the actual mando’a words for colors, and maybe extrapolate more on the etymology of each word as they’re relevant to colors. If anything, it’ll give you an idea of how to break down the colors and maybe play with the meanings, or even the construction of the words themselves. Hopefully that helps?

I got a little carried away (again?) so I apologize for the length and time it took to put this together … and also you can take everything I say with a grain of salt as I’m trying to make sense of the etymology of these words. I’m also skipping orange as there’s no word for in the dictionary as of yet, and including violet since it is.

So, let’s go in the order that I went in the original post. Forewarning that black is going to be the longest section as I’ve thought about it maybe way too much.

  • ne’tra — black 

Ne’ is traditionally one of the negative prefixes of mando’a. It’s meant to indicate the opposite of what it’s attached to, or the not-thing. Tra means space, void … but it also translates to starfield, or field of stars. 

So. Black. Justice. Not the void of space, or, alternatively, Without stars, a starless night. 

However way you want to interpret that is up to you, but to me? From what I understand of mandalorian history? They were once a truly nomadic people, who voyaged across the stars. They were, arguably, wayfinders. More than just warriors, or conquerors, or however most would like to put it.

I originally wasn’t going to do this, but because you mentioned (elsewhere) that you’re focusing on dusk, I want to take a moment to extrapolate on this thought. The reason I say this is because of how they view stars. 

Mandalorians are generally not considered to be religious. But the language they speak is still very deeply steeped in poetic concepts — grasping at the enormous and unthinkable with words as clever and broad as a people can attempt to embody them. Stars is my personal favorite.

Ka’ra — stars, ruling council of fallen leaders. Mandalorians still speak of those who pass as not being dead, but marching far far away. The origin of the word stars is the belief that the Mand’alore ascend to the stars, to watch over the people and to guide them.

The word for breath is kar’am. Hyperdrive is karbakar (star to star). Kar’ta is heart. Kar’taylir is awareness, knowledge, lit. to hold in the heart. Karyai is the main communal living room of a communal home, where a family convenes to spend time together — and often the last bastion against an invasion.

Jate’kara, luck, destiny, literally good stars, a course to steer by. 

All of these words stem from stars.

Black, the color, is literally a starless night. But, while the impulse is to go for something negative, I would actually pull away from that. Mandalorians, in general, also view adversity (something difficult, something terrible, something terrifying) as something to challenge and overcome as a way of life. A starless night is not to be feared but to be met

A starless night may also be indicative, poetically, of a place or a people or an event without justice. And that void, that emptiness, that lack? Must be filled. Whomsoever wears black has taken it upon themselves to fill a void and reinstate justice in whatever manner that may mean.

But also consider: a night without stars evokes a specific sort of image and feeling … which may also be completely different depending on the person in question. Someone who lives in a bright city and experiences light pollution would be used to a night without stars, versus someone living out in the wild (like Krownest) or who is dependent on the stars to travel, would be used to a night full of stars and may find it distressing or strange.

  • ve’vut — gold

This one is a little less straightforward. Vut, or vutyc, indicates special. Unique, precious. Ve’ (pronounced vay or veh) is unclear as to what it’s meant to indicate, but often when we see ve’ as a prefix, it’s usually from ven (future tense), but in this case it may be from vheh, earth, soil, dirt. 

Gold. Vengeance. A precious future, or, precious metal.

Maybe evocative of the sun rising after a long and difficult night. The gold of the sun rising is a promise of a future — or at the very least, the feeling of surviving to tomorrow. This might be too poetic though lmao, and tbh … I really like the simplicity and the directness of precious metal (lit. special dirt, lmao).

The funny thing here is that though I have gold and yellow listed together for meaning (as they are, generally, considered under the same banner of Vengeance), the word for yellow is different.

  • shi'yayc — yellow

So. I’m not really a fan of this word, to be perfectly honest with you. I’m of the opinion this is less an actual color and more an adjective meant to describe something else. But regardless, here it is.

