tw: medical

Finally! Life is about to get really wild, but this is definitely the best day of my life. Wednesday didn’t want to spend the weekend with Whitney, like she does every other weekend or so, because of this little dude. Something tells me we’ll have a lot of visitors, so I might as well open the door for all of you too. I mean, you’ve heard enough about him by now haven’t you?

“Philip Verheyen dissecting his amputated limb”

Philip Verheyen may well have been a forgotten student of the clergy, a layperson of the Renaissance, whose presence, while important, was not so documented, if not for a “fortuitous” infection of his foot, while studying in the seminary.

The surgeon who met with Verheyen and ultimately amputated his lower leg (rendering him unfit for the clergy) was a student of Frederik Ruysch, the famed Dutch anatomist and botanist, and spoke long to Verheyen about the fascinating aspects of the anatomy of the leg - as well as why it must be amputated.

After his amputation, Philip was forced to pursue another profession, and given how fascinating he found the dissection of his amputated limb, found the life of a surgeon to be agreeable with his new-found interests.

While he was a good and celebrated surgeon of Belgium, his lost limb caused him much turmoil throughout his life. Though well-documented and recognized today, in Verheyen’s time, “phantom limb pain” was not a condition that was considered to be “real”. Mr. Verheyen persevered, however, and despite the agony evident in his diaries, was a successful surgeon who served many in his day.

Anonymous artist, c. 1715-1730. Via Wikimedia Commons.

As many of you know, I’ve been extremely sick. I didn’t talk about it because I was scared of this moment. I have a lot of medical problems that made getting pregnant impossible, but getting off all my medication, exercising and diet changes to stay off my medications, and pure happenstance led to an extremely high risk pregnancy. It’s a miracle that he happened, another that he and I made it through 23 weeks of pregnancy- let alone the delivery. Lucas is now in the hospital, he had a heart attack and had surgery two days ago. Even though I’ve been discharged both of my boys are sick. My sister and I are balancing taking care of Winnie and our jobs. I can’t bring myself to name the little guy without Luke and my heart breaks a little every time I look at him, too small and the odds against him. Any support is appreciated. I just thought it was time I updated you all on why I’ve been sick and a flake for the last few months with the added stress of it likely remaining that way for a while longer.

More MCAT Biology Review

4-Chambered Heart

    1. Deoxygenated blood returns to the heart: superior/inferior vena cava → right atrium
    2. Deoxygenated blood gets pumped to the lungs: right atrium → right ventricle → pulmonary artery → lungs
    3. Blood arrives at the lungs and gets oxygenated.
    4. Oxygenated blood returns to the heart: lungs → pulmonary vein → left atrium
    5. Oxygenated blood gets pumped to the body: left atrium → left ventricle → aorta
  • Blood going through the heart including the valves
    1. Vena cava
    2. Right atrium
    3. Tricuspid valve
    4. Right ventricle
    5. Pulmonary valve
    6. Pulmonary artery
    7. Lung
    8. Pulmonary vein
    9. Left atrium
    10. Bicuspid (Mitral) valve
    11. Left ventricle
    12. Aortic valve
    13. Aorta
  • Systolic and diastolic pressure
    • blood pressure = pressure blood exert on the walls of the blood vessel.
    • systolic pressure = blood pressure when blood is being pumped (the ventricles are contracting).
    • diastolic pressure = blood pressure when blood is not being pumped (the ventricles are relaxing).
  • Pulmonary and systemic circulation
    • Pulmonary circulation = heart → lungs → back to heart = oxygenates blood
    • Systemic circulation = heart → body → back to heart = delivers oxygenated blood to body
    • Pulmonary circulation = shorter than systemic circulation = less resistance = less blood pressure.
    • Systemic circulation: vasodilation when oxygen levels are low → more blood flow to oxygen-starved tissue.
    • Pulmonary circulation: vasoconstriction when oxygen levels are low → less blood flow to low oxygen/blocked alveoli → more blood flow to good alveoli where gas exchange can occur.

clowndisco  asked:

What is the process that leads to a tattoo's original deep black colour eventually turning into a more greenish/blueish/greyish colour over time? How/Why?

There are a few factors that go into it - how much of the ink was originally retained (but that’s easy to see very early on), the “sinking” of the tattoo, and sun bleaching.

Most people these days don’t deal with sun bleaching of the tattoo (both due to not having stuff done at home - usually ending up with very shallow tattoos - and due to being inside a lot of the time), but UV radiation can, at the same time it damages the epidermis, damage some of the pigment granules underneath. When those are taken away by the body, the lower saturation rate makes the tattoo appear a different color. Sun damage also accelerates the renewal of the epidermis and, if serious, the dermis becomes involved, so it can accelerate “sinking”.

The most significant factor in tattoo fading is the replacement of the dermis around it. While the scar tissue (fibroblasts) that encapsulates the tattoo does not get removed, over time, more and more layers of dermis form on top of it. As it sinks lower, it fades to a lighter hue. The bluish-greenish-greyish tinge is from the epidermis. It filters out most reds (as is evident in our veins - they’re dark red internally), so the black ends up looking more blue than true grey.

Some theories posit that instead of the dermis re-forming on top of the fibroblasts, the fibroblasts themselves are dragged downwards, to the deep dermis, by phagocytes.

Mediocre surgeons will see you and feel themselves wilting in your shadow. Do not shrink to console them. Do not look for friends here, you won’t find them. None of these people have the capacity to understand you. They never will. If you’re lucky, one day when you’re old and shriveled like me, you’ll find a young doctor with little regard for anything but their craft. And you’ll train them like I trained you. Until then, read a good book. You have greatness in you Yang. Don’t disappoint.
—  Dr. Thomas. Grey’s Anatomy. 2012. 

(Title: Grey’s Anatomy; Beautiful Doom; Season 9 Episode 5)