One of the main problems with MBTI is that this theory uses rather common words to indicate types, but these MBTI “jargon” actually have completely different meanings from their conventional usage. This leads to misunderstandings of what the actual MBTI theory is about.
Moreover, most MBTI tests give you results based on percentages of I vs E, S vs N, T vs F, and J vs P. This creates a misunderstanding that the theory is based on the dichotomies between each letter pair, and that someone can be half J and half P, for example.
Let’s explore what MBTI terms really mean, and how they differ from the conventional meanings of these words, and the misinterpreted stereotypical/dichotomous “MBTI” meanings.
Has a large group of friends and large network of acquaintances
Great at networking and making new friends
Talkative and socially confident
Having a dominant extraverted function (Te, Fe, Ne, or Se)
A preference for focusing their energy outward e.g. interacting with the outside world by talking to others or taking actions and interacting with their surroundings
A preference for formulating their thoughts as they talk out loud to other people without having completely polished thoughts beforehand
An MBTI extravert can have social anxiety and dislike spending time with a large group of people, but they still have a preference of interacting with the outside world. An MBTI extravert may only prefer spending time with their few close friends, but they need to interact with those few close friends a lot to feel fulfilled and balanced.
Someone who has both qualities of the conventional introvert and the conventional extravert in moderate amount
i.e. pretty much everyone on earth
Ambivert (stereotypical/dichotomous MBTI)
Someone who gets 50% E and 50% I on MBTI tests
This is a trick. It doesn’t exist in this theory.
Why? Because of each type’s thought process works based on 4 cognitive functions (out of 8). You can’t be half this type and half the other type because you’d have conflicting cognitive functions - i.e. constant cognitive dissonance with every single living thought, so you’d not be a functioning human (get the pun?).
For the more advanced MBTI enthusiasts: Yes, introverts and extraverts with the same last 3 letters have the same functions (e.g. INTP and ENTP), but you still can’t really be half-half because Ti-Ne and Ne-Ti approach the world differently. They experience different problems and stress factors (Ti-Si loop and Fe grip v.s. Ne-Fe loop and Si-grip).
Knowing something to be true without conscious reasoning or the need to go through information
Having an almost psychic ability to “get” people
Fluid intelligence (e.g. an intuitive learner)
Intuitive (stereotypical/dichotomous MBTI)
An intelligent, interesting person who gets all the funny jokes and subtle hints that people give
Imaginative, creative, artistic, explorative
Someone who prefers to use interpretations of information they receive
from the 5 senses - e.g. possibilities of what these things could be,
their theoretical usage, and what they relate to (Ne), or what these
things symbolically represent and will become in the future (Ni)
A preference for discussing theoretical, abstract, symbolic topics
A preference to understand the global, overall picture before getting into details
Being an Intuitive does not equate being intelligent. There are plenty of boring Intuitives around. It depends on how you develop yourself.
Quite similar to the conventional meaning of intuition - having a feeling that there’s something going on beneath the surface (e.g. “I’m sensing something wrong here”)
Perceiving or becoming aware of something
Sensor (stereotypical/dichotomous MBTI)
An unintelligent, boring person who always misses hints and has no sense of humor
Bland, boring, dull, mediocre
Someone who prefers to use direct information they receive from the 5
senses - e.g. what these things are and what I can use them for right
now (Se), or what these things are and how they have been used
effectively in the past (Si)
A preference for discussing practical, applicable, immediately relevant topics
A preference for learning details first, then building those details up to an overall picture
Sensors can be intelligent, creative, and artistic (yes, even SJs)
The process of considering or reasoning about something
Directing one’s mind towards something or someone
Thinking (stereotypical/dichotomous MBTI)
Someone who thinks a lot
Making decisions based on logic and rationality
Someone who is calm and intelligent
Someone who is robotic and stoic, and doesn’t have any emotions
Someone who is doing something technical like hard sciences and maths
Like a stereotypical man
A preference for making decisions based on facts, truth and logical analysis (Ti), rationality and empirical evidence (Te)
MBTI Thinkers can learn to be considerate and not offensive to others, especially if their feeling function is in the tertiary position.
MBTI Thinkers have emotions, and can act emotionally/irrationally, especially in times of stress or if immature
MBTI Thinkers are not automatically good at science and math, and may not even like those subjects. They can be amazing artists and musicians.