From shi, just/only, and yayc, which may be from oyayc, meaning alive (or oya! which carries many meanings and generally overwhelmingly positive). Generally though, with the yc added to the end, it’s less a noun and more an adjective, so it might actually be meant to be a descriptor (ie. yellowing of skin or eyes etc)

Yellow. Vengeance. Only just alive, or barely dead.

Maybe comparison to, say, a recently deceased person — but that only really works if one assumed that all dead persons are pale and turn yellow when they die, and that’s a weird assumption to make in the context of mandalorians.

Also consider: yellow is dull compared to the shine of a metallic gold. Less intense in that way. My question is what becomes of a person after they’ve enacted vengeance? What becomes of a life devoid of a perpetual motivating force like that? What happens when gold loses its sheen and fades, dulls? 

Am I just taking this too far, to the next level it doesn’t need to go? maybe

EDIT:: w/ points from anon through a later ask, I’d like to also add what they said: 

you pondered about the connotations of yellow regarding ‘just/barely alive’ and its comparison to gold. I thought maybe it’s about flames/light - like a bright vivid flame is a bright gold, while the flame, when it’s only small and ->barely alive<- has more of a dull and yellowish shine. 

I hadn’t even consider that it might have been referencing intensity of light/fire? But the way you put it, that may actually make more sense than the direction I was going in. I was definitely perplexed somewhat, like I was missing something. This sounds like what I was missing.

That could also apply for the heat of a flame, too. Like, referring to the intensity of the light, or the intensity of the heat, or both, depending entirely on context, and related to the below.

  • Lust for life

So, there’s no word for orange in mando’a at this time.

Consider: Yellow is sometimes indicated to also mean lust for life, depending on who you ask and what source material you’re comparing it to.

It’s entirely possible that mandalorians don’t have a way to differentiate between yellow and orange. Some cultures do display a limitation in language, seeing what we would consider a range (yellow to orange) as all one spectrum under the same banner.

So while Yellow may mean barely alive/barely dead, yellow may also mean nothing but life.

Something to think about.

  • genet — gray

Gray/Silver. Mourning lost love.

Ge’ for almost, by proximity (literally or metaphorically). Net, we can assume, comes from the word for black, ne’tra. So, in this case, gray is literally almost black, but not quite. Reaching towards it, maybe, but not quite there.

I’ve used overcast before to describe gray, or the feeling of a loss, of grief, and it still applies here. Almost, not quite, as a starless night sky. Duller, paler, than a starfield. That kind of thing—perpetually in comparison to black.

Also consider that it may infer obscuring the target, instead of almost reaching black, it may act like a filter, a translucent overlay to take away or obscure intensity of (in this case from black, or night sky). Mandalorians, who are (or once was) so used to navigating by/the stars, suddenly having to deal with their guidance obscured? There’s loss, there, too.

  • kebiin — blue

This one’s a little … less straightforward. Ke’ is used as an imperative prefix, usually to indicate that this word/sentence is a command, but keb may also come from kebbur, meaning to try or make an attempt. Biin, or bii, may come from abiik, air (interestingly, kebii’tra indicates sky, so it’s literally blue starfield, blue space).

What is reliable? What is faithful? Following through, or making the attempt again and again—someone consistent, trustworthy. To stretch the meaning, as trustworthy as the air. 

Blue. Reliability. Faithful. As consistent, or trustworthy, as the air.

I wonder if that was ever a phrase in use. “As trustworthy as the air” might ring true on a planet where they can breathe without their helmets … but what if they so happen to land on a planet that they cannot?

In hindsight, that sounds like a very mando joke to make. B’)

“Who ever is reliable all the time?” Both a joke and a very serious question.

  • ge’tal — red

Ge shows up again. Almost. Tal, blood. Almost blood, or nearly / like blood. 

From what I understand, the Taung did bleed red, and since they were the original mandalorians, it makes sense for them to make the simplest association for the color.

Red. Honoring a parent. 

This is kind of a call back, imo, to the saying “the blood of the covenant is thicker than the water of the womb,” as chosen family ties are stronger than that of biological ones, and consider that mandalorians are expected to shed blood for their chosen family if it ever came to it.

