200 YEARS AGO on May 26, 1817: John Adams wrote to Thomas Jefferson about the founding of the University of Virginia:
“I congratulate You and Madison and Monroe, on your noble Employment in founding a University. From Such a noble Tryumvirate, the World will expect Something very great and very new. But if it contains anything quite original, and very excellent, I fear the prejudices are too deeply rooted to Suffer it to last long, though it may be accepted at first. It will not always have three Such colossal reputations to Support it.”
Adams was right that the University of Virginia contained something original and quite excellent — unlike other universities that offered schools in only medicine, law, and divinity, Virginia would allow students eight courses of study: medicine, law, mathematics, chemistry, ancient languages, modern languages, natural philosophy, and moral philosophy. “A professorship of theology should have no place in our institution,” Jefferson wrote, and that has always been the case.
And though it did not always have the colossal reputations of Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe to support it, it has certainly lasted long. Today the university is renowned for its scientific breakthroughs, and US News & World Report ranked it the #2 public school in the nation in 2017.
One of Jefferson’s proudest accomplishments, he made sure its founding would be listed on his gravestone which reads: “Here was buried Thomas Jefferson: Author of the Declaration of American Independence, of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom and Father of the University of Virginia.”
Thomas Jefferson had a total of twelve grandchildren to survive to adulthood. Eleven of the twelve were born to Jefferson’s eldest daughter, Martha, and Thomas Mann Randolph Jr. who served as Governor of Virginia. Martha’s younger sister, Maria, gave birth to her only surving child, Francis Eppes.
Anne Cary Randolph (1791–1826)
Thomas Jefferson Randolph (1792–1875)
Ellen Wayles Randolph (1796–1876) Named after her deceased older sister (born in 1794 and died 1795).
Cornelia Jefferson Randolph (1799–1871)
Virginia Jefferson Randolph (1801–1882)
Francis Wayles Eppes VII (1801- 1881) The only surviving child of Jefferson’s youngest daughter.
Mary Jefferson Randolph (1803–1876)
James Madison Randolph (1806–1834)
Benjamin Franklin Randolph (1808–1871)
Meriwether Lewis Randolph (1810–1837)
Septimia Anne Randolph (1814–1887)
George Wythe Randolph (1818–1867)
Thomas Jefferson enjoyed private time with his family. He never remarried after the death of his wife and their surviving family- daughters, Martha “Patsy” and Maria, and their twelve children- became his refuge and comfort. At the age of 73, he began bringing his grandchildren to Poplar Forest. Two of Martha Jefferson Randolph’s eleven children, Ellen, 19 years old, and Cornelia, 16, spent the most time at Poplar Forest and cherished the days with “Grandpapa.”
Grandfather Jefferson had an impact on every one of his grandchildren. Their pursuit of education, public service, farming, and family is evident in each or their lives:
Anne (January 23, 1791– February 11, 1826): Thomas Jefferson’s eldest grandchild and the daughter of Patsy Jefferson Randolph was born at Monticello. Ann died of complications following childbirth five months before her grandfather, on February 11, 1826,4 and was buried in the family graveyard at Monticello.
Thomas “Jeff” (1792—1875): born at Monticello, was the eldest son of Martha Jefferson Randolph and the eldest grandson of Thomas Jefferson. His education was supervised by his grandfather. Randolph soon took over the management of his grandfather’s affairs and displayed an aptitude for finance. Randolph became a member of the Board of Visitors at the University of Virginia, where he later served as Rector. Among other public offices, Randolph served six terms in the Virginia House of Delegates, where he supported the gradual emancipation and deportation of slaves. Too old to fight during the Civil War, Randolph nevertheless was given a colonel’s commission in the Confederate army, and in 1872 he served as chairman of the National Democratic Convention.Thomas Jefferson Randolph died at Edgehill following a carriage accident on October 7, 1875.
Ellen (Eleonora) (October 13, 1796-April 30, 1876): Was the fourth child born to Martha Jefferson Randolph. An accomplished scholar, particularly in languages. Ellen often accompanied Jefferson on trips to Poplar Forest. She was considered the belle of the family and traveled to Richmond, Washington, D.C., Baltimore, and Philadelphia, where she was popular with her grandfather’s old friends, as well as young gentlemen. Married to Joseph Coolidge in the parlor at Monticello in 1825. Her husband’s business interests took him to China for long periods, leaving Ellen to single-handedly manage the family. It is unfair to say that Thomas Jefferson had a favorite granchild, it is possible that he enjoyed Ellen’s company the most; she was clearly his intellectual heir despite never attending college; for her part she called her grandfather her “earliest best friend”.
