This Man With Severe Cerebral Palsy Created Mind-Blowing Art Using Just A Typewriter

Last year, 22-time Emmy award-winning reporter John Stofflet posted this news video he created for KING-TV in 2004, featuring Paul Smith and his artistic talents.

See the full video to see more of Smith’s artworks and to learn more about his inspiring story go here. 

MBTI Terms vs Conventional Meaning

One of the main problems with MBTI is that this theory uses rather common words to indicate types, but these MBTI “jargon” actually have completely different meanings from their conventional usage. This leads to misunderstandings of what the actual MBTI theory is about.

Moreover, most MBTI tests give you results based on percentages of I vs E, S vs N, T vs F, and J vs P. This creates a misunderstanding that the theory is based on the dichotomies between each letter pair, and that someone can be half J and half P, for example.

Let’s explore what MBTI terms really mean, and how they differ from the conventional meanings of these words, and the misinterpreted stereotypical/dichotomous “MBTI” meanings.

Introvert (I)

Introvert (conventional & stereotypical/dichotomous MBTI)

  • Someone who likes to spend time alone, preferring to be in their own room reading books
  • Someone who dislikes parties or any kinds of social gatherings
  • Probably shy and doesn’t talk much, may have social anxiety
  • Has few close friends, or, no real life friends
  • Has low energy

Introvert (MBTI)

  • Having a dominant introverted function (Ti, Fi, Ni, or Si)
  • A preference for focusing their energy inward e.g. tending to their own thoughts alone, analyzing themselves and their environment
  • A preference for formulating complete thoughts or theories on their own first before sharing them with other people
  • An MBTI introvert can be outgoing and sociable, but they still feel more at home being with their own thoughts and get worn out faster when interacting with people than extraverts

Extravert (E)

Extravert (conventional & stereotypical/dichotomous MBTI)

  • Someone who’s outgoing and a social butterfly
  • Loves parties
  • Has a large group of friends and large network of acquaintances
  • Great at networking and making new friends
  • Talkative and socially confident
  • Energetic

Extravert (MBTI)

  • Having a dominant extraverted function (Te, Fe, Ne, or Se)
  • A preference for focusing their energy outward e.g. interacting with the outside world by talking to others or taking actions and interacting with their surroundings
  • A preference for formulating their thoughts as they talk out loud to other people without having completely polished thoughts beforehand
  • An MBTI extravert can have social anxiety and dislike spending time with a large group of people, but they still have a preference of interacting with the outside world. An MBTI extravert may only prefer spending time with their few close friends, but they need to interact with those few close friends a lot to feel fulfilled and balanced.


Ambivert (conventional)

  • Someone who has both qualities of the conventional introvert and the conventional extravert in moderate amount
  • i.e. pretty much everyone on earth

Ambivert (stereotypical/dichotomous MBTI)

  • Someone who gets 50% E and 50% I on MBTI tests

Ambivert (MBTI)

  • This is a trick. It doesn’t exist in this theory.
  • Why? Because of each type’s thought process works based on 4 cognitive functions (out of 8). You can’t be half this type and half the other type because you’d have conflicting cognitive functions - i.e. constant cognitive dissonance with every single living thought, so you’d not be a functioning human (get the pun?).
  • For the more advanced MBTI enthusiasts: Yes, introverts and extraverts with the same last 3 letters have the same functions (e.g. INTP and ENTP), but you still can’t really be half-half because Ti-Ne and Ne-Ti approach the world differently. They experience different problems and stress factors (Ti-Si loop and Fe grip v.s. Ne-Fe loop and Si-grip).
  • If you don’t know what cognitive functions are, start with this.

Intuitive (N)

Intuitive (conventional)

  • Knowing something to be true without conscious reasoning or the need to go through information
  • “Women’s intuition”
  • Having an almost psychic ability to “get” people
  • Fluid intelligence (e.g. an intuitive learner)

Intuitive (stereotypical/dichotomous MBTI)

  • An intelligent, interesting person who gets all the funny jokes and subtle hints that people give
  • Imaginative, creative, artistic, explorative

Intuitive (MBTI)

  • Someone who prefers to use interpretations of information they receive from the 5 senses - e.g. possibilities of what these things could be, their theoretical usage, and what they relate to (Ne), or what these things symbolically represent and will become in the future (Ni)
  • A preference for discussing theoretical, abstract, symbolic topics
  • A preference to understand the global, overall picture before getting into details
  • Being an Intuitive does not equate being intelligent. There are plenty of boring Intuitives around. It depends on how you develop yourself.

