urine production

Puppy Checklist

“Hi, can you put together a sort of checklist of what someone might need for the first night with a puppy?” –A reader

There is a LOT that can be said on what you need for your new puppy, but let’s keep this down to the bare minimum for brevity’s sake.

• A safe place for them to sleep
• Cleaning supplies for their inevitable accidents
• Chew toys and cuddle toys they are allowed to have
• Food and water
• A leash and collar or a safe fenced area for them to do their business
• A vet appointment for as soon as possible
• A lot of time and patience

1) Why does my puppy need a safe place to sleep, and what constitutes a “safe place”? 

While young puppies do sleep a lot, they can still get into things that could seriously injure or kill them while you sleep. They can tear open cushions and eat the stuffing, eat the carpet, chew on exposed cables, gnaw on your furniture legs, eat wallpaper, or simply just pee on your pants or in your shoes.

Puppies will do things we could never dream of them doing, and in a shockingly short amount of time, too. For the next foreseeable future, your puppy absolutely needs a safe place you can leave him at night, for his own good. Crates are the best and safest place to put your puppy, but otherwise you should have a “puppy proof” room for him to sleep in, such as a bathroom—keeping in mind that shower curtains and any toiletries should be kept far out of reach. 

Chances are that your pup is going to cry the first couple of nights no matter where you put him, unless you let him sleep on your bed with you. While that is a valid option, keep in mind that your pup could injure himself while attempting to jump off in the middle of the night, or even pee on it, and it will only work while you’re there sleeping with him and won’t provide a safe place to keep him if you need to leave him alone while you run errands or go to work.

2) What kind of cleaning supplies do I need?

There are plenty of pet odor neutralizing products you can choose. Whatever you do, don’t use bleach-containing products on urine spots. Try to keep your pup off carpets and rugs so that if they do have accidents, they do it on easy-to-clean surfaces. Then wipe it up with paper towels, spray with odor neutralizers and disinfectant, let it sit for a minute, and then wipe it up again.

3) Why are toys so important?

Toys provide numerous functions for your dog. They provide stimulation and exercise. They provide a relief for teething, and they smell like you and provide comfort at night when they sleep. Toys are a crucial element for redirection training. Whenever your puppy grabs something he can’t play with, you should have an alternative to offer him that he can play with instead. He doesn’t need a treasure chest full of toys, (although I’m sure he wouldn’t complain) but he should have two or three toys he can choose from with which you can play different games, like tug or fetch, or just for him to cuddle with.

4) Food and water

This one is pretty self-explanatory. Your pup needs food and water. For the first few nights you should have been given a small amount of food of the brand that your pup has been eating so far. You can either continue to feed that same food, or find an alternative that better suits your pup’s needs and mix it in with the food he’s already used to and wean him off it. He should always have water readily available, until a couple hours before bed. Offer him water one last time for the night, and then take him out again before bed to help reduce chances of accidents in the night. Be sure to give him water again first thing in the morning.

5) Leash and collar

No matter how clingy and small your new puppy is, they are always a flight risk. You should never let them out in an un-gated environment without a collar and leash. To be honest, even within a fenced in yard, it can be dangerous to let them out without a leash if you’re planning on coming back inside any time soon. You would be surprised how fast and squirmy those little furballs can be when you’re ready to go back inside and they aren’t. Also, it is very important to let them learn to go potty while on the leash. Many a time I’ve potty trained my pups by letting them go in the yard, and they would refuse to go while on the leash if we were out somewhere else and I needed them to relieve themselves.

6) A vet appointment

It continually surprises me how many people skip this step. Your very first priority when you pick up your puppy, should be to schedule a vet appointment. Any time I’ve planned the pick up date of my new companion, I have scheduled their vet appointment before I’ve even taken them home. It doesn’t matter what vet receipts you are shown, or how much you are assured that they are healthy, you should always go straight to the vet for a check up, have them look up their past vet records, and, if necessary, get their next round of shots. My vets have told me that so many of their parvo cases could have been avoided if people had just come straight to them with their puppies for their shots. Take your puppy straight to the vet, if only just to have them confirm that your pup is healthy.

