tuskegee experiment

Tuskegee syphilis experiment- Between 1932 and 1972, The U.S public health service conducted a study on a rural black community living in Tuskegee, Alabama. The purpose of the study was to observe the natural progression of syphilis in African-American males, however the disturbing factor was how deceitful the programme was to an already poverty-stricken community.

201 men signed consent forms to be apart of this. All of which were under the impression that after the disease had been injected into them, they would eventually be treated and cured. This never happened, even though penicillin was widely available. Free medical care, meals, and free burial insurance were issued to the participants for taking part in the study. After funding for treatment was “lost”, the study was continued without informing the men they would never be treated. 

Here’s the really sick part: None of the men infected were ever told they had the disease and were originally told that they were part of a treatment plan for “bad blood” (which is essentially a local term for general fatigue and anaemia). After 40 years of exploiting basic human rights, the victims of the study included numerous men who died, 40 wives who had become infected and over 19 children born with Congenital Syphilis.

A blood draw for The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, an unethical medical experiment that spanned 40 years and involved almost 400 impoverished African-American males. Participants were told they were being treated for ‘bad blood’, and were rewarded for their time with free medical care and meals.  

In fact, all the men had been diagnosed with syphilis, but were neither told about their condition nor given any treatment. Left deliberately to degenerate, the United States government aimed to collect scientific data after the participants’ death, in order to assess whether syphilis affected black men any differently to white men. Even when penicillin became the standard cure for the disease in 1947, no such treatment was offered.

When the study finally ended in 1972, just 74 of the participants were still alive. 28 men had died from the disease, with approximately a further hundred dead as a result of related complications. 40 wives had also been infected, and 19 children were born with congenital syphilis.

Tuskegee Syphillis Experiment

In 1932, the Public Health Service, working with the Tuskegee Institute, began a study to record the natural history of syphilis in hopes of justifying treatment programs for blacks. It was called the “Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male.”

The study initially involved 600 black men – 399 with syphilis, 201 who did not have the disease. The study was conducted without the benefit of patients’ informed consent. Researchers told the men they were being treated for “bad blood,” a local term used to describe several ailments, including syphilis, anemia, and fatigue. In truth, they did not receive the proper treatment needed to cure their illness. In exchange for taking part in the study, the men received free medical exams, free meals, and burial insurance. Although originally projected to last 6 months, the study actually went on for 40 years.

Whenever you catch yourself saying, “The US Government Would Never”

I would encourage you to google the following, 

“The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment” (Government withheld treatment for Syphilis in order to study disease)

“Edgewood Arsenal human experiments” (Various human chemical experiments, patients still struggle to receive care) 

“Project 112″ (Governmental attempts to use various bio-weapons via aerosol, again, poor patient care and starvation as bio-weapons destroyed local crops),

“MKUltra” (Attempts to use torture, and drugs in order to control people’s minds, informed consent laws were never followed, many times mental patients were forced into the program)

And that’s JUST what’s been declassified, to say nothing of all the evil shit we STILL don’t know about. 

White History Month

A Caucasian co-worker and I(Yup! The same one from the last post. Go figure.) were discussing why there should or shouldn’t be a “White History Month”. Nevermind the fact that EVERY MONTH is White History month. But I decided to humor him and play along…

“There should be White History Month” so we can expose all the evil things white folks have done in history and present that still affect the victims and their descendants till this very day like:

