ultrastructure

Organelles, ultrastructure and division of labour

Structures inside a cell are called organelles. Looking under a light microscope may show you a few of these organelles. To identify more of these organelles, electron microscopes are used. The details of the inside of a cell shown by an electron microscope, rather than a light microscope, is called the cell’s ultrastructure (or fine structure).

Each organelle has a specific function. The different organelles work together within a cell to help it survive. This is called the division of labour.

Examples of organelles:

The word organelle comes from the idea that organs are functioning parts of the body, like the organelles are functioning parts of the cell.

Cells and living processes

Characteristics of living things [MRS. NERG]:

  • Movement
  • Respiration
  • Sensitivity
  • Nutrition
  • Excretion
  • Reproduction
  • Growth 

[Some bacteria don't respire but use other chemical reactions for energy]

Ultrastructure = detailed structure of internal components of cells revealed by electron microscopes

Division of labour = different organelles working together in a cell, each contributing its part to the survival of the cell

Cytoskeleton = network of protein fibres wiithin cells that gives structure and shape to cell, also moves organelles around inside cells:

  • some fibres [actin filaments] are like muscle cell fibres - able to move against each other easily; cause movement seen in some white blood cells; move organelles around inside cells
  • other fibres [microtubules] - cylinders; made of tubulin; used to move microorganisms through liquids or to waft liquids past cell

Flagella:

  • In eukaryotes flagella [undulipodia] and cilia are structurally similar - hair-like extensions; each one made of a cylinder containing 9 microtubules arranged in a circle and 2 microtubules in central bundle
  • Undulipodia are longer than cilia
  • undulipodium forms tail of sperm cell - can move whole cell
  • Microtubules use energy from ATP to move
  • Some bacteria have flagella but internal structure differs - made of spiral protein [flagellin] atteched by a hook to a protein disc at base; disc rotates using ATP, flagellum spins

Vesicles/vacuoles:

  • Vesicles = membrane-bound sacs found in cells; used to carry substances around cells
  • In plant cells, large vacuole maintains cell stability - filled with water and solutes so it pushes cytoplasm against cell wall, cell becomes turgid

Plant cell walls:

  • On outside of plant cell plasma membrane [cell surface membrane]
  • Made of cellulose [carbohydrate polymer made of glucose]
  • Cellulose forms sieve-like network strands that makes the wall strong
  • Held rigid by pressure of fluid inside cell [turgor pressure] - supports cell and whole plant
The Pathological Findings of a Team of Researchers

With over two decades of experience, Dr. Susan Silver is a
privately practicing pathologist who provides second-opinion
consultations on biopsies and cytology samples. She previously worked
for the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in Washington, D.C. As a
pathologist, Dr. Susan Silver has published numerous articles research
in cancer and pathology. In one  publication, she and several other
professionals analyzed the pathological findings of a solid mass in a
patient’s right breast. In the case in question, the patient’s
Pap smear revealed a rare type of epithelial cell that was atypical.
Malignant cells were also present, including some rare ones with
uncommon attributes. Immunohistochemical stains on the tumor cells were
non-reactive for progesterone and estrogen receptors. Ultrastructural
examination uncovered tumor cells with a large amount of mitochondria,
including numerous intracytoplasmic empty vesicles and lipid droplets.
The team of pathologists determined that the patient had an apocrine
carcinoma, which is similar to an invasive mammary carcinoma of the
conventional type, but with a slightly better prognosis.
                           

Fruit and vegetable juice to retain more nutrients?

Confused many people for fruit and vegetable juice has focused on nutrition, juice really lose nutrition?

The juice is the loss of nutrients?

Of course, mainly vitamins and antioxidants loss. Even if it is pressed immediately after drinking. This is because the fruits and vegetables, the cells are complex, ultrastructure. As a unit, there will be a lot of room, each room to carry out their duties, that things are not the same, can not be mixed together. For example, vitamin C and a variety of enzymes must be met, otherwise it will interact with each other. However, in the juice, the high-speed rotation of the blade and the cell damage, all of which are mixed together. So, vitamin C had a variety of enzymes, naturally suffered heavy losses. According to the experiment showed that the cucumber juice, the juice before and after comparison, the destruction of vitamin C, the rate of up to 80%. Tomato, cabbage and other similar results. In addition to bag manufacturer vitamin C, anthocyanins and other flavonoids, such as antioxidant, will therefore have different degrees of loss. As for the insoluble fiber, certainly not to the juice inside. Insoluble elements such as calcium will be left in the residue. So, although the fashion juice, or not to eat fruit and vegetables are healthy. But to be sure, juice or you can get a lot of minerals, such as potassium.

How to juice can reduce nutrient loss?

A lot of people do not know, production of fruit and vegetable juice in commercial production, often for fruit and vegetable blanching treatment. In this way, not only the loss of vitamins but smaller, juice rate increase, but also let the juice color, not easy to change color. As to eat the whole fruits and vegetables that satiety, no matter how the juice is not preserved. Drinking fruit and vegetable juice did not feel full, integrity and eat fruit and vegetables will feel very full, so weight loss or complete eat better, the juice is not an ideal choice.

After juicing can put long?

If there is no hot boiled juice drink, shall be immediately after, will not be stored. It can be said, each one more minute, vitamins and antioxidant components of the losses are increasing. No hot boiled juice is very easy to change. Change does not mean that the poisonous and harmful, can still drink, just means that polyphenol ingredients contact with oxygen in fruits and vegetables by oxidation, antioxidant activity will decline. At the same time, in the storage bag factory process, the taste will gradually change, lose the original fresh and delicious.

Fruit and vegetable juice to retain more nutrients?

Fruit and vegetable juice to retain more nutrients?

Confused many people for fruit and vegetable juice has focused on nutrition, juice really lose nutrition?

The juice is the loss of nutrients?

Of course, mainly vitamins and antioxidants loss. Even if it is pressed immediately after drinking. This is because the fruits and vegetables, the cells are complex, ultrastructure. As a unit, there will be a lot of room, each room to carry out their…

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