Sensing (S)

Sensing (conventional)

  • Quite similar to the conventional meaning of intuition - having a feeling that there’s something going on beneath the surface (e.g. “I’m sensing something wrong here”)
  • Perceiving or becoming aware of something

Sensor (stereotypical/dichotomous MBTI)

  • An unintelligent, boring person who always misses hints and has no sense of humor
  • Bland, boring, dull, mediocre

Sensing (MBTI)

  • Someone who prefers to use direct information they receive from the 5 senses - e.g. what these things are and what I can use them for right now (Se), or what these things are and how they have been used effectively in the past (Si)
  • A preference for discussing practical, applicable, immediately relevant topics
  • A preference for learning details first, then building those details up to an overall picture
  • Sensors can be intelligent, creative, and artistic (yes, even SJs)

Thinking (T)

Thinking (conventional)

  • The process of considering or reasoning about something
  • Directing one’s mind towards something or someone

Thinking (stereotypical/dichotomous MBTI)

  • Someone who thinks a lot
  • Making decisions based on logic and rationality
  • Someone who is calm and intelligent
  • Someone who is robotic and stoic, and doesn’t have any emotions
  • Someone who is doing something technical like hard sciences and maths
  • Like a stereotypical man

Thinking (MBTI)

  • A preference for making decisions based on facts, truth and logical analysis (Ti), rationality and empirical evidence (Te)
  • MBTI Thinkers can learn to be considerate and not offensive to others, especially if their feeling function is in the tertiary position.
  • MBTI Thinkers have emotions, and can act emotionally/irrationally, especially in times of stress or if immature
  • MBTI Thinkers are not automatically good at science and math, and may not even like those subjects. They can be amazing artists and musicians.

Feeling (F)

Feeling (conventional)

  • An emotional state or reaction
  • Experiencing an emotion or sensation

Feeling (stereotypical/dichotomous MBTI)

  • Someone who feels a lot and doesn’t think a lot
  • Making decisions based on emotions
  • An emotional person; someone who’s dramatic, may be animated, sweet, and nice
  • Most likely unintelligent, not academic, and incapable of logical thinking
  • Someone who is doing something involving arts, languages, or humanities
  • Like a stereotypical woman

Feeling (MBTI)

  • A preference for making decisions based on what is morally just, personal ethics (Fi) or keeping social harmony (Fe)
  • MBTI Feelers can be logical, think empirically, good at science and math, and do not act emotional
  • MBTI Feelers can be bashful and inconsiderate, especially if immature or under stress

Judging (J)

Judging (conventional)

  • Forming an opinion or conclusion about something
  • Being judgmental; determining whether qualities someone or something has are correct or desirable

Judging (stereotypical/dichotomous MBTI)

  • Someone who is organized, responsible, structured, neat, clean, tidy
  • Someone who is always on time
  • Someone who loves schedules and needs to plan ahead

Judging (MBTI)

  • Having a dominant (if extraverted) or auxiliary (if introverted) extraverted judging functions (Je) - Te, Fe
  • Judgers can be messy, spontaneous, and always late (especially in leisure). These are learned behaviors/habits. Their external behaviors do not dictate their MBTI (i.e. thought process).

Perceiving (P)

Perceiving (conventional)

  • The way the brain processes external information through the 5 senses
  • Becoming aware of something
  • Interpreting something in a particular way

Perceiving (stereotypical/dichotomous MBTI)

  • Someone who is messy, scattered, disorganized, lazy, unreliable
  • Someone who is always late
  • Someone who is easy going and always go with the flow
  • Someone who is spontaneous and loves surprises

Perceiving (MBTI)

  • Having a dominant (if extraverted) or auxiliary (if introverted) extraverted perceiving functions (Pe) - Ne, Se
  • Perceivers can be outwardly organized, tidy, and always on time (especially in the work place or if they grew up in that environment). These are learned behaviors/habits. Their external behaviors do not dictate their MBTI (i.e. thought process).

If you want to know more about MBTI, visit MBTI Resources - a compilation of the well-written, informative, and accurate articles on the web.


(images source)

There are three major approaches to note taking, each of which will be outlined and described in this post:


Outlining is an effective way to capture the hierarchical relationships between ideas. In a history class, you might write the name of an important leader, and under it the key events they were involved in. Outlining is a great way to take notes from books, because the author has usually organized the material in a     fairly effective way, and you can go from start to end of a chapter and simply reproduce the same structure in your notes. Place major points farthest to the left. Indent each more specific point farther to the right. 

The advantage of this is that level of importance is indicated by distance away from left margin.

