united kingdom history


female rulers + the four elements - for @ladyflorence1215

turhan hatice sultan and isabella of portugal // elizabeth i and nurbanu sultan // wu zetian and hurrem sultan // victoria i and anne of austria


■ On 28 November 1918, Polish Chief of State Józef Piłsudski signed an electoral law allowing women to vote, which they did for the first time in parliamentary elections in January 1919.

■ The electoral law also allowed Polish women to hold public office.

■ Polish women gained the right to vote sooner than their counterparts in the US, Turkey, United Kingdom and France.

Christ Church Cathedral
Oxford, Oxfordshire

Originally St. Frideswide Priory, the church was taken over by Cardinal Wolsey in 1522 CE. Wolsey had planned to make this the site of his college – Cardinal College. However, after falling out with Henry VIII, the church came under control of the Crown. By 1546, King Henry had elevated the church to the status of a cathedral, and opened Christ Church College. 

Broughty Castle
Dundee, Scotland by Simon Mayson

Completed in 1495 CE, Broughty Castle played a role in the War of the Rough Wooing (1543-1551). After Scotland’s defeat in the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh (1547), the owner of Broughty Castle – Lord Gray of Foullis – surrendered the fortification to the English in exchange for money and fishing rights. It was 1550 before the Scots – with the help of the French – were able to recapture the castle; however, by that point the war was effectively over. 

Tomb of Henry IV and Joan of Navarre
Canterbury, Kent

Born in Bolingbroke Castle, Henry went on to overthrow his cousin Richard II to become King of England and Lord of Ireland in 1399 CE. His reign was characterised by a series of failed uprisings. Beginning with the Epiphany Rising (1400), followed by the Glyndŵr Rising in Wales (1400-1415) and the Percy Rebellion in the north of England (1402-1408). Succumbing to illness in 1413, Henry IV gave orders to be interred in Canterbury Cathedral – the only monarch to do so.