But also consider pointing at a rose and, quite literally, calling it like blood

  • vorpan — green

Vor, figuratively, is to thank. Literally, it’s to accept. Pan… is a little difficult to discover what it might indicate, or where it may come from, but from the two other words it’s a part of (epan, for guts, entrails, and sapan for electromagnet) we can kind of infer that it’s meant to indicate core, or insides, the interior of a thing.

Metaphorically, vorpan can be understood to be accepting a task to fulfill with one’s whole being.  For context, vorpan’oy is the word for vegetation, as in bringing life to green.

Green. Duty. To embody one’s accepted task

Not really sure why, but let’s go with that.

  • saviin — violet

This word is actually very close to Sabine’s name — they’re pronounced the same, just with a v instead of b. In some dialects or accent, one might say they are the same. I would argue they are.

So. VioletSaviin. Sa’ most likely comes from sarad, meaning flower, bloom. Viin is from viinir, for run. 

Running flower. Wild violets are considered weeds in some places, and so instead of run as in flee, run may lean more towards running wild, an overgrowth — or a plant that can live, even thrive, anywhere, in spite of adversity and outside forces attempting to eradicate them. 

Survival in adversity.

And, maybe unintentionally maybe not, given the above I would argue it’s a perfect name for Sabine under the circumstances. 

EDIT:: referring again to points brought up by anon in a later ask:

saviin sounds a lot like Sabine, which seems very very likely to me, considering the long i (or rather e - from an anglophone perspective) and that [v] and [b] are very similar sounds, so maybe Sabine is like a basic transcription or a dialect form of Saviin. Regarding the meaning of the colour/name

My etymology for it would be the following: “viin”/“bine” being a degenerated/shortened form (or even the root?) of kebiin - blue connected with “sa” - as, like, it gives “sa viin” - “like blue”, what is kind of a good description for purple/violet, implying the standard shade in mandalorian perception would be a darker bluish purple ALSO implying that the concept of purple cam up comparably late in the language, similar of the color orange getting it’s name rather late in germanic languages 

I was going color by color so I missed the connection in the effort to complete the post, which was an oversight by me sadly. 

It might also then directly connect the connotations of blue (reliability) with purple (adaptability, survival in adversity). They who are reliable can be depended on to adapt and survive adversity, or so on, kind of like orange (lust for life) from yellow, as thought about from above (the intensity of the flame).

Definitely some interesting things to think about.

Anyone with half a brain should be cheering the North Koreans’ apparently perfecting The Bomb.

As far as the twisted logic of mutually assured annihilation goes, it means that an all-out ground war with the DPRK would be prohibitively costly, in terms of human lives and matérial, to both those nations who would be tasked with prosecuting any invasion - i.e. South Korea - and to the US. In reality away from the hysterical world generated by the paper-hawking media establishment, it greatly lessens the chance of an imminent nuclear exchange, and therefore buys time for rational negotiations between guaranteed sovereigns to take place.

If all of that makes you as sick to the stomach as it does me, then you should be determinedly against nuclear imperalism and the proliferation of apocalyptic weaponry wielded by sociopathic elites of all nations - and not be drawn into the mindless morass of jingoistic Korea-phobia.

PREFACE: This is a nine part series of some important things to keep in mind while studying Japanese grammar. It’s very different from English, so try not to study it through an “English lens.” To understand grammar points better, it’s really beneficial to learn the characteristics behind Japanese grammar. These notes are taken from A Dictionary of Japanese GrammarTo see the other parts, click here

PS: I’ve decided to skip part 6 (politeness and formality).

7. Sentence Final Particles

Placed at the end of a main clause, sentence final particles indicate the function of the sentence or expresses the speaker’s emotions. Some are used exclusively by male or female so these particles can also express masculinity or femininity. 

か: makes the sentence a question


Is Yamada is a teacher?

ね: used to ask for confirmation or to soften requests/invitations


Yamada is a teacher, isn’t he?


Let’s go together, shall we?