1 Cherokee Trail of Tears
2 Japanese American internment
3 Philippine-American War
4 Jim Crow
5 The genocide of Native Americans
6 Transatlantic slave trade, and the lies that Africans sold other Africans into slavery
7 The Middle Passage
8 The history of White American racism
9 Black Codes
10 Slave patrols
11 Ku Klux Klan
12 The War on Drugs
13 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
14 How white racism grew out of slavery and genocide
15 How whites still benefit from slavery and genocide
16 White anti-racism
17 The Southern strategy
18 The rape of enslaved women
19 Madison Grant
20 The Indian Wars
21 Human zoos
22 How the Jews became white
23 White flight
24 Redlining
25 Proposition 14
26 Homestead Act
27 Tulsa Riots
28 Rosewood massacre
29 Tuskegee Experiment
30 Lynching
31 Hollywood stereotypes
32 Indian Appropriations Acts
33 Immigration Act of 1924
34 Sundown towns
35 Chinese Exclusion Act
36 Emmett Till
37 Vincent Chin
38 Islamophobia
39 Indian boarding schools
40 King Philip’s War
41 Bacon’s Rebellion
42 American slavery compared to Arab, Roman and Latin American slavery
43 History of the gun
44 History of the police
45 History of prisons
46 History of white suburbia
47 Lincoln’s racism and anti-racism
48 George Wallace Governor of Alabama
49 Cointelpro
50 Real estate steering
51 School tracking
52 Mass incarceration of black men
53 Boston school busing riots
54 Man made Ebola and A.I.D.S.
55 Church Bombings and fires in deep south to Blacks
56 Church Shootings
57 How the Irish and Italians became white
58 The Perpetuation of the idea of the “model minority”
59 Housing discrimination
60 Systematic placement of highways and building projects to create ghettos
61. Medical experimentation on poor poc especially Blacks including surgical and gynecological experimentation
62 History of Planned Parenthood
63 Forced Sterilization
64 Cutting children out of pregnant Black mothers as part of lynchings
65 Eurocentric beauty standard falsification
66 Erasure and eradication of all achievements of Ancient Africa and Kemet
67 White washing of history and cultural practices of poc’s
68 Media manipulation and bias
69 Perpetuation of the myth of reverse racism
70 The history of white cannibalism
71 White fragility
72 White on white crime and white on everybody else crime
73 Irish slavery, Jewish slavery, African slavery, Native American slavery
74 White police officers murdering unarmed men, women, and children and not being convicted for it
75 Population control warfares worldwide
76 Chemtrails
77 Oil spills and chemical dumping in oceans worldwide
78 Water fracking
79 Gmo foods worldwide
80 Monsanto
81 World Wars 1 and 2
82 Wars on indigenous peoples throughout the world
83 Stolen inventions and blueprints from African people and other indigenous people worldwide
84 Steal concepts from cultures worldwide and then corrupt it
85 Mass murders and massacres worldwide
86 Eugenics and the history of sterilization of poc and history of fetal abortions worldwide
87. Flint Michigan water poisoning crisis

and too much more….

Yet you all have convinced the world and your delusional selves that melanated human beings “black” people are perceived as dangerous, unruly, racist, uncivilized, thugs, gangsters etc… Yeah ok not according to historical and present day facts.

Needless to say… We don’t have these types of discussions anymore. 😎😉😂

Stacey Dash Says Why No White History Month

There should be White History Month in America. That way we can teach all the things Americans have done in history, like:
1 Cherokee Trail of Tears
2 Japanese American internment
3 Philippine-American War
4 Jim Crow
5 The genocide of Native Americans
6 Transatlantic slave trade
7 The Middle Passage
8 The history of White American racism
9 Black Codes
10 Slave patrols
11 Ku Klux Klan
12 The War on Drugs
13 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
14 How white racism grew out of slavery and genocide
15 How whites still benefit from slavery and genocide
16 White anti-racism
17 The Southern strategy
18 The rape of enslaved women
19 Madison Grant
20 The Indian Wars
21 Human zoos
22 How the Jews became white
23 White flight
24 Redlining
25 Proposition 14
26 Homestead Act
27 Tulsa Riots
28 Rosewood massacre
29 Tuskegee Experiment
30 Lynching
31 Hollywood stereotypes
32 Indian Appropriations Acts
33 Immigration Act of 1924
34 Sundown towns
35 Chinese Exclusion Act
36 Emmett Till
37 Vincent Chin
38 Islamophobia
39 Indian boarding schools
40 King Philip’s War
41 Bacon’s Rebellion
42 American slavery compared to Arab, Roman and Latin American slavery
43 History of the gun
44 History of the police
45 History of prisons
46 History of white suburbia
47 Lincoln’s racism and anti-racism
48 George Wallace Governor of Alabama
49 Cointelpro
50 Real estate steering
51 School tracking
52 Mass incarceration of black men53 Boston school busing riots
54. Jim Crow
55Church Bombings and fires in deep south to Blacks
56. Church Shootings
57. How the Irish and Italians became white
58. The Perpetuation of the idea of the “model minority”
59. Housing discrimination
60. Systematic placement of highways and building projects to create ghettos
61. Medical experimentation on poor poc especially Blacks including surgical and gynecological experimentation
62. History of Planned Parenthood
63. Forced Sterilization
64. Cutting children out of pregnant Black mothers as part of lynchings
65. Eurocentric beauty standard falsification
66. Erasure and eradication of all achievements of Ancient Africa and Kemet
67. White washing of history and cultural practices of pocs
68. Media manipulation and bias
69. Perpetuation of the myth of reverse racism
70. The history of white cannibalism
71. White fragility
72. Man made Ebola and A.I.D.S.