An emotional state or reaction
Experiencing an emotion or sensation
Feeling (stereotypical/dichotomous MBTI)
Someone who feels a lot and doesn’t think a lot
Making decisions based on emotions
An emotional person; someone who’s dramatic, may be animated, sweet, and nice
Most likely unintelligent, not academic, and incapable of logical thinking
Someone who is doing something involving arts, languages, or humanities
Like a stereotypical woman
A preference for making decisions based on what is morally just, personal ethics (Fi) or keeping social harmony (Fe)
MBTI Feelers can be logical, think empirically, good at science and math, and do not act emotional
MBTI Feelers can be bashful and inconsiderate, especially if immature or under stress
Forming an opinion or conclusion about something
Being judgmental; determining whether qualities someone or something has are correct or desirable
Judging (stereotypical/dichotomous MBTI)
Someone who is organized, responsible, structured, neat, clean, tidy
Someone who is always on time
Someone who loves schedules and needs to plan ahead
Having a dominant (if extraverted) or auxiliary (if introverted) extraverted judging functions (Je) - Te, Fe
Judgers can be messy, spontaneous, and always late (especially in leisure). These are learned behaviors/habits. Their external behaviors do not dictate their MBTI (i.e. thought process).
The way the brain processes external information through the 5 senses
Becoming aware of something
Interpreting something in a particular way
Perceiving (stereotypical/dichotomous MBTI)
Someone who is messy, scattered, disorganized, lazy, unreliable
Someone who is always late
Someone who is easy going and always go with the flow
Someone who is spontaneous and loves surprises
Having a dominant (if extraverted) or auxiliary (if introverted) extraverted perceiving functions (Pe) - Ne, Se
Perceivers can be outwardly organized, tidy, and always on time (especially in the work place or if they grew up in that environment). These are learned behaviors/habits. Their external behaviors do not dictate their MBTI (i.e. thought process).
If you want to know more about MBTI, visit MBTI Resources - a compilation of the well-written, informative, and accurate articles on the web.
There are three major
approaches to note taking, each of which will be outlined and described in this
Outlining is an effective way to capture the hierarchical relationships between ideas. In a history class, you might write the name of an important leader, and under it the key events they were involved in. Outlining is a great way to take notes from books, because the author has usually organized the material in a
fairly effective way, and you can go from start to end of a chapter and simply reproduce the same structure in your notes.
Place major points farthest to the left. Indent each more specific point farther to the right.
The advantage of this is that level of importance is indicated by distance away from left margin.
For lectures, outlining has limitations. The relationship between ideas
isn’t always hierarchical, and the instructor might jump around a lot.
Requires more thought for accurate,
understandable organization and, therefore, cannot be used during lectures that
move too quickly.
For lectures, a mind-map might be a more appropriate way of
keeping track of the relationships between ideas.
In the centre of a blank sheet of paper, you write the lecture’s main
topic. As new sub-topics are introduced, you draw a branch outward from the
centre and write the sub-topic along the branch. Then each point under that
heading gets its own, smaller branch off the main one. When another new
sub-topic is mentioned, you draw a new main branch from the centre.
The thing is, if a point should go under the first heading but you’re on
the fourth heading, you can easily just draw it in on the first branch.
Likewise, if a point connects to two different ideas, you can connect it to two
If you want to neaten things up later, you can re-draw the map or type
it up using a program like FreeMind,
a free mind-mapping program.
If you want to make your mind-maps memorable, and visually appealing, consider
using different colours, and incorporating images/diagrams.
Mind maps can be used for just about anything in your degree! A mind map can help
Outline your ideas on a subject
Organise your thoughts
Visualise a whole concept
Take and review notes
Plan an essay
Revise for your exams
Here are some advantages and disadvantages to mindmaps:
Mindmaps are adaptable - they can be used for lectures; note-making from books; essay
plans etc. as well as less structured tasks.
They are easy to add ideas later, at any time.
They can help you focus on the links and relationships between ideas so you don’t
just have disconnected facts.
They can be personalised with pictures and symbols to make things more
They are a useful tool for condensing lots of information – e.g. a whole topic into a
mind map poster, to aid revision.
You can’t incorporate large chunks of text.
You have to stick to the rules of mind mapping to get the optimum
benefit from the tool.
Creating the map may take time. However, this will help you to review or
recall information and will check your understanding.