な: used as the negative imperative marker when used with informal nonpast verbs; sometimes used like ね when used with informal declarative/invitational sentences (this function is only used with men)


Don’t come this way.


Let’s go together, shall we?

よ/ぞ/ぜ: used for assertion (”you know” “believe me” “I’d say”); ぞ and ぜ are exclusively for males; よ and ぜ can be used in invitational sentences


I don’t know, believe me.


I won’t lose!

今晩は飲もうよ。/今晩は飲もうぜ。 こんばんはのもうよ。/こんばんはのもうぜ。

Let’s drink tonight!

わ: used in declarative sentences to give a feminine flavor and sometimes express a light assertion (used in both formal and informal speech); can be used with ね and よ but not か


I’m still eighteen.


I’m going too.

ね/な/わ: used in exclamatory sentences; ね can convey the idea of confirmation; な is usually used by men but can be used in conversation by young women; わ is used only by women

きれいだねえ。(male) きれいだわねえ。(female)

Isn’t it pretty!

かい/だい: かい is used to mark yes/no questions and だい is used to who/what/when/where/why/how questions; both used in informal male speech 


Is this your book?


Whose book is this?

の: replaces んですか/のですか; used in informal female speech as a question marker

パーティーに行かないの? パーティーにいかないの?

Aren’t you going to the party?

かしら/かなあ: expresses speaker’s uncertainty about a proposition; かしら used by females and かなあ used by males

あしたは雨かしら。(female) あしたは雨かなあ。(male) あしたはあめかしら。あしたはあめかなあ。

Will it rain tomorrow, I wonder?


5 Mindfulness Hacks For Tuning Into The Now

Mindfulness is the practice of being in the now as much as possible because our bodies are always present, but our minds rarely are. Mindfulness is a great way to begin your spiritual practice because it requires less discipline than meditation and can allow us to clear the mind without having to do anything other than paying attention to the now.

1. Nature - ground yourself. When in nature observe the natural flow of things. There’s no such thing as perfect in nature, no perfect circles, no straight lines - this reminds us to take the pressure off ourselves and allow ourselves to simply be as we are instead of trying to live up to certain standards & expectations.

2. Sounds - hear what’s happening now. Tuning into the now is how we clear the mind of the clutter that is distracting us from living our lives - any time spent outside of the now is wasted because the past is dead & the future hasn’t happened yet. Regardless of where you are or what you’re doing you can close your eyes and tune into the present moment by listening to what’s going on around you (probably not a good idea to do this while you’re driving).

3. Sight - be still & watch your environment. The lifestyles we live can keep us on the go which causes our minds to drift out of the now, being still allows us to take note of what’s happening around us and remind ourselves to be present. Watch the birds flying, water flowing & leaves moving in the breeze and remember that the now is all that exists.

4. Breath - conscious breathing. Short, sharp breathing can activate our fight or flight response - therefore it’s imperative for us to breathe consciously. Take a long inhalation (around 6 seconds), hold it for a few seconds and release for about 8 seconds. When releasing the breath focus on how it makes you feel and release with the intention of inviting relaxation into your body. Breathing in a conscious way keeps our attention in the now because we are focusing on the sensations we feel in the body - in the now.

5. Touch - a physical reminder of where you are. Running your fingers over something that reminds you to be in the now is a great way to tune into the present moment. This could be a crystal, a penny or even a toy of some sort - whatever works for you - the reason this is so powerful is because we’re using one of the senses to ground us in the now. Physical touch is a very powerful sense and can be used at any time, if you’re running feel the sensation of your feet hitting the pavement & if you’re driving focus on how the steering wheel feels.

Time doesn’t exist - the present moment is now and forever.

Peace & positive vibes.

Grammar: ~(으)려고 + ~(으)려고 하다

~(으)려고 and ~(으)려고 하다 are used with action verbs to express a plan or intention.  ~(으)려고 makes an incomplete clause meaning “In order to…” or “With the intention of…”  ~(으)려고 하다 makes a complete sentence that can show intention for action or a possible state of the near future.  ~(으)려고 and ~(으)려고 하다 are not used with suggestive or imperative sentences.  ~(으)러 can be used with suggestive, imperative, interrogative, and declarative sentences, but can really only used with certain motion-related verbs like 가다, 오다, and 나가다.