For lectures, outlining has limitations. The relationship between ideas isn’t always hierarchical, and the instructor might jump around a lot.

Requires more thought for accurate, understandable organization and, therefore, cannot be used during lectures that move too quickly.


For lectures, a mind-map might be a more appropriate way of keeping track of the relationships between ideas.

In the centre of a blank sheet of paper, you write the lecture’s main topic. As new sub-topics are introduced, you draw a branch outward from the centre and write the sub-topic along the branch. Then each point under that heading gets its own, smaller branch off the main one. When another new sub-topic is mentioned, you draw a new main branch from the centre.

The thing is, if a point should go under the first heading but you’re on the fourth heading, you can easily just draw it in on the first branch. Likewise, if a point connects to two different ideas, you can connect it to two different branches.

If you want to neaten things up later, you can re-draw the map or type it up using a program like FreeMind, a free mind-mapping program.

If you want to make your mind-maps memorable, and visually appealing, consider using different colours, and incorporating images/diagrams.

Mind maps can be used for just about anything in your degree! A mind map can help you:

  • Outline your ideas on a subject
  • Organise your thoughts
  • Visualise a whole concept
  • Take and review notes
  • Plan an essay
  • Revise for your exams

Here are some advantages and disadvantages to mindmaps:

  • Mindmaps are adaptable - they can be used for lectures; note-making from books; essay plans etc. as well as less structured tasks.
  • They are easy to add ideas later, at any time.
  • They can help you focus on the links and relationships between ideas so you don’t just have disconnected facts.
  • They can be personalised with pictures and symbols to make things more memorable.
  • They are a useful tool for condensing lots of information – e.g. a whole topic into a mind map poster, to aid revision.
  • You can’t incorporate large chunks of text.
  • You have to stick to the rules of mind mapping to get the optimum benefit from the tool.
  • Creating the map may take time. However, this will help you to review or recall information and will check your understanding.
  • When you’ve personalised your map, it can be difficult for others to understand.

Cornell Notes:

About a quarter of the way from the bottom of a sheet of paper, draw a line across the width of the page. Draw another line from that line to the top, about 2 inches (5 cm)  from the right-hand edge of the sheet. You’ve divided your page into three sections. In the largest section, you take notes normally — you can outline or mind-map or whatever.

After the lecture, write a series of “cues” into the skinny column on the right, questions about the material you’ve just taken notes on. This will help you process the information from the lecture or reading. In the bottom section, write a short summary of the material you’ve covered.

Typing Your Notes:

Set up folders for each topic. Create these folders before lectures/class and save your notes into the correct ones. It will keep all of your notes organised and easy to find. You might want to have different folders for lecture and reading notes. Develop a system which is intuitive for you.

Know the program. Choose which program you’re going to use to take your notes. There are lots of options available, including Microsoft Office. If you can’t afford Office, then you can look into (illegal) free downloads of it. If you have Office, you could also use Onenote. Alternatives include free programmes like Evernote which allow you to access your notes from anywhere on any device.

Get a template (M Office only). On Microsoft word, you can download different templates. See if there is a template that you can use for taking your notes. Alternatively, you can create your own template by adjusting the margins, font, size, etc. and saving your preferences. If you don’t want to use a template, you can just use the default settings.

Name the notes. Make sure that you name the notes so that you know what’s inside. On Microsoft word, when saving documents you can add tags. Then you can search these tags for any documents with that specific tag. I’ve found this to be a really useful organisational tool.

Do you need anything to take your notes? If you’re using a tablet, you can buy Bluetooth keyboards which will connect and can be quicker than typing on the screen. You can also buy a stylus which will let you write like you would with a normal pen; some devices also have the option to convert your handwriting to typed notes.

Get to know your keyboard. If you’re using a keyboard, then I suggest looking at this website which will teach you how to touch type.

Become familiar with keyboard shortcuts. Especially for things like bold, italicise, underline, highlight.

Downloads. If the teacher/lecturer puts up any material for the lecture download it. These are typically powerpoint slides. When I take notes next year, I will download these and split screen between word and powerpoint. Then I’ll be able to copy and paste material and diagrams straight from the actual powerpoint, speeding up my process.

Back up. Please, back up your notes on google docs. If your computer crashes you will have a backup of your notes that will be essential to studying! Again, for the people in the back, back up your notes!

Creating your notes. Use the technology to your advantage.

  • Use bold/highlight/italic. Make your heading and subheadings stand out from the rest of your text.
  • Use bullet points.
    • You can even make sub bullet points (like this) using the tab key to follow your line of thought/reason.
  • Highlight the important things; you could even use different colours for different things. E.g. yellow for important dates, blue for important quotes.
  • Develop an annotation style. For example, sometimes you might fall behind a bit, and miss a detail. When this happens to me I insert a series of dots into my notes, like this (……..) and I know that means I missed something so I can return to the recordings to find out what I missed. You could use question marks (?) to indicate something that confuses you that you need to do more reading on. There are lots of different symbols so you can develop your own system.
  • This also works with words. If you have certain words which you’re typing a lot then you can make them shorter and easier to type. For example, the word “participants” comes up a lot in my course, but I use “ps” because it’s shorter and quicker to type.

Choosing between typing and handwriting:

Handwriting Notes:

  • Is creative; colour/ highlight/draw
  • Can help memory
  • Lots of experience using the technique
  • Can revent distraction
  • Same format as exams
  • Lots of paper; bulky
  • No back up
  • Environmenta
  • Difficult to transport
  • Can be a slow, ling progress

Typing Notes:

  • Quick; can keep up with teacher
  • Easy to transport; all ntoes on a single memory stick
  • Can create back up copes
  • Can be printed to have a digital and paper copy
  • Paper doesn’t have to be used; environmentall friendly
  • Add coliur/highlithg/etc.
  • Easily shared with other people
  • Different fonts can make it easier for people with dyslexia
  • Laptop may be too heavy to take to class
  • Not everyone has a laptop; expensive
  • Battery life might not be a suitable for a full day of classes
  • Can be less memorable

MBTI Personality Tests Accuracy Reviews

*Note: MBTI is a theory of thought processes (how you perceive, understand, and use information), and does not dictate behaviors, habits, or interests. The ratings reflect this as a basis, and therefore, no tests will ever get 5 stars.

*Note#2: I’m an INTP (I knew about MBTI for 13 years and majored in psychology), but not a very stereotypical one. I’ll compare my test results here.

Keys 2 Cognition [★★★★☆]

  • Renowned for being one of the more accurate tests
  • Centered around: cognitive functions, thought processes
  • Questions: detailed, clear
  • Answers: 5-item rating scales
  • My result: INTP

Similarminds [★★★☆☆]

  • Centered around: values, preferences
  • Questions: clearly worded, although they can be applied to many different situations
  • Answers: 5-item rating scales
  • My result: ENTP

Personality Testing [★★★☆☆]

  • Centered around: preferences, past experiences
  • Questions: pretty clear, although quite black & white, some are completely unrelated (e.g. “I mostly drink water” and “I need caffeine”)
  • Answers: 5-item rating scales
  • My result: INTP
  • I reopened the site and got a different set of questions. Maybe they’re experimenting…

16 Personalities [★★★☆☆]

  • Centered around: habits, opinions, fears
  • Questions: Easy to understand, but pretty generic, most are not exactly MBTI-related
  • Answers: 5-item rating scales
  • My result: ENTP

John’s Personality Test [★★☆☆☆]

  • Quite an interesting take. The test assigns one value that’s important for each type and score based on these values.
  • Centered around: habits, values
  • Questions: pretty clear but can be misinterpreted
  • Answers: select between 2 options or skipping the question, very limiting
  • My result: INTP (I was biased to pick INTP-like answers and was aware of it because it was very limiting)

Human Metrics [★☆]

  • Centered around: behaviors, habits, opinions
  • Questions: somewhat vague and confusing, can be applied to too many different situations, making answers ambiguous
  • Answers: 5-item rating scales (the scale is also unclear)
  • My result: ENTJ (I found myself answering “uncertain” for most questions because of how vague they were)

If anyone knows other tests I should try out, let me know. I’m not including tests that require registration or entering an email because they’re troublesome.


If you type two spaces after a period, you’re doing it wrong. Typesetters settled on using one space between sentences in the early 20th century, but people used two spaces after the invention of the typewriter to make the text easier to read because early models had equal spacing for each character regardless of width. Though it hasn’t been an issue since the 1970s, many people still think a double space is correct. Source

Really quick typing

There are so many other factors to visually typing people than what I’m about to list but these are pretty consistent

Fe dom: proportional warmth/openness in eyes and mouth

Se dom: extremely present looking, looks natural wherever they are

Te dom: constraint in eyes and smile; a little uncomfortable looking

Ni dom: distant eyes, late/awkward smile

Ti dom: critical stare, tight lipped

Fi dom: glossy eyes, in some sort of personal bubble

Ne dom: flitting eyes, erratic expressions

Si dom: level stare, restraint in posture