When you’ve personalised your map, it can be difficult for others to
About a quarter of the way from the bottom of a sheet of paper, draw a line across the width of the page. Draw another line from that line to the top, about 2 inches (5 cm) from the right-hand edge of the sheet. You’ve divided your page into three sections. In the largest section, you take notes normally — you can outline or mind-map or whatever.
After the lecture, write a
series of “cues” into the skinny column on the right, questions about the
material you’ve just taken notes on. This will help you process the information
from the lecture or reading. In the bottom section, write a short summary of
the material you’ve covered.
Typing Your Notes:
Set up folders for each topic. Create these folders before
lectures/class and save your notes into the correct ones. It will keep all of
your notes organised and easy to find. You might want to have different folders
for lecture and reading notes. Develop a system which is intuitive for you.
Know the program. Choose which program you’re going to use to
take your notes. There are lots of options available, including Microsoft
Office. If you can’t afford Office, then you can look into (illegal) free
downloads of it. If you have Office, you could also use Onenote. Alternatives
include free programmes like Evernote which allow you to access your notes from
anywhere on any device.
Get a template (M Office only). On Microsoft word, you can
download different templates. See if there is a template that you can use for
taking your notes. Alternatively, you can create your own template by adjusting
the margins, font, size, etc. and saving your preferences. If you don’t want to
use a template, you can just use the default settings.
Name the notes. Make sure that you name the notes so that you
know what’s inside. On Microsoft word, when saving documents you can add tags.
Then you can search these tags for any documents with that specific tag. I’ve
found this to be a really useful organisational tool.
Do you need anything to take your notes? If you’re
using a tablet, you can buy Bluetooth keyboards which will connect and can be
quicker than typing on the screen. You can also buy a stylus which will let you
write like you would with a normal pen; some devices also have the option to
convert your handwriting to typed notes.
Become familiar with keyboard shortcuts. Especially for
things like bold, italicise, underline, highlight.
Downloads. If the teacher/lecturer puts up any material for the lecture
download it. These are typically powerpoint slides. When I take notes next
year, I will download these and split screen between word and powerpoint. Then
I’ll be able to copy and paste material and diagrams straight from the actual
powerpoint, speeding up my process.
Back up. Please, back up your notes on google docs. If your computer
crashes you will have a backup of your notes that will be essential to
studying! Again, for the people in the back, back up your notes!
Creating your notes. Use the technology to your advantage.
Use bold/highlight/italic. Make your heading and subheadings stand out
from the rest of your text.
Use bullet points.
You can even make sub bullet points (like this) using the tab key to
follow your line of thought/reason.
Highlight the important things; you could even use different colours for
different things. E.g. yellow for important dates, blue for important quotes.
Develop an annotation style. For example, sometimes you might fall
behind a bit, and miss a detail. When this happens to me I insert a series of
dots into my notes, like this (……..) and I know that means I missed something
so I can return to the recordings to find out what I missed. You could use
question marks (?) to indicate something that confuses you that you need to do
more reading on. There are lots of different symbols so you can develop your
This also works with words. If you have certain words which you’re
typing a lot then you can make them shorter and easier to type. For example,
the word “participants” comes up a lot in my course, but I use “ps” because
it’s shorter and quicker to type.
Choosing between typing and handwriting:
Is creative; colour/ highlight/draw
Can help memory
Lots of experience using the technique
Can revent distraction
Same format as exams
Lots of paper; bulky
No back up
Difficult to transport
Can be a slow, ling progress
Quick; can keep up with teacher
Easy to transport; all ntoes on a single memory stick
Can create back up copes
Can be printed to have a digital and paper copy
Paper doesn’t have to be used; environmentall friendly
Easily shared with other people
Different fonts can make it easier for people with dyslexia
Laptop may be too heavy to take to class
Not everyone has a laptop; expensive
Battery life might not be a suitable for a full day of classes
*Note: MBTI is a theory of thought processes (how you perceive, understand, and use information), and does not dictate behaviors, habits, or interests. The ratings reflect this as a basis, and therefore, no tests will ever get 5 stars.
*Note#2: I’m an INTP (I knew about MBTI for 13 years and majored in psychology), but not a very stereotypical one. I’ll compare my test results here.
If you type two spaces after a
period, you’re doing it wrong.
Typesetters settled on using one space
between sentences in the early 20th
century, but people used two spaces
after the invention of the typewriter to
make the text easier to read because
early models had equal spacing for
each character regardless of width.
Though it hasn’t been an issue since
the 1970s, many people still think a
double space is correct. Source