7) A lot of time and patience

The simple fact is that at some point your pup is going to destroy something you really like, whether it’s a corner of your couch, your favorite sweater, or your breakfast. You will have to remind yourself that your puppy isn’t doing these things to spite you, no matter how much it may seem like it, and maybe count to 10 or 20 and remind yourself how much you love them. No matter how vigilant you are, your pup is going to have at least one accident in the house in the first few weeks, and he will need an awful lot of your time and attention, day and night. The first few nights with your puppy are a lot like the first few nights with an infant. The upshot is that they start to sleep through the night a lot sooner than human babies do. 

There is a lot more that can be said on the first few weeks with your new puppy, but these are just the basics for the first couple nights.  


The wonderful 2015 São Paulo production of “Urinetown” (”Urinal”)

Directed by Zé Henrique de Paula (who was also responsible for the set design), the show runs till the end of June at the Teatro Núcleo Experimental, which is a 60-seater theater… making for a really intimate and powerful experience. 

Cast pictured above includes Caio Salay (Bobby Strong/Bonitão), Bruna Guerin (Hope/Luz), Daniel Costa (Officer Lockstock/Policial), Nábia Vilella (Penelope Pennywise/Penelope Peneira)  and Luciana Ramanzini (Little Sally/Garotinha).

Herb of the Week-Heather

Common names

Scotch Heather

The familiar heather plant - Calluna vulgaris - belongs to the Ericaceae plant family. The plant is an evergreen shrub that has many branching stems and can reach one to two feet in length when full grown. The heather is characterized by the possession of minute and needlelike leaves, each of which is about one sixteenth to one eight of an inch in length. The leaves are borne in opposite pairs and are clumped together in four rows along the short green twigs on the branches of the plant. The heather bears purplish pink flowers with occasional white colored flowers - from July through September; the characteristic flowers are almost bell shaped. In morphology, the shrub is a tough, bushy, and woody evergreen perennial.

The purple heather flowers have a bell shaped corolla that is two mm across, formed by the joining of four purple colored petals into a tube. The corolla is shorter than the four purple sepals, each of which is two to four mm in length. Heather flowers are borne on a narrow shaped and leafy raceme that can grow to nine cm in length; these racemes grow on the axils of the leaves lying on the upper shoots of the plant. The fruits of the heather are very tiny, rounded and hairy capsules with four cells inside each fruit. The minute seeds, each 0.7 mm in length are strongly meshed in the fruit. The shape of the leaves is oblong; each leaf can reach a maximum of 3.5 mm in length. Most leaves do not bear any hair; however, they can at times be downy, often lying in overlapping positions in four vertical rows along the twigs on the branches. Leaves have a dark green color when tender, but tend to turn brown as they mature. The stems of the heather are woody, wiry and pliable. Tender stems are initially covered with dense hair, these become hairless and smooth in later stages of growth and maturity.

Keep reading

Words words words -- what do they all mean?

I was just in report the other day with a coworker who’s been on the unit for a million years and is one of the supreme know-it-alls of the unit. I was a little surprised, in all of her know-it-all-ed-ness, that while giving me report she couldn’t figure out what a certain term meant and found her growing really frustrated that she didn’t know what it was. The term was pneumomediastinum and it made me think:  do other nurses, nursing students, med students, realize how helpful knowing some of your root words are?

Ok so maybe they aren’t all Greek. Some of them are Latin! But the point is, knowing some of these basic roots can be so helpful. The first time I heard of the term pneumomediastinum, I had no idea what it meant. Do you know what it means? If you do, great, but if you don’t, break down the big word:

“pneumo” “mediastinum”

What do we know about “pneumo”? Well, in “pneumothorax” it means that there’s air in the chest. We also may remember that the mediastinum is the collection of organs and structures within the middle (media) of the thoracic cavity (I always like to think of the st in mediastinum as being near/behind the sternum). 

