turbojet-engine

A U.S. Air Force inspector observes members of a combat logistics support squadron as they replace a damaged Pratt & Whitney J57 engine of a Boeing B-52D Stratofortress bomber during exercise “Night Train/Global Shield ‘84” at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona (USA), on 2 April 1984. The crew is wearing nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) gear.

Source. 

Two General Electric J47 turbojet engines mounted outboard of the three Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major piston engines on each wing of the Convair B-36 Peacemaker.

The original Caspian Sea Monster, officially «KM» (Korabl Maket, Russian - Корабль-макет Naval Prototype), also known as the “Kaspian Monster”, was an experimental ground effect vehicle (or ekranoplan)—a craft that flies, but stays close to the ground so it can rely on the ground effect. It was developed at the design bureau of Rostislav Alexeyev.

Powered by 10 turbojet engines and capable of reaching 500 km/h (311 mph), it was used for testing  since 1966 and for 15 years, until it sank after an accident caused by pilot error in 1980.

This craft led to the development of the Lun-class ekranoplan

9

Turboshaft Jet Engine Overview

Part of a series of jet engine overviews

Turboshaft engines are a specific, yet widely employed form of the turbojet engine. This type of engine is most commonly used on helicopters and low airspeed airplanes, but it also sees use on some armored vehicles, ships.

Operation

Turboshaft engines are not actually jet engines, as they do not a use a jet of fluid to produce thrust, however they are worth mentioning because of their similarity to turbojet engines and their widespread use. Turboshaft engines are extremely similar to turbojet and turbofan engines. In a turboshaft engine, air is drawn into an intake and compressed by a series of axial flow compressors.

After it is compressed it is injected with fuel and passes into a combustion chamber where it is ignited. After ignition, the hot high energy gas moves rearward past a series of turbines. In a turbojet engine, the turbines would extract a small amount of energy from the gaseous stream, just enough to power the compressors at the fore of the engine. The turboshaft engine instead, extracts most, if not all of the energy from the passing air via the turbines. Whatever energy is not used to power the axial compressors is then used to rotate a shaft which provides mechanical energy.

Uses

Aircraft

Turboshaft engines are used in a variety of aerial application. When used on airplanes to drive props, they are known as turboprop engines.

Turboprop engines are used to achieve high fuel efficiency at low airspeeds. They are used in many commercial aircraft, and large low-airspeed military transports such as the C-130. Other notable applications include the Tupolev Tu-95 Bear, the Super Tucano and the infamous Republic XF-84H, a turboprop plane whose supersonic propellers produced shock waves powerful enough to knock a man over and noise loud enough to cause nausea and fainting among ground crews.

Additionally, turboshaft engines are commonly used to power helicopters. Helicopters commonly use multiple turboshaft engine both for increased power and for redundancy. Most large military and civilian helicopters use turboshaft engines in lieu of piston engines, due to their increased efficiency and reliability. Some notable turboshaft helicopters include the Sikorsky Black Hawk, the Bell Boeing Osprey, and the Mil V-12, the worlds largest helicopter.

Land

The turboshaft engine has seen use on a variety of land vehicles from cars to tanks. Examples of civilian ground application include the Fiat Turbina concept car, the Y2K Turbine Superbike motorcycle and the Howmet TX racecar, the only turbine powered racecar to ever win a race. Military ground application of turbine engines began in 1944 when the Nazis attempted to install a turbine engine in a Panther Tank. In 1954, the British installed a turbine in a Conqueror tank. The Swedish Stridsvagen 103, developed in the 1950s, employed a turboshaft engine as an Auxiliary Power Unit or APU. The American M1 and the Russian T-80 both mount turboshaft engines as their main source of propulsion. Turbine engines allow for more power and for greater fuel flexibility (the M1, for example, can burn gasoline, diesel, jet fuel or kerosene.) However, they are extremely inefficient and vulnerable to sand and dirt.

Sea

Maritime use of turboshaft engines is widespread. Turboshaft engines are commonly used on frigates, destroyers, corvettes and cutters. Among the countries that deploy turboshaft powered ships are the US, Denmark, Sweden, Britain and Finland. Naval turboshaft engines experience high levels of wear due to salt in the air and fuel, and lower grades of fuel.

