tuberous root

Onions, and by extension Shrek, have layers.  Onions are a bulb, a sort of modified stem in a plant. Potatoes are tubers, which are modified roots and do not have layers. Potatoes are not onions. Shrek is not a potato.

So bulbs are special underground stems that some plants, like Shrek, can have. Therefore you can think of the layers of an onion are just leaves. Just like rings in a tree, bulbs grow layers as they grow older. The more layers an onion has, the older and more successful it has been in its life. Shrek must have lots of layers.

The purpose of a bulb is to store and protect water, nutrients, and other things Shrek needs to survive. This gives it an advantage over say, trees, which need a constant intake of sun and nutrients to survive. Onions like Shrek can store nutrients to use them when they need to.

The layers then also serve an evolutionary purpose. If a predator wants to eat the onion, it must first eat through many layers of icky tasting onion and will likely be discouraged. Of course, Shrek has no natural predators so this is not an issue.

Shrek’s layers are modified leaves which help protect the nutrients it stores inside. The more layers a Shrek has, the older and stronger it is.

If you’ve ever chopped up an onion, or looked at Shrek, you’ve probably ended up crying. Onions make you cry for the same reasons they taste bad. Onions are filled with enzymes, and when you break through their cells, with a knife or with your teeth, these enzymes are released.

Enzymes that were kept separated from the sulfenic acid by the cells are then free to mix, forming propanethiol S-oxide. Propanethiol S-oxide is a gas, which rises up and reacts with water in your eyes to form sulfuric acid. That burns your eyes, so your eyes produce more water to try to wash the acid away. So you cry.

If you want to protect your eyes from onions, you can cut the onion under running water (which washes the propanethiol s-oxide away before it can get to your eyes), or refrigerate it before you cut it. A cooler temperature will slow down the chemical reaction in general. If you want to protect yourself from Shrek, you can’t.

When you cut an onion, the natural enzymes mix with the water in your eyes to form sulfuric acid. Your eyes produce tears to try to wash the acid away.

The Average American eats 20 pounds of onion per year, so it would take 10-15 Americans to consume an entire Shrek in one year. There are 45 calories in a single serving of Shrek.

Happy April Fool’s Day from the Scientific Pokedex!


Ulluco small harvest! these plants only got half their season to grow and managed to still put out a few tubers! although half the size they look vibrant and amazing inside and out just boiled for 5 minutes they taste like potato with a little exta potato taste not so bland as potato. SUCCESS!!! Will be grown next year and will be a permanent crop as a groundcover in the greenhouse and outside.


Plant of the Day

Sunday 28 May 2017

The large, dramatic flower spikes of Eremurus robustus (giant desert candle, foxtail lily) reach up to 3m and are attractive to butterflies. The large starfish-like root tubers grow in fertile, sandy, well-drained loam in full sun, and the tall flowers need shelter from the wind. 

 Jill Raggett

Recipe: Roots Platter

Description: This’ll keep you digging for more.

Game ingredients: Cave Carrot, Winter Root

This recipe restores 125 energy and 50 health. It also gives a +3 Combat bonus. It can be obtained from achieving Level 3 Combat and sells for 100g.

Difficulty: Easy, 45 minutes. Serves 4.

I make this recipe quite often, but I usually just use potatoes and carrots.

-Root vegetables: turnips, parsnips, carrots, rutabaga, etc
-Tubers: potatoes, yams, etc
-¼ to 1/3 cup olive oil, as needed
-One Step Greek seasoning (or seasoning of your choice!)

For 4 servings I used 2 parsnips, 2 carrots, half a rutabaga, 3 small potatoes, and half a yam. I didn’t use turnips, but about 2 of those will do if you choose to have some as well.

Preheat the oven to 395°F. 

Chop up the tubers and roots into small chunks, removing any unwanted peels and ends. I keep the peels on the potatoes. For rutabagas, you may need to use a knife to remove the peel since most vegetable peelers aren’t strong enough to remove the skin. 

Combine the olive oil and seasoning in a large bowl, and add all the vegetables. Toss to fully coat them, ensuring an even distribution of oil and seasoning. 

Transfer the vegetables to a baking dish and cook for 35 minutes, or more if needed. The larger the chunks, the more time needed. 

Serve hot with lunch or dinner. Some root vegetables don’t hold a lot of flavour, so the seasoning helps a lot! This dish is tasty and nutritious. 


anonymous asked:

Since vegetables are bad for pigeons why is it okay to give them peas as a treat?

Peas aren’t leaf, stem, root, tuber, or fruit matter. They’re seeds in the legume family. ^v^
So are beans and lentils.