Double checking our answers, you’ll see that “pneuma” is the Greek word for air, thus we can quickly see that we’re talking about air within the mediastinum. And any sensible medical professional will quickly realize that that’s not an ideal situation, depending upon where that air is leaking from. The condition itself (according to the US National Library of Medicine’s MedLine page on the matter) describes the condition as one being caused by injury or disease including but not limited to tears in the trachea, esophageal tears, and alterations in intrathoracic pressures due to a variety of other causes (repeated valsalva maneuver or bearing down such as in child birth, vomiting, sneezing, or rapid changes in altitude or pressure such as seen in scuba diving).

What other cool words can we break down? Here are a couple big ones that I see pretty frequently.

Hemoperitoneum – heme/hemo = blood, peritoneum = having to do with the peritoneal cavity; blood +  peritoneal cavity –> bleeding within the peritoneal cavity such as seen often in blunt abdominal trauma

Pneumocephalus – pneuma = air, cephalus (Greek –> Kephalos) = head –> air + head = air within the cranial cavity

Cholangitis – chol = bile, ang/angio = vessel, -itis = inflammation
–> inflammation and infection of the biliary ducts (actually associated with pretty high morbidity/mortality rate)

Necrotizing pancreatitis –necro = dead/dying, pancrea = having to do with the pancreas, -itis = inflammation –> inflammation/infection of the pancreas caused by and/or resulting areas of the pancreatic tissue forming necrotic pockets of fluid and abscesses

Diabetes mellitus – diabetes = derived from Greek for siphon (in this case large production of urine) + mellitus = Greek for honey 
Diabetes insipidus – insipidus = Latin derivative of lacking in flavor/bland

Diabetes mellitus results in lots urine production with glucose present vs diabetes insipidus which results in lots of severely dilute urine, either nephrogenic or neurogenic in origin.


That’s how I studied a lot of my terms throughout nursing school, particularly with anatomy. Pharmacology, not so much – pretty sure most of those drugs are named after or based off of things in Swedish or Simlish. Knowing your roots are really helpful for understanding surgical/procedural approaches as well (ex. laparatomy [lapara =flank, otomy = cut – technically should be celiotomy), ERCP [endoscopic retrograde cholioangiopancreatography –> inner scope going backwards up the alimentary canal into the biliary structures including the bile ducts, gall bladder, and pancreas). Aren’t words cool?

For funzies

I’m always in awe of red clover (Trifolium pratense, of the Fabaceae (legume family)). It is native to northwest Africa, Asia, and Europe, but has since been naturalized and cultivated in many parts of the world, including North America. I came across this beautiful specimen while hiking in the Marshlands Conservancy in Rye, NY.

Red clover is a source of many valuable nutrients including calcium, chromium, magnesium, niacin, phosphorus, potassium, thiamine, and vitamin C. Medicinally, this plant can help us is many ways. Thanks to its isoflavones (water-soluble chemicals that act like estrogens), it is used for hot flashes/flushes, PMS, breast enhancement and breast health as well as lowering cholesterol, improving urine production and improving circulation of the blood, to help prevent osteoporosis, reduce the possibility of blood clots and arterial plaques and limiting the development of benign prostate hyperplasia. It may also block enzymes thought to contribute to prostate cancer in men.

Finally, as if all this weren’t enough, red clover has also been found to be useful in quitting smoking, and lowering cravings for alcohol. So what are you waiting for? Go make yourself a red clover infusion!

Herb of the Day


Religious Herb


Dandelion is used for loss of appetite, upset stomach, intestinal gas, gallstones, joint pain, muscle aches, eczema, and bruises. Dandelion is also used to increase urine production and as a laxative to increase bowel movements. It is also used as skin toner, blood tonic, and digestive tonic. Dried root will benefit soft organs such as the liver and kidneys.  

Please remember that any diuretic can interact with pharmacologicals, so always check with your health care provider before using any herbal remedy.