Cornelia (1799-1871) : Born at Monticello and never married, Cornelia was an avid student of her grandfather’s, She learned mechanical drawing from Jefferson and practiced by creating renderings of architectural plans for the University of Virginia. excelling particularly in drawing; taught at a school teaching drawing, painting, and sculpture; tried to prevent the family’s financial situation; buried at the Monticello cemetery.
Virginia (1801-1882): was born at Monticello. Virginia spent much of her childhood at Monticello and occasionally accompanied her grandfather on trips to Poplar Forest. Virginia shared an affinity for music with Jefferson, who bought her a pianoforte from Boston though he could barely afford it. After a youthful romance and long engagement with Nicholas Philip Trist the two were married at Monticello. Virginia and Nicholas’s sisters helped to run the school for young ladies. After her husband’s death in 1874, Virginia lived with one of her three children until her own death in April 1882.
Francis (September 20, 1801 - 1881): was the only surviving child of Jefferson’s daughter Maria Jefferson Eppes. In spite of the demands of the office, his grandfaterh took a keen interest in Francis, and the two of them became very devoted to each other. Jefferson became actively involved in Francis’ life. Eppes spent much of his time at Monticello, where Jefferson sought to inspire in him a love of learning. 1829, he became one of the founders of St. John’s Episcopal Church. He was a delegate to the convention when the Episcopal Diocese of Florida was founded in 1838 and served as the secretary of the Diocese for many years.In 1833, Governor William P. DuVal selected Francis as a justice of the peace. He served in the office for six years, striving to bring order to the wild frontier territory. Francis’ wife died in 1835 after the death of their sixth child. Nowhere is Jefferson’s influence on Francis more apparent than in his determination to found an institution of higher learning in Tallahassee. In April 1836 he and his father-in-law, Thomas Eston Randolph, were among a group of men who petitioned the Congress for the establishment of a seminary in the area. The petition failed but Francis was undaunted. Later he would appeal to the Florida Legislature. In 1851, the Legislature passed an act authorizing the establishment of two institutions in the state, one east and one west of the Suwanee River.In 1854, a proposal to locate the western school in the City of Tallahassee was presented to the Legislature and failed to pass. This time the legislature passed the act for the western school to be in Tallahassee. Governor James Emilius Broome approved it on January 1, 1857. This marked the founding of the predecessor of the Florida State University. Francis died on May 30, 1881, is buried in Greenwood Cemetery in Orlando, Florida.
Mary (1803-1876): was born at Edgehill on November 2, 1803.1 She spent much of her time at Monticello and occasionally accompanied her grandfather Thomas Jefferson on trips to Poplar Forest. Never marrying, Mary lived at Edgehill, later the home of her older brother Thomas Jefferson Randolph, where she helped her sister-in-law Jane to supervise the household. Mary and her sister Cornelia also visited their other siblings, often serving as nurses during times of sickness. She remained there until her death on March 29, 1876.3
James (1806-1834): was the first to ever be born at the White House. Second son of Martha and Thomas Randolph; first child to be ever be born in the White House; graduated from the University Jefferson created; was considered quiet and gentle natured; lived alone and never married; died in his late 20s at his older brother Jeff’s estate.
Ben (1808-1871): A delicate child, Benjamin was educated by his mother and sisters and at Mr. Hatch’s school. He was a student at the University of Virginia but the family’s financial difficulties soon caused him to leave college. He soon was back at the University studying medicine. He had been elected three times as the University’s prize essay writer. The Jefferson Society also elected him as a member, and Dr. Dunglison considered him best in his class. Dr. Randolph was a strong supporter of secession and the Confederacy during the Civil War. Benjamin suffered a severe illness and he never fully recovered. Dr. Randolph died on February 18, 1871 and was buried in the graveyard of Christ Church, Glendower, near Keene in Albemarle County.
Meriwether (1810-1837): born at Monticello and named for his grandfather’s secretary, the explorer Meriwether Lewis. Randolph studied law and moral and natural philosophy at the University of Virginia but chose to pursue a career on the western frontier. He worked briefly as a clerk for the Department of State before being appointed Secretary of the Arkansas Territory by President Andrew Jackson
Tim (Septimia):Was probably the most widely travelled of the grandchildren; moved with her mother to Boston after her grandfather died, and to Havanna, Cuba after her mother died where she married a Scottish doctor. After visiting Virginia, Washington, D.C. and Scotland, they settled in New York until her husband died. She retired near Edgehill, Virginia and later near Washington, D.C. where she stayed until her death.