Miss Evers’ Boys

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Based on the shocking true story, Miss Evers’ Boys exposes a 40-year government backed medical research effort on humans which led to tragic consequences. It is 1932 when loyal, devoted Nurse Eunice Evers (Alfre Woodard) is invited to work with Dr. Brodus (Joe Morton) and Dr. Douglas (Craig Sheffer) on a federally funded program to treat syphilis patients in Alabama. Free treatment is offered to those who test positive for the disease included Caleb Humphries (Laurence Fishburne) and Willie Johnson (Obba Babatunde). But when the government withdraws its funding, money is offered for what will become known as “The Tuskegee Experiment”, a study of the effects of syphilis on patients who don’t receive treatment. Now the men must be led to believe they are being cared for, when in fact they are being denied the medicine that could cure them. Miss Evers is faced with a terrible dilemma-to abandon the experiment and tell her patients, or to remain silent and offer only comfort. IT is a life or death decision that will dictate the course of not only her life, but the lives of all of Miss Evers’ Boys.

firecoloredwater  asked:

Hey Aunt Scripty! So in the world I'm building, one of the cultures has for assorted historical reasons decided that healing/medicine is The Most Important Thing. As a result, all powerful people are involved in medicine in some way (that way may be "I was really good at it as a princess but am now somewhat busy with being a queen" but usually at least former involvement), and anyone with a career in medicine has relatively high status and cultural power. (1/2)

So my question is, what sort of impact would that have on the culture?  What priorities do healthcare workers have that just don’t have the cultural power to be made reality (but presumably would if healthcare and power was basically synonymous)?  I should admit that this world does have magic, but I think that would impact the details of procedures and not so much what’s a priority.  (Or: dear Aunt Scripty, if you ruled the world, what would you do?) (2/2)

Hey there! This is probably one of my favorite questions I’ve ever received on this blog, and it’s a goddamned travesty that I haven’t answered it already. Hop to, Scriptificus!

This, like almost everything, is a double-edged sword. I think there are a few good things about this society: for one, science would be emphasized (assuming they’ve discovered that evidence based treatments are the right path to follow). I think it would lend itself to a very analyticas lsocial structure, and the question “what’s your evidence base for that?” migt get asked a LOT.

However, there’s a real downside to letting doctors run things, which is: doctors can be elitist pricks, especially when given social standing beyond what they’ve earned. This was a huge element in the 1950s thru 1970s, and only really started to turn around relatively recently. Medicine in THIS verse has found its humility, at least a little bit, but in a society where the power of life and death is conflated with political power over society…? This has the potential to go off the rails.

I think what I really want to know about your culture is, who is praised, exactly? Are nurses as exalted as doctors? What about pharmacists? What about nursing aids, or occupational therapists, or X-ray techs? What about midwives–or have doctors abolished them altogether?  Are hospital janitors praised for their contributions, or are they forgotten as the wheels that make the machine turn?

(Just so we’re clear, I think hospitals and medicine in general would fall the fuck apart without allied health professionals and environmental services workers, and kitchen staff and nutritionists, and the ones who  fill the oxygen tanks. These are the heroes of medicine: the ones who make it possible for clinical staff to do their thing.)

I think a medicocracy would make a neat society to consider. Consider both sides, though. Here are some questions I would ask in building your world?

  • Which is more in their interest: the public good by positive measures (nudges, public health initiatives)? Or the public good by experimentation (Tuskegee type experiments)?

  • Has this society embraced the notion of informed consent, or have they adopted another approach (especially for the non-medical ones in society): “Oh, you won’t understand it, so I’ll just do it and you’ll get better”?

  • Who gets to decide when doctors give up on a patient? How have they approached the rationing problem? Do they try to give everyone everything (US model) or do they decide who gets what treatments because they’re Doctors™ ? How does that mindset apply to everyday life?

  • What has been outlawed in the name of public health? Can people still choose to smoke, or is tobacco regulated like cocaine? What about alcohol? Is exercise mandatory? Are body weights mandated “for your own good”? How far does the push  for public benefit get?

  • Are doctors considered fallible by others? What about by doctors themselves?

  • Is your character on the inside of the medicocracy, or the outside? Have they been trained to “keep the faith”, as it were, or to fight the power?