King in the North

(Jon x Reader)

Words: 1,993

A kinda-sorta sequel to this smutty bit here.

The shouts rumbled like thunder over the Bay of Ice. “KING IN THE NORTH! KING IN THE NORTH!” The very stones of Winterfell seemed to shake beneath the chanting, pounding of cups, and stamping of feet. “KING IN THE NORTH! KING IN THE NORTH!” And even from your far, far place in the hall, you could read the fear in Jon’s eyes.

Keep reading

Wild Edibles

 heres some plants you may need to know in case of emergency

1.) hickory nuts

these  little guys are the most calorie dense wild food in the guide. One ounce of shelled-out hickory nut meat packs a whopping 193 calories, with most of that coming from fat. How do they taste? Well, you probably already know the answer to that. Most hickory nuts taste like their most famous relative, the pecan. These sweet and fatty nut meats can be used as a raw food, picked right out of the shell. The nut meats also can be used in all kinds of dishes. From porridge, to cookies, to a pecan-flavored crust for your favorite game bird, hickory is an underused hero in wild foods.

To make sure you have a hickory, look for a “double” nut shell, with a husk that peels off revealing a nut shell underneath. And make sure you don’t get a buckeye, which also have a double-layered nut shell, but are poisonous. Good hickory nuts have a multi-chambered inner nutshell (like a walnut), while the bad buckeyes have a solid nut meat (like an almond).

2.)  Black Walnut 

these nuts are probably the easiest to identify. Black walnuts look like green tennis balls. The rough round husks turn from green to a very dark brown as they lay on the ground in autumn. The nut meats are rich tasting and contain 173 calories an ounce. They are high in fat, with a fair bit of protein, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, and manganese. The wild animals might even let you get some, primarily because they don’t like to chew through those thick, bitter husks. This means that there can be black walnuts on the ground well into winter.

3.)  Pine Nuts

The nuts of any large pine tree are a classic western survival food. Measuring around 1,400 calories per cup, these nuts are more than half fat by weight, with some protein and carbs added in for good measure. Pine nuts are also a good source of thiamin and manganese, with a decent array of other B Vitamins and minerals.

4.) Hazelnut

External image

There are several species of hazelnut tree in Europe, Asia and North America. The most common tree in the US is the American hazelnut, which grows east of the Mississippi from Georgia to Maine. Just one ounce of the flavorful hazelnuts contains 170 calories and 4 grams of protein. The Hazelnut also carries a good portion of Vitamin E, thiamin, copper, and manganese.

5.)  Beech Nut

External image

Not the tobacco product, or the baby food, but the actual nut of a beech tree, can be a valuable and delicious wild food source. But you’ll have to be quick to beat the squirrels to them. Squirrels seem to favor these tree nuts above all others, and the animals have always had two-legged competition for them. Indian tribes, such as the Potawatomi, pounded the roasted seeds into flour, and many other cultures have used the oily sweet nuts for food. Look for the smooth-bark trees in eastern woodlands, and look for the small three-sided seed falling out of a prickly husk around early October. The nuts have 10 grams of carbohydrates, 2 grams of protein and 164 calories per ounce.

6.)  Oak Acorns

Though many folks are confused by the nuts of oak trees, acorns are one of the most abundant foods in this guide. Perhaps it was the fear of buckeye nuts, or the bitter flavor that acorns have, but I remember my father always telling me that acorns were poison. Well, not quite, pops. The bitterness of the acorn is from the irritating tannic acid, the worst offenses of which are upset stomachs and angry bowels.

7.)  Wild Rice

External image

This northern marsh grass plant has long been a valuable commodity in North America. Paddling an open canoe through the rice beds at harvest time allows you to bend the seed heads into the boat, tap them to release the rice, and then paddle out of there with a literal “boat load“ of rice after a few hours. The raw, uncooked rice is exactly 100 calories per ounce, and it contains some traces of B Vitamins, 4 grams of protein and numerous minerals.

8.)  Amaranth Seed

External image

These small, shiny black seeds are one of the most overlooked staple foods from the wild. Some amaranth species and varieties are grown for size or flavor, but the wild plants are plenty good enough to use. One cup contains 716 calories, 26 grams of protein, 30 percent of your daily calcium and almost a full day’s requirement of iron. These seeds can be boiled into a cooked grain or ground into flour. The leaves are also edible raw or cooked, but one cup of those only contains 6 calories.

9.)  Rose Hips 

The tangy, sweet, red-colored fruits of wild rose bushes come in at 162 calories per cup. They’re a good source of Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), Vitamin K, calcium, and magnesium, and a very good source of dietary fiber, Vitamin A and manganese. They are also a Vitamin C powerhouse containing 7 times your daily dose. To avoid getting the wrong fruit or berry, look for compound leaves and thorns on the rose bushes. The red rose hips should also be branching upward, not dangling fruits.