내일 도사관에 가려고 합니다.

Tomorrow I am planning to go to the library

아침에 몇 시에 서울으로 출발하려고 함니까?

At what time in the morning do you intend to set off for Seoul?

우리 언니는 의사가 되려고 해요.

My older sister intends to become a doctor.

밖에 일찍 나가려고 방을 발리 치웠어요.

In order to go out early, I tidied up my room quickly.

잘 공부하려고 음악을 껐어요.

In order to study well, I turned off the music.

동생이 울려고 해요.

My younger sibling is about to cry.

빙수가 녹으려고 해요.

This bingsu is about to melt.

공부하려고 하는 친구가 플래시 카드를 만들었어요.

My friend who is planning to study made flashcards.

지난 주말에 남동생 만아려고 했는데, 못 만났습니다.

I had intended to meet my younger brother last weekend, but I couldn’t meet him.

~(으)려고 하다 tends to sound very formal and textbook-like in plain present tense.

Lab Reports 101

Lab Reports are modeled after scientific reports. The format of a lab report can be summed up in the acronym IMRAD: Intro, Methods + Materials, Results, and Discussion.


  • The into is typically a couple of paragraphs.
  • states the purpose of the experiment (for students, the purpose is usually a broader knowledge of some principle)
  • includes background knowledge (explain it like you would to an outsider who knows nothing about your topic) (source relevant research)
  • and it also has your hypothesis, which is your prediction based on background knowledge. The hypothesis can be wrong! Remember: this is an experiment. Your hypothesis must be specific and it should be in an if/then format. (If the solution turns this color, then the presence of enzymes are confirmed.)
  • There should also be justification for why your hypothesis makes sense.

Method and Materials

  • Materials will usually come first; it’s the list of necessary supplies and equipment.
  • Methods describes the process of the experience (either as an numbered list or in paragraph form). It includes rationale for steps when appropriate. Make sure to identify the experiment’s control (baseline data) if possible. Also, avoid imperative voice. Use passive past tense voice.


  • Often the shortest section, the results presents data without interpretation. 
  • Unless explicitly stated otherwise, this is the section where you would include a table or a figure (or a combination). Only use a table if it is the most concise way to express the results.


  • moves from specific (data from your experiment) to general (how the date fits your hypothesis)
  • explains whether the data fits your hypothesis
  • acknowledges unexpected data
  • derives conclusions, based on your findings, about the process you’res studying
  • (optional) explains theoretical and/or practical implications

In-text Citations

  • In-text citations in lab reports take APA format.
  • The final page will be labeled references and will take its own page.
  • Use quotations sparingly.
The Subjunctive

The subjunctive is a mood that expresses things such as emotions, possibility, wishes, judgment, opinion, obligation, or actions which have not yet occurred. It is not commonly used in Modern English, but was fairly prominent in OE.

For example: “If I was there….” or “I wish that I had been…”

In Old English, the subjunctive is used in the following ways:

- To express a hypothetical situation, ‘Gif ic wǣre treowwyrhta…’ (If I were a carpenter…). 

- To express wish/desire, ‘ic wȳsce þæt ic wīsra wǣre’ (I wish that I were wiser), ‘ic wolde þæt þū lufode mec’ (I wanted you to love me).

- To express opinions, ‘hīe cwǣdon þæt hē wǣre wīs’ (They said that he was wise). 

- To express commands, suggestions and requirements. ‘Hroðgar sume worde hēt þæt ic his ǣrest ðē ēst ge-sæde…’ (Beowulf, ll. 2156-57, Hrothgar commanded through certain word[s] that I first should declare to you his regard…). 

- After the use of impersonal verbs, ‘ūs dafenaþ ðæt wē wacien’ (It is fitting for us that we should stay awake). 