I think if you want more help considering other angles and other questions, @script-a-world​ is probably the blog you want.

Thanks for the absolutely great ask!

xoxo, Aunt Scripty

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America is Not the Land of the Free

-Genocide against natives that continues today
-Slavery which continues today
-Jim Crow
-Bombed a hospital in Mosul and killed 484 people using an illegal chemical weapon
-Kills civilians in airstrikes all the time
-Police Brutality
-Japanese Internment Camps from WW2
-Philippine–American War
-Haditha killings
- the routine raping of Okinawan women in ww2
-No Gun Ri Massacre
-My Lai Massacre
-Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse
-the aid given to the Contras
-Guantanamo Bay
-The imprisonment of Chelsea Manning
-conversion therapy
-Tuskegee Experiments
-past and current support for authoritarian regimes

The big thing with many Pharmacies nowadays is Flu Shots. It’s a HUGE sales booster and Corporate pretty much does the Birdman handrub when Flu season is about start. They harass District Managers who harass Pharmacy Managers who harass the other Pharmacists and Techs for Flu Shots. 

I understand why they do it. Because of the way our society is currently shaped, it is important for Pharmacies to have other fall back options other than just prescriptions. That’s why you see many Pharmacies pushing Flu shots, Ancillary Shots, etc, things of that nature, feel me?

So I was thinking about how my Pharmacy Manager (who I talked about before failed her way upwards into that role) constantly harasses me to pressure patients into getting flu shots. I don’t feel like doing that shit. At this point, I’m completely apathetic at my job. I do enough to make sure I do a good job but I ain’t stressing shit like flu shots especially when I know it’s not going to fall on me. 

So the reason why I’m talking about this is because the 2 Pharmacists I work with (The Shit one and The fellow Malayalee) I think don’t understand the dynamic of people all that well. Harassing people won’t magically convince them to get their flu shots. Ever since I’ve been working there, I don’t think I’ve ever seen that work. At times I’ve seen people get visibly aggravated by this. It’s like Street Harassment levels of uncomfortable for a lot of people.

Anyways I’m getting off track here (Was I ever on track to begin with?). So The Shit Pharmacist asked me the other day why don’t more people of color get their flu shots? and I was like “They don’t trust it, or don’t think they need it”. The Shit Pharmacist is taken back by the first part. She’s like what do you mean they don’t trust it? So I said to her, why on Earth should they trust a Flu Shot from a Corporation especially? She was like because it protects you. I said that might be but there is a long racist history of people being infected under the guise of the shots. I mentioned to her the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment and she literally said “What is that?”. I actually thought she was joking. This is a person who literally is in the Health/Medical Field and she didn’t know what that was. I was like look, I’m not going to explain it to you because that’s like 4 decades worth of shit. But look it up. And she jus literally chalked it up to me being a conspiracy nut. Which I’m not.

Literally after this conversation ended, this Black Woman came to our Pharmacy to pick up her medication. I refused to ask her if she wanted her flu shot, the Shit Pharmacist sees this and comes over to ask this woman if she was interested and this woman was like “Nope, I don’t trust it”. It took everything I had to not laugh my ass of right then and there.

2

Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present

Harriet A. Washington

From the era of slavery to the present day, the first full history of black America’s shocking mistreatment as unwilling and unwitting experimental subjects at the hands of the medical establishment.

Medical Apartheid is the first and only comprehensive history of medical experimentation on African Americans. Starting with the earliest encounters between black Americans and Western medical researchers and the racist pseudoscience that resulted, it details the ways both slaves and freedmen were used in hospitals for experiments conducted without their knowledge—a tradition that continues today within some black populations. It reveals how blacks have historically been prey to grave-robbing as well as unauthorized autopsies and dissections. Moving into the twentieth century, it shows how the pseudoscience of eugenics and social Darwinism was used to justify experimental exploitation and shoddy medical treatment of blacks, and the view that they were biologically inferior, oversexed, and unfit for adult responsibilities. Shocking new details about the government’s notorious Tuskegee experiment are revealed, as are similar, less-well-known medical atrocities conducted by the government, the armed forces, prisons, and private institutions.

The product of years of prodigious research into medical journals and experimental reports long undisturbed, Medical Apartheid reveals the hidden underbelly of scientific research and makes possible, for the first time, an understanding of the roots of the African American health deficit. At last, it provides the fullest possible context for comprehending the behavioral fallout that has caused black Americans to view researchers—and indeed the whole medical establishment—with such deep distrust. No one concerned with issues of public health and racial justice can afford not to read Medical Apartheid, a masterful book that will stir up both controversy and long-needed debate.

