uprisings movements

Johannes Hermanus Barend Koekkoek (1840-1912) - Boxers , circa 1900

The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising or Yihequan Movement was an anti-imperialist uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, towards the end of the Qing dynasty. It was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness (Yihetuan), known in English as the “Boxers”, and was motivated by proto-nationalist sentiments and opposition to imperialist expansion and associated Christian missionary activity.
The uprising took place against a background of severe disruption caused by the encroachment of America and European nations. After several months of growing frustration against both the unrelenting wave of European and Christian presence in Shandong and the North China plain in June 1900, Boxer fighters, convinced they were invulnerable to foreign weapons, converged on Beijing with the slogan “Support Qing government and exterminate the foreigners.” Foreigners and Chinese Christians sought refuge in the Legation Quarter. In response to reports of an armed invasion to lift the siege, the initially hesitant Empress Dowager Cixi supported the Boxers and on June 21 issued an Imperial Decree declaring war on the foreign powers. Diplomats, foreign civilians and soldiers as well as Chinese Christians in the Legation Quarter were placed under siege by the Imperial Army of China and the Boxers for 55 days.
Chinese officialdom was split between those supporting the Boxers and those favoring conciliation, led by Prince Qing. The supreme commander of the Chinese forces, the Manchu General Ronglu (Junglu), later claimed that he acted to protect the besieged foreigners. The Eight-Nation Alliance, after being initially turned back, brought 20,000 armed troops to China, defeated the Imperial Army, and captured Beijing on August 14, lifting the siege of the Legations. Uncontrolled plunder of the capital and the surrounding countryside ensued, along with the summary execution of those suspected of being Boxers.
The Boxer Protocol of 7 September 1901 provided for the execution of government officials who had supported the Boxers, provisions for foreign troops to be stationed in Beijing, and 450 million taels of silver—approximately $10 billion at 2017 silver prices and more than the government’s annual tax revenue—to be paid as indemnity over the course of the next thirty-nine years to the eight nations involved. The Empress Dowager then sponsored a set of institutional and fiscal changes in an attempt to save the dynasty by reforming it.

mathemagicalmlp  asked:

What were they doing with movies in the silent era that they're not doing now? I mean, isn't telling a visual story the best possible use of film?

Well first: what constitutes “good” or “bad” in film usage? I really love the movie Waking Life, which has little to no story – it’s just an animated exploration of philosophy.

Originally posted by the-ocean-in-one-drop

Or take music videos. What’s the story in Garbage’s Push It? I don’t know, but I find it profoundly effective.

What they were doing in the early days of cinema that they didn’t so much in the studio era is wild experimentation. You had people trying to use movies to bring the audience into uprisings and popular movements. Film as a tool, not as entertainment.

Film meant to shock you out of complacency.

Film as a psychological experiment - seeing what happens when you intercut a man with a neutral face against happy images or sad images or images of soup.

Film that wouldn’t let you just sit back and let it wash over you.

To learn about early film history is to learn about alternate history. Cinema was not always predestined to be stories. It could have been anything. Nobody knew how people would react to seeing moving pictures onscreen. There were so many voices, and so many directions it could have – and did – go. But in the end, the Hollywood vision of narrative cinema became the dominant one. 

That’s not a judgment call per se, it’s just how it is. You could even argue it’s a sort of natural selection, although I think that’s oversimplifying matters.

Nowadays there’s still plenty of experimentation – and there certainly has been experimentation of different sorts throughout all of film history, even the studio era – but the establishment of the studio system, and of the Hays code, really restricted the form that popular cinema took. In their drive towards mass-market acceptance, the studios bucked off much of cinema’s wild experimenters, its early adopters, and its chorus of different voices - including women - until it became a virtual monoculture.

(caveat: this is me flexing my film degree muscles for the first time in over a decade, so I ain’t fresh on this. for a fun look at the Hays code era, I refer you here.)

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