It is also often used with imperatives, “lufie wē ūre nēxtan’ (Let us love our neighbours). 

So, the discussion about Daenerys and imperalism has came up again- some saying she’s a White Feminist personified, others begging to differ. I understand both interpretations of her character, but I think both sides are missing the point about why people associate imperalism with her character.

Most discussions end up turning into fallacies such as ‘are you fine with slavery?’ or ‘would you rather Daenerys let slavery happen?’ as if people who are against her are fine with slavery (they aren’t). It has more to do with Daenerys’ attitude and entitlement, her relationship with Targaryen ancestory, historical / modern day parallels (ranging from William The Conqueror to the Iraq War). It’s about how you go about making change, as opposed to what the change is in itself. 

First off, let’s define imperalism using good old google. 



a policy of extending a country’s power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means.


rule by an emperor. 

Well, this is completely Daenerys. She uses military forces to take Meereen, Yunkai and Astapor. She’s not simply the Princess Of Dragonstone, but the Queen Of Meereen, a title which has nothing to do with Targaryen legacy, but she creating in some Slaver’s Bay Empire. She used the Unsullied and Second Sons to do so. What Daenerys did does fit the definition of imperalism. I don’t see how this can be argued. The question is: can imperalism ever be justified? (which I’ll discuss more on). 

Is Daenerys an Emperor? She rules in her own given right, so I don’t see much of a problem in calling her one.

I personally think she’s incredibly justified to get rid of slavery. But she’s doing more than that. She’s imposing herself as ruler. She kills the Grand Masters in a rather cruel fashion- even though she has no clue who is more responsible. She leaves Yunkai unprepared, she brings three dragons into Slaver’s Bay- that are growing more hungry and bloodthirsty. She’s absolutely clueless on how to deal with Quentyn- again, I don’t think she should necessarily marry him but his death will have ramifications, especially with the Dornish alliance. She called for the torture of the wineseller’s daughters. Daenerys’ arc should not be interpreted as a well intended person trying to get rid of slavery, because its more than that. It’s about bringing fire and blood to Slaver’s Bay, and then Westeros. 

As for imperalism and it being justified, well- you are justified in getting rid of slavery. You are, however not justified in changing a culture to see how you feel fit, you are not justified to execute whoever you feel wronged by, you are not justified to torture children, you are not justified in bringing three weapons of mass destruction into a city with the intent of using them- even if they are your ‘children’. Imperalism gives an appeal- power goes to the mightiest and in the case of Daenerys, someone with more humanity than the slave masters. But it’s not that simple. Any imperalism comes fire, blood and destruction.

This is, of course no suprise- the Targaryens have a long history of imperalism. Just look at Aegon The Conqueror, as well as his sisters Rhaenys and Visenya. At the end of the day ‘peaceful uniting’ is still imperalism. It’s just never dissected within the narrative to a satisfying, self aware level. Alot of the kingdoms didn’t want to be united- such as The North and Dorne. GRRM talked about ‘peace and prosperity’ with Aegon The Conquerer, but that peace was under unjust pretenses. Which reminds me alot of Daenerys- she could potentially bring peace to Slaver’s Bay. It’s just imperalism has a dirty history of methods that are horrifying.

Critics of Daenerys do not just call her an imperalist in relation to Astapor, Yunkai and Meereen. It’s also about Westeros. The Targaryens lost their right to rule when they committed the atrocities under King Aerys II. Back to Aegon The Conquerer, the ‘conquered’ Westeros. But the Baratheons, under Robert- conquered the Targaryens. So it’s technically a Baratheon state. Daenerys wants to change that, and revert it back to the Targaryen way. Changing how things works, who is in charge and who sits on the throne is imperalism. She wants to bring imperalism to Westeros. Therefore, Daenerys is an imperalist and more importantly will continue to be so.

So I understand why people associate the Iraq War with Daenerys. I compare the dragons to weapons of mass destruction all the time, because they function like one and have the power to do so. People who call Daenerys an imperalist don’t love slavery or anything like that. We’re just calling out imperalism when we see it.