Geordie (George) (1818-1867): Was born at Monticello and named for his grandfather’s law teacher. George served in the United States Navy and obtained his law degree from the University of Virginia.George eventually rose to the rank of Confederate Brigadier General and was nominated as the Confederate secretary of war but constant conflict with Jefferson Davis and Randolph’s own poor health led him to resign. Randolph died of tuberculosis at Edgehill on April 3, 1867, and was buried in the family cemetery at Monticello.
In a quote from his granddaughter Ellen Randolph, “We saw, too, more of our dear grandfather at those times than at any other… He interested himself in all we did, thought, or read. He would talk to us about his own youth and early friends, and tell us stories of former days. He seemed really to take as much pleasure in these conversations with us, as if we had been older and wiser people.” and later in her life said, “After dinner he again retired for some hours, and later in the afternoon walked with us on the terrace, conversing in the same delightful manner, being sometimes animated, and sometimes earnest. We did not leave him again until bed-time, but gave him his tea, and brought out our books or work. He would take his book from which he would occasionally look up to make a remark, to question us about what we were reading, or perhaps to read aloud to us from his own book, some passage which had struck him, and of which he wished to give us the benefit. About ten o’clock he rose to go, when we kissed him with warm, loving, grateful hearts, and went to our rest blessing God for such a friend.”
When Jefferson’s younger daughter Maria died in 1804, her only son, Francis Eppes, was two years old. Jefferson committed himself to Francis, whom he called “the dearest of all pledges,” and took an avid interest in his education. As a teenager, Francis visited Poplar Forest during breaks from New London Academy, located just three miles away.
He used to also organize races on his grounds for all of his grandchildren.
The market for stories of paranormal academe is a rich one. There’s Heidi Julavits’s widely acclaimed 2012 novel The Vanishers, which takes place at a New England college for aspiring Sylvia Brownes. And, of course, there’s Professor X’s School for Gifted Youngsters—Marvel’s take on Andover or Choate—where teachers read minds and students pass like ghosts through ivy-covered walls.
The Division of Perceptual Studies (DOPS) at the University of Virginia’s School of Medicine is decidedly less fantastic than either Julavits’s or Marvel’s creations, but it’s nevertheless a fascinating place. Founded in 1967 by Dr. Ian Stevenson—originally as the Division of Personality Studies—its mission is “the scientific empirical investigation of phenomena that suggest that currently accepted scientific assumptions and theories about the nature of mind or consciousness, and its relation to matter, may be incomplete.”
On May 21, [1908, Charles] Guthrie succeeded in grafting one dog’s head onto the side of another’s neck, creating the world’s first man-made two headed dog. The arteries were grafted together such that the blood of the intact dog flowed through the head of the decapitated dog and then back into the intact dog’s neck, where it proceeded to the brain and back into circulation. Guthrie’s book Blood Vessel Surgery and Its Applications includes a photograph of the historic creature. Were it not for the caption, the photo would seem to be of some rare form of marsupial dog, with a large baby’s head protruding from a pouch in its mother’s fur.
The transplanted head was sewn on at the base of the neck, upside down, so that the two dogs are chin to chin, giving an impression of intimacy, despite what must have been at the very least a strained coexistence….too much time (twenty minutes) had elapsed between the beheading and the moment the circulation was restored for the dog head and brain to regain much function. Guthrie recorded a series of primitive movements and basic reflexes, similar to what Laborde and Hayem had observed: pupil contractions, nostril twitchings, “boiling movements” of the tongue.
The first dog heads to enjoy, if that word can be used, full cerebral function were those [of] transplantation whiz Vladimir Demikhov, in the Soviet Union in the 1950s. Demikhov minimized the time that the severed donor head was without oxygenby using “blood-vessel sewing machines.” He transplanted twenty puppy heads—actually, head-shoulders-lungs—and forelimbs units with an esophagus that emptied, untidily, onto the outside of the dog—onto fully grown dogs, to see what they would do and how long they would last (usually from two to six days, but in one case as long as twenty-nine days).
