Structures inside a cell are called organelles. Looking under a light microscope may show you a few of these organelles. To identify more of these organelles, electron microscopes are used. The details of the inside of a cell shown by an electron microscope, rather than a light microscope, is called the cell’s ultrastructure (or fine structure).
Each organelle has a specific function. The different organelles work together within a cell to help it survive. This is called the division of labour.
Examples of organelles:
The word organelle comes from the idea that organs are functioning parts of the body, like the organelles are functioning parts of the cell.
[Some bacteria don't respire but use other chemical reactions for energy]
Ultrastructure = detailed structure of internal components of cells revealed by electron microscopes
Division of labour = different organelles working together in a cell, each contributing its part to the survival of the cell
Cytoskeleton = network of protein fibres wiithin cells that gives structure and shape to cell, also moves organelles around inside cells:
some fibres [actin filaments] are like muscle cell fibres - able to move against each other easily; cause movement seen in some white blood cells; move organelles around inside cells
other fibres [microtubules] - cylinders; made of tubulin; used to move microorganisms through liquids or to waft liquids past cell
In eukaryotes flagella [undulipodia] and cilia are structurally similar - hair-like extensions; each one made of a cylinder containing 9 microtubules arranged in a circle and 2 microtubules in central bundle
Undulipodia are longer than cilia
undulipodium forms tail of sperm cell - can move whole cell
Microtubules use energy from ATP to move
Some bacteria have flagella but internal structure differs - made of spiral protein [flagellin] atteched by a hook to a protein disc at base; disc rotates using ATP, flagellum spins
Vesicles = membrane-bound sacs found in cells; used to carry substances around cells
In plant cells, large vacuole maintains cell stability - filled with water and solutes so it pushes cytoplasm against cell wall, cell becomes turgid
Plant cell walls:
On outside of plant cell plasma membrane [cell surface membrane]
Made of cellulose [carbohydrate polymer made of glucose]
Cellulose forms sieve-like network strands that makes the wall strong
Held rigid by pressure of fluid inside cell [turgor pressure] - supports cell and whole plant
The Pathological Findings of a Team of Researchers
With over two decades of experience, Dr. Susan Silver is a
privately practicing pathologist who provides second-opinion
consultations on biopsies and cytology samples. She previously worked
for the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology in Washington, D.C. As a
pathologist, Dr. Susan Silver has published numerous articles research
in cancer and pathology. In one publication, she and several other
professionals analyzed the pathological findings of a solid mass in a
patient’s right breast. In the case in question, the patient’s
Pap smear revealed a rare type of epithelial cell that was atypical.
Malignant cells were also present, including some rare ones with
uncommon attributes. Immunohistochemical stains on the tumor cells were
non-reactive for progesterone and estrogen receptors. Ultrastructural
examination uncovered tumor cells with a large amount of mitochondria,
including numerous intracytoplasmic empty vesicles and lipid droplets.
The team of pathologists determined that the patient had an apocrine
carcinoma, which is similar to an invasive mammary carcinoma of the
conventional type, but with a slightly better prognosis.
Fruit and vegetable juice to retain more nutrients?
Confused many people for fruit and
vegetable juice has focused on nutrition, juice really lose nutrition?
The juice is the loss of nutrients?
Of course, mainly vitamins and antioxidants
loss. Even if it is pressed immediately after drinking. This is because the
fruits and vegetables, the cells are complex, ultrastructure. As a unit, there
will be a lot of room, each room to carry out their duties, that things are not
the same, can not be mixed together. For example, vitamin C and a variety of
enzymes must be met, otherwise it will interact with each other. However, in
the juice, the high-speed rotation of the blade and the cell damage, all of
which are mixed together. So, vitamin C had a variety of enzymes, naturally
suffered heavy losses. According to the experiment showed that the cucumber
juice, the juice before and after comparison, the destruction of vitamin C, the
rate of up to 80%. Tomato, cabbage and other similar results. In addition to bag manufacturer vitamin C, anthocyanins
and other flavonoids, such as antioxidant, will therefore have different
degrees of loss. As for the insoluble fiber, certainly not to the juice inside.
Insoluble elements such as calcium will be left in the residue. So, although
the fashion juice, or not to eat fruit and vegetables are healthy. But to be
sure, juice or you can get a lot of minerals, such as potassium.
How to juice can reduce nutrient loss?
A lot of people do not know, production of
fruit and vegetable juice in commercial production, often for fruit and
vegetable blanching treatment. In this way, not only the loss of vitamins but
smaller, juice rate increase, but also let the juice color, not easy to change
color. As to eat the whole fruits and vegetables that satiety, no matter how
the juice is not preserved. Drinking fruit and vegetable juice did not feel
full, integrity and eat fruit and vegetables will feel very full, so weight
loss or complete eat better, the juice is not an ideal choice.
After juicing can put long?
If there is no hot boiled juice drink,
shall be immediately after, will not be stored. It can be said, each one more
minute, vitamins and antioxidant components of the losses are increasing. No
hot boiled juice is very easy to change. Change does not mean that the
poisonous and harmful, can still drink, just means that polyphenol ingredients
contact with oxygen in fruits and vegetables by oxidation, antioxidant activity
will decline. At the same time, in the storage bag factory process, the taste will
gradually change, lose the original fresh and delicious.
Confused many people for fruit and vegetable juice has focused on nutrition, juice really lose nutrition?
The juice is the loss of nutrients?
Of course, mainly vitamins and antioxidants loss. Even if it is pressed immediately after drinking. This is because the fruits and vegetables, the cells are complex, ultrastructure. As a unit, there will be a lot of room, each room to carry out their…