Magical uses of dandelion are based on it’s ability to withstand extremes and still survive.  The roots of dandelions run deep and if not pulled entirely out, will sprout up in another area.  It basically defies death.  So it has been used to invoke Hecate.  Dried root can be used as an offering to the Goddess Hecate, and worn during ritual.  Dandelion wine or dandelion “coffee” can be used in the ritual cup.  

Hecate rules over sky, sea and and air. She also represents prosperity and blessings to families.  She is the Goddess of the crossroads and can help in deciding which path to take.  So the uses of Dandelion in ritual are truly endless.

anonymous asked:

I read an article covering the subject of the amount of calcium vegans are getting opposed to people who consume dairy. It stated that vegans are prone to breaking bones easier due to the lack of calcium. The article did recommend non-dairy alternatives for a calcium source. I understand that there are calcium supplements out there available to take with meals so nutrition needs are met. Getting enough calcium does concern me. Know of any cruelty-free alternatives as a good source of calcium?

If this reply comes off rude it’s not actual directed at you it’s how shitty and brainwashed this planet it. Hell, some of the people who put together the “food pyramid” work for the dairy industry. Cows milk depletes calcium from our bones, we absorb very, very little calcium from dairy. It’s more bad than good. Animal protein, it acidifies the bodies pH, Calcium is an acid neutralizer. Our blood becomes acidic and it leaches calcium from our bones, then we pee it out. Osteoporosis isn’t a vegan problem, it’s a omnivore problem. Take a look at the countries that consume the highest amount of dairy, Then look at the countries with the highest osteoporosis rates. This isn’t even just an opinion it’s been proven and come out in countless medical studies. Most doctors are even smartening up and telling the dangers of casein and recommending plant sourced calcium.

  • Diets that are high in protein cause more calcium to be lost through the urine. Protein from animal products is much more likely to cause calcium loss than protein from plant foods. This may be one reason that vegetarians tend to have stronger bones than meat-eaters.” (x)
  • “Yes, raw, whole, organic milk eliminates concerns like pesticides, hormones, antibiotics, and the effects of homogenization and pasteurization – but to me, these benefits don’t outweigh dairy’s potential risks. From an evolutionary point of view, milk is a strange food for humans - (x)
  • Our bodies just weren’t made to digest milk on a regular basis. Instead, most scientists agree that it’s better for us to get calcium, potassium, protein, and fats from other food sources, like whole plant foods – vegetables, fruits, beans, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and seaweed” - (x)
  • The reality is that there is no reason for humans to consume cow’s milk—and there are many reasons to avoid it. Dairy products are packed with fat and cholesterol and may increase the risk of health problems ranging from asthma to some types of cancer. An elevated risk of prostate cancer incidence and mortality has been associated with dairy consumption and the same may be true for ovarian cancer. Calcium is a necessary nutrient, but we can easily get enough from plant foods. (x)

Dairy is unhealthy and unnatural. We’re not calves, Cows milk is amazing…for calves. We’re humans. I have no idea how people are shocked by this. Plant based calcium - Leafy greens, Cooked collard greens, Almonds (milk, butters), Other plant milks besides almond (hemp, soy), Spirulina, Sweet potato, Dried figs, Cooked broccoli, Tofu, Cooked kale, Cooked soybeans, Blackstrap Molasses, Oranges, Oatmeal, White beans, Sunflower seeds and more.

One gross fact will make you never, ever want to go in a pool again 

You’re swimming in your own — and, more disgustingly, everyone else’s — shit. 

When you enter a pool, the stuff we carry on our bodies, from skin and hair products to urine and poop (yes, poop), neutralizes the water’s bacteria-killing chlorine. The result? Survivor germs, which when swallowed or inhaled, cause about 10,000 illnesses a year.

But what about all that chlorine you smell in the pool? Isn’t that supposed to kill all the germs?