In his book Experimental Transplantation of Vital Organs, Demikhov included photographs of, and lab notes from, Experiment No. 2, on February 24, 1954: the transplantation of a one-month-old puppy’s head and forelimbs to the neck of what appears to be a German shepherd. The notes portray a lively, puppy like, if not altogether joyous existence on the part of the head:
09:00 The donor’s head eagerly drank water or milk, and tugged as if trying to separate itself from the recipient’s body.
22:30 When the recipient was put to bed, the transplanted head bit the finger of a member of the staff until it bled.
February 26, 18:00. The donor’s head bit the recipient behind the ear, so that the latter yelped and shook its head.
Demikhov’s transplant subjects were typically done in by immune reactions.
In 1959, China announced they had succeeded in transplanting the head of one dog to the body of another twice.
Dr. Vladimir Demikhov’s work, among others, was deeply influential for the future science of organ transplant, as he pioneered many different forms of transplant in the 1940s and 1950s, including the use of immuno-suppressants. His work was well known by other scientists and during the 1950s and 1960s, numerous heart transplants were performed on dogs in the United States by Dr. Norman Shumway of Stanford University and Dr. Richard Lower of the Medical College of Virginia. The first human heart transplant was performed by Christiaan Barnard in South Africa, in 1967, however, as they did not have the chemical agents to utilize immuno-suppressants, the patient receiving the transplant did not do very well.
On March 14, 1970, a group of scientists from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland, Ohio, led by Robert J. White, a neurosurgeon and a professor of neurological surgery who was inspired by the work of Vladimir Demikhov, performed a highly controversial operation to transplant the head of one monkey onto another’s body. The procedure was a success to some extent, with the animal being able to smell, taste, hear, and see the world around it.
The operation involved cauterizing arteries and veins carefully while the head was being severed to prevent hypovolemia. Because the nerves were left entirely intact, connecting the brain to a blood supply kept it chemically alive. The animal survived for some time after the operation, even at times attempting to bite some of the staff.
In 2001, Dr. White successfully repeated the operation on a monkey.
White later wrote:
“"…What has been accomplished in the animal model - prolonged hypothermic preservation and cephalic transplantation, is fully accomplishable in the human sphere. Whether such dramatic procedures will ever be justified in the human area must wait not only upon the continued advance of medical science but more appropriately the moral and social justification of such procedural undertakings…what has always been the stuff of science fiction - the Frankenstein legend, in which an entire human being is constructed by sewing various body parts together - will become a clinical reality early in the 21st century… brain transplantation, at least initially, will really be head transplantation - or body transplantation, depending on your perspective… with the significant improvements in surgical techniques and postoperative management since then, it is now possible to consider adapting the head-transplant technique to humans.“
In 2002, other head transplants were also conducted in Japan in rats. Unlike the head transplants performed by Dr. White, however, these head transplants involved grafting one rat’s head onto the body of another rat that kept its head. Thus, the rat ended up with two heads. The scientists said that the key to successful head transplants was to use low temperatures.
A human head transplant would most likely require cooling of the brain to the point where all neural activity stops. This is to prevent neurons from dying while the brain is being transplanted. Ethical considerations have thus far prevented any reported attempt by surgeons to transplant a human being’s head.
Here are the 55 Schools that are being investigated for violating Title IX in terms of handling sexual assault cases
Arizona State University Butte-Glen Community College (CA) Occidental College (CA) University of California-Berkeley University of Southern California Regis University (CO) University of Colorado at Boulder University of Colorado at Denver University of Denver University of Connecticut Catholic University of America (DC) Florida State University Emory Universtiy (GA) University of Hawaii at Manoa University of Idaho Knox College (IL) University of Chicago Indiana University- Bloomington Vincennes University (IN) Amherst College (MA) Boston University Emerson College (MA) Harvard College (MA) Harvard University- Law School University of Massachusetts-Amherst Frostberg State University (MD) Michigan State University University of Michigan-Ann Arbor Guilford College (NC) University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Minot State University (ND) Dartmouth College (NH) Princeton University (NJ) CUNY Hunter College (NY) Hobart and William Smith Colleges (NY) Sarah Lawrence College (NY) SUNY Binghamton (NY) Denison University (OH) Ohio State University Wittenberg University (OH) Oklahoma State University Carngie Mellon University (PA) Franklin and Marshall College (PA) Pennsylvania State University Swarthmore College (PA) Temple University (PA) Vanderbilt University (TN) Southern Methodist University (TX) The University of Texas-Pan American College of William and Mary (VA) University of Virginia Washington State University University of Wisconsin-Whitewater Bethany College (WV) West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine