AP Human Geography: Agriculture Review
What is the difference between subsistence and commercial agriculture?
Subsistence agriculture is the production of only enough food for your family and not for sale. In LDCs.
Commercial agriculture is the production of food for sale. It is in MDCS. The system of commercial farming in MDCS is called agribusiness.
What is the difference between seed and vegetative planting?
Seed agriculture is the reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds.
3 Hearths in Eastern Hemisphere
western India, northern China, and Ethiopia.
From western India, it diffused to Southwest Asia, where wheat and barley were first domesticated; these two grains later fed Europeans and Americans.
In southwest asia, also domesticated herd animals such as cattle, sheep and goats.
from southwest Asia, seed agriculture diffused through Europe and North Africa.
diffused eastward to northwestern India and the Indus River Valley. From the china hearth, millet diffused to South Asia and Southeast Asia.
millet and sorghum were domesticated in ethiopia.
2 Hearths in Western Hemisphere
southern Mexico and northern Peru
Southern Mexico- squash and corn/maize
northern Peru- beans, cotton, and squash
Vegetative Planting is the reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots.
the first plants domesticated in Southeast Asia - roots like taro and yam and tree crops like the banana and the palm.
From the Southeast Asia hearth, it diffused northward and eastward to China and Japan, and westward through India, Southwest Asia, tropical Africa and the area around the Mediterranean Sea.
Other hearths- West Africa and northwestern South America.
West Africa- palm trees and yams
South America- manioc, sweet potatoes and arrowroot
From South America, it diffused to Central America and eastern areas of South America.
What are the three steps of shifting agriculture?
Cut down vegetation and clear the land
The land is burned to remove vegetation, drive away pests, and this gives nutrients for planting.
Immediately begin planting in the ashes and left alone for a while.
Where were the first plants cultivated? How?
Southeast Asia through vegetative planting. Plants- roots like the yam and taro and tree crops like the banana and the palm.
What is the township and range survey system?
The American system
encouraged settles to disperse evenly across interior farmlands
grid-like pattern drawn without reference to natural terrain
1 square mile could be sold as whole half or quarter
What is the difference between vertical and horizontal integration?
the company owns everything needed in order to make that product
when end product is successful, higher benefit
less rigorous collaboration
efficiency over flexibility
company has several diff companies under it in order to produce something
What are cons of using GMOs? Pros?
money going into labeling and research
already certified organic foods
no health danger
have the right to know what’s in their food and what companies do to it
What is the significance of the first agricultural revolution?
The Neolithic Revolution- diffusion of agriculture practices
drastically changed human life
increase in reliable food supplies
rapid increase in total human population
widening of gender differences
settled people vs. nomads
settled people thought their way of life was better
Draw and explain Von Thumen’s theory.
Ring 1: Market Gardening and Dairy
nearest bc perishable and spoil quickly, expensive to deliver
Ring 2: Forest/ Wood
bulky and heavy to transport
Ring 3: Field Crops
less perishable, more of wheat and grains
Ring 4: Animal grazing
needs a lot of space
What are the current trends in organic agriculture?
the presence of chemicals in soils and ground water, people are concerned about the chemicals.
US, Western Europe, and Jpan
What is the significance of the second agricultural revolution?
18th century in Western Europe
preceded industrial revolution, so it could be possible to feed the growing cities
improved crop rotation
improved equipment and better farming methods greatly increased the productivity of European Farms
“the larger the farm and better the production, less farmers needed
Why is slash and burn agriculture unsustainable for the future?
What is the metes and bounds land survey method?
natural and man made features used to show irregular land patterns
used along eastern seaboard of the US
Why has shifting cultivation been practiced for centuries in many places?
used in places where soil is not particularly fertile and where grasslands or forests are present
provides a source of food and income
Why might people be against the Green Revolution?
Green Revolution: 3rd Agricultural Revolution
new higher yields of crops
expanded use of fertilizers
AGAINST IT BC
poor countries can’t afford the machinery seeds and fertilizers
fertilizers can lead to groundwater pollution and the reduction of organic matter in the soil
Sub Saharan Africa- not enough food
the population is increasing faster than food production
not a balanced diet bc land is devoted to ONE type
What techniques were used in the Green Revolution?