PSA
As always, I appreciate hearing from yall. Let me know if you have any suggestions for future topics. Finals are coming up so I might be posting with slightly less frequency, but I will hopefully be able to put out pulse jets and rockets by the beginning of next year. I definitely want to do a post on torpedoes in the near future as well.

3

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caspian_Sea_Monster

The “Caspian Sea Monster”, as it was called upon discovery by Western intelligence services, was an ‘Ekranoplan’, an experimental Soviet hypbrid of plane and vessel first operating in oct 1966 and testing all its life until being sunk by accident in 1980.

It had ten turbojet-engines on its back! A mass of 544 tons. Later photos show her with missile launchers on the back. This thing was not meant to fly (thus no flying boat), the idea was to kept her in steady take-off situation just lifted enough to profit from an air cushion underneath the short wings while traveling over the sea surface.

Back before the British aviation industry killed itself by constant and systematic bickering among themselves (just like their car industry would end up doing some 20 years later), they had such an interesting plethora of prototypes and concepts, here are some of those: Ultra-heavy lift helicopters, the most notable being the W-85:

The W-85 was a projected 100-seat military helicopter powered by six Armstrong Siddeley Adder turbojet engines mounted in pairs on each blade-tip. The machine had nose-loading doors, with a small passenger-sized ventral exit at the rear. The crew compartment was located high in the fuselage, above the nose doors. With a rotor diameter of 104 ft., this machine had an all-up weight in the 60,000 lb. class.

Oh Britain, you could have led the way…

This Day in Aviation History

March 5th, 1943

First flight of the Gloster Meteor

The Gloster Meteor was the first British jet fighter and the Allies’ only operational jet aircraft during the Second World War. The Meteor’s development was heavily reliant on its ground-breaking turbojet engines, pioneered by Sir Frank Whittle and his company, Power Jets Ltd. Development of the aircraft itself began in 1940, although work on the engines had been under way since 1936. The Meteor first flew in 1943 and commenced operations on 27 July 1944 with No. 616 Squadron RAF. Nicknamed the “Meatbox”, the Meteor was not a sophisticated aircraft in its aerodynamics, but proved to be a successful combat fighter….

Source:

Wikipedia, Gloster Meteor: http://gstv.us/1U00fY5  

YouTube, Classic Aircraft - Early Jets (Full Documentary 2015): http://gstv.us/1U00iDi  

YouTube, Gloster Meteor Display: http://gstv.us/1U00nH0

By +FlyingMachinesTV

If you enjoy the “This Day in Aviation History” collection, you may enjoy some of these other collections from Gazing Skyward TV: http://gstv.us/GSTVcollections  

Photo from: http://gstv.us/1U00uTd  

#avgeek #Gloster #Meteor #military #ww2 #British #warbird #aviation #history

10

The French SNCASO SO.9000 Trident mixed-powered interceptor supersonic aircraft, her main feature being the use of both a furaline and nitric acid-powered rocket engine, and a pair of turbojet engines for propulsion.

First flown in 1953, only 12 aircraft in two variants were build before the cancellation of the program in 1957 due to budget cuts. 

Experimental German Go 229,in flight.

Performance characteristics of the Go 229A-0
"Gotha" Go 229A-0 (estimate)

Type: single-seat fighter-bomber.

Powerplant:
two turbojet engine Junkers Jumo V each thrust 8,73 kN.

Aircraft performance characteristics:
max speed 977 km/h at an altitude of 12,000 m,
initial rate of climb 1320 m/min,
a service ceiling of 16,000 m,
the range of 1900 km, with fuel tanks 3170 km.

Weight:
the aircraft operational empty 4600 kg,
maximum take-off 9000 kg.

Dimensions:
the wingspan of 16,76 m,
the length of 7,47 m,
height 2.8 m,
wing area 52,50 m2.

Weapons:
four MK 103 or MK 108 caliber 30 mm and two 1000-pound bombs.