Nope. | Follow @micdotcom

Plant-Based Calcium 

If you think calcium and protein build strong bones, why do Americans have astounding rates ofosteoporosis and bone fractures, while the African Bantu, consumers of low-protein and low-calcium diets, rarely have bone issues? Along with tobacco, salt, caffeine—and a lack of exercise, magnesium and vitamin D—animal protein is to blame once again.

Animal protein contributes to the acceleration of osteoporosis because keeping blood and tissues at a neutral Ph balance always takes priority over keeping calcium phosphate in the bones. Bones can hold out for years with insufficient calcium, but blood and tissue cannot because they need phosphate to offset the acidity. When blood and tissues become acidic with animal protein, the body withdraws calcium phosphate from the bones and uses the alkaline mineral phosphate to keep the Ph levels of blood and tissue balanced. The calcium is then excreted through our urine. Since animal products are the only sources of acidic protein, people who consume the least amount of animal protein always have the lowest rates of osteoporosis and bone fractures. Interestingly, but not shockingly, Alaskan Eskimos, whoconsume large quantities of animal protein and rarely eat plants because of their icy environment, have the highest rates of osteoporosis in the world!

The Harvard University Nurses’ Health Study proves that dairy products offer no protection from bone fractures or osteoporosis. In fact, participants who drank three or more servings of milk per day actually had a slightly higher rate of fractures than women who drank little or no milk.

-Gary Yourofsky

anonymous asked:

Hi! What are the benefits of a keto diet?

Hey :) there are many benefits of the keto diet, a lot of them I can account for from my own experience, and then I’m sure a lot of other lchf/keto blogs can agree too, here are the common benefits:

  • Weight loss - The main benefit of keto diets is that it increases the body’s ability to utilize fats for fuel so it’s very ideal for weight loss
  • Cancer - Sugar feeds cancer cells causing them to proliferate. Therefore, a diet which eliminates sugar and other carbohydrates may be effective in reducing or fighting cancer. The regular cells found in our bodies are able to use fat for energy, but cancer cells cannot metabolically shift to use fat. Therefore, when cancer cells are starved of sugar they die. 
  • Pee out fat - If the body has no further use for ketones they can simply be excreted through urine as a waste product. This means that at times your body will be peeing out body fat! (that’s kinda gross)
  • Protein sparing - Ketosis has a protein sparing effect, assuming that you are consuming adequate quantities of protein and calories in the first place. Once in ketosis the body actually prefers ketones to glucose. Which means it doesn’t need to burn protein to get glucose through that process called glucoge-something that is extremely long.
  • Decrease in hunger - Due to the increased fat consumption (which are also mostly foods high in protein aswell), you can experience a decrease in appetite - I personally don’t get hungry frequently when I’m on keto and don’t have the urge to snack, which suits me perfectly because I prefer to have 3 big meals rather than lots of small ones.
  • Cholesterol - Apparently it increases levels of HDL cholesterol (the ‘good’ kind) and helps to manage levels of LDL (the naughty one)
  • Disorders and conditions - It is not only used as a healthy lifestyle, it is also used for conditions such as infantile spasms, epilepsy, autism, brain tumors, Alzheimer’s disease, Lou Gehrig’s disease, depression, stroke, head trauma, Parkinson’s disease, migraine, sleep disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety, ADHD, irritability, polycystic ovarian disease, irritable bowel syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux, obesity, cardiovascular disease, acne, type 2 diabetes, tremors, respiratory failure and virtually every neurological problem but also cancer, and conditions where tissues need to recover after a loss of oxygen.
  • Energy - More energy (the brain fog/fatigue you feel at the beginning fades and then you feel super energetic)
  • Beauty - You secrete more oil via your pores on a keto diet, which makes your skin healthier, and your hair is bomb too!
  • MA LEEEEGSSS OOOOH DA PAIN - Decrease in joint pain and other aches  

Obviously this way of life is not for everyone, and it’s just important to find out what works for you and YOUR body. There is no standard way you have to eat because everyone is different and is affected differently by what they eat! I eat this way because my body does not react well to a high carb intake for a prolonged period of time. Just do you, dude.

 I hope this was helpful!