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10

Dr. James Peterson on Stereotypes and the Myth of the Black Superman


Ever since I came across this 2010 interview several years ago, I’ve always had conflicting feelings about it. Don’t get me wrong, in this short three minute interview, Dr. Peterson nails a plethora of problems with the comic book industry - most of which all come back to not enough black writers having the opportunity to write about black characters. What we get instead is a distorted form of “blackness” as imagined through the eyes of a white person who has never experienced racism, and who may not have ever heard of the Tuskegee Experiment. And when blackness is depicted through such a lens, with no reality based reference point, stereotypes and racial tropes are almost unavoidable. 

Except with Jack Kirby. Somehow, even though a deeper critique reveals that Kirby was also another white man bound up in some of the racial politics of his day, somehow despite that fact, Kirby still managed to get so many things right with the Black Panther.

When I was a kid, one of the best things to happen to me was when I came across some of my father’s old comic books. From the moment I saw Kirby’s artwork, I was hooked - at first on what I initially thought was a weird style of art, but later as I began drawing myself, I would come to learn just how solid his art really was, and from there, my appreciation for the man himself, his artwork and his rather tragic life story began.

For anyone who doesn’t know, Jack ”the King” Kirby created the Black Panther, Captain America, the Fantastic Four, the Hulk, Thor, Silver Surfer, the X-Men, and hundreds of others, including quite a few notable DC characters, like Darkseid and the New Gods. But due to non-existent ownership rights for artists, and the laws of the time, Kirby was not always credited with all of the comic book characters he created, and this injustice would lead him into such a depression that at one point in his life, he was emotionally incapable of even walking into any place that sold comic books, sold toys, or showed movies about the characters he himself created. Like I said, his backstory has enough triumph and tragedy that his life is worthy of it’s own Marvel movie. (SN: If you’re a comic book collector and you ever get a chance to visit a Jack Kirby exhibition, do yourself a favor and go). 

But, getting back to Dr. Peterson’s analysis…I understand the desire to have black characters in media represented in a positive light to combat centuries of negative stereotypes, and perhaps help undo generations of racist tropes. That’s a problem white characters simply do not have. Black criminals are representative of all black people, but non-stereotypical, idealized black heroes are “exceptional.” A bad white character is an individual who does not represent their entire race. When white characters are jokers, mass murderers, gangsters, or virtually any type of criminal, they are never representing their entire race, as is almost always the case with black characters who are flawed or criminals. That individuality is the benefit of white privilege. White characters who are bad actually get sympathy that black characters don’t. Dr. Peterson nails that down too, noting near the end of the interview that ultimately, more of our stories being told is the solution.

When enough black characters get to be written by black writers and represented in a myriad of well written, fully fleshed out roles, and as we humanize ALL manner of blackness, only then can we escape that nagging need for all of our characters to be portrayed as Kings and Queens or “respectable” doctors and engineers. Only then will we be able to be more complex individuals who, just like anyone else, gets to have good and bad attributes, without being seen as a stereotype who doesn’t exist until the plot calls for a white character who needs an exotic, one dimensional “black friend” to spice up their otherwise bland existence.  

Initially I said that I was conflicted about Dr. Peterson’s analysis, but that was a mistake, because at first I took it for dragging Luke Cage with just a pinch of respectability politics added in. But that isn’t what it was. The critique was all about taking white writers to task for their obsession with stereotypical, trope-ish portrayal of most Black male comic book characters. He was critiquing the stereotypes of Black masculinity, not necessarily the Luke Cage character, nor black men who have been wrongfully imprisoned. And again, as Dr. Peterson hinted, the answer is more stories, more access, and more representation at all levels. More black writers and more black artist and more black colorists, telling more stories about all kinds of black people, with more diverse roles filled with more black characters and actors. 

And that’s just covering the black male characters. If you want to get an idea of how badly Black women are represented in comics, then without using Google, try to name just ten Marvel superheroes who are Black women. Go on, name them. I’ll wait. Lol, not even Google is going to help you find ten Black Marvel super heroines in comics, because unless you start counting “they just showed up for that one story arc” or the Jr. sidekicks of Jr. sidekicks, there aren’t ten, and that’s sad.  

If you want my hot take on Luke Cage, there’s a little more beneath the cut.

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