10.)  Persimmon

External image

The scientific name of this fruit is diospyros, which means “food of the gods.” If you are concerned that they are overselling the fruit, you are wrong. The completely ripe, native persimmon fruits are a sticky, gooey sweet treasure trove. The fruits of this eastern tree have 127 calories and a full day’s Vitamin C per cup of pulp. Look for very wrinkled fruits in late October. Unripe persimmons are very bitter and will give you a strong case of cotton mouth. Generally, the rougher they look, the sweeter they are.

11.) Jerusalem Artichoke

External image

This plant is neither from Jerusalem nor is it an artichoke, but this native sunflower relative does have a slightly sweet tuber, which carries 109 calories per cup. It contains lots of iron and potassium and contains 5 to 20 percent of your daily allowance in most of the B vitamins. Look for the small sunflower-looking bloom in the fall at the top of the tall plants, and dig up the tubers, which resemble ginger roots in shape (but not odor).

12.)  Elderberries

Numerous species of the small shrub known as the elderberry can be found throughout the world. The American Elder grows throughout eastern North America. These bushes produce small purple-black berries in large clusters during midsummer. The berries are high in Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, calcium, iron, and potassium, and boast 106 calories per cup. Just don’t munch on the leaves, or try to make a flute out of the hollow stem, as every part is hazardous except the ripe berries.

13.) Wild Grapes

More than 20 species of wild grape are found east of the Mississippi, ripening at different times from August through October. Depending on the species and sugar content, they are roughly 100 calories per cup. Most wild grapes carry decent amounts of Vitamin C, Vitamin K, copper and potassium (one-tenth to one quarter of your daily requirement). Make sure it’s a grape though! The Canada Moonseed looks like a grape, but it is poisonous. Grapes should have one to four teardrop-shaped seeds, while the dangerous moonseed has only one seed, which is curved and flat. Also, grape vines have tendrils (curlicues), while the moonseed has no curly tendrils.

To my dearest husband,
I hope this letter finds you well
And in good health.
Spring has come again
In my mother’s house and lands with my return.
Though if you could see it now,
You would think we were in
The quarries of your domain.

The freezing rains and hail that keep
New growth from blooming, remind me of
The roaring oceans and the taste of sea salt
That time you took me to see the oil rigs.
The ones your brother gifted you.
(Your smile then was as wide as the one you wore on our wedding day.)

We have to keep saplings on the heaters.
Mother had to take the wildflowers in her window-box inside.
We depend on the sun and heat for growth.
You do not, my love. You and your employees can work
In the bitter cold and blinding dark, flourish in it too.
(Please don’t work them too hard in my absence, my dear.
They too have spouses that love them and wait for their return.)

But these harsh few days will yield
To the golden sun and the blue sky’s glory.
Everything that died in my absence
Will come back to life
In my and my mother’s hands.

Yet as soon as we plant them,
The wheat, the grains, the roots, the tubers,
The crawling vines and the sprawling flowers,
A darkness in my heart will flourish
And demand for their quick and violent end.

Spring is wonderfully and deceptively kind
In our first few days apart.
But I’ve tired of song birds pecking at my window,
The blistering sun scratching and scrapping at my skin,
And the regal, practiced warmth and kindness of my mother and her kin.

My dear,
I wait for the days where your shy, cold hands
Will reach for mine, lead me home,
And chase away the loathsome heat
That clings to every surface of my being.

I long for the silent nights and mornings of the quarry,
Where no birds dare to fly and bother us,
So I can revel in your heavy breaths and sighs
That I mine with every tender kiss
On your pale skin.

I miss you.
Gods I miss you.
I miss your danger-seeking, ever-knowing smile
That can shame the rarest diamonds found in the cuff-links of your shirt
Or dull and rust the metals that make our rings.

I want to come home. If I was given the chance,
I would gladly let the world freeze over,
Leave the crops to whither on the vine,
And the people screaming in eternal frost,
Just to rule by your side all year round.
(My mother would call this crazy talk. What would you call it?)


“Crazy Talk” by thejinxedwriter (Cailin D.)

© 2016 Please do no remove caption


grass/ground, the tuber pokemon

“Their roots are constantly growing and regenerating, they can be removed and eaten without causing Mutato any harm, thus they are often raised to provide food. They once all mysteriously disappeared for three years, then just as mysteriously returned.”

Foodstuffs in Morrowind and What They Taste Like

Ash Yams:  “Ash yam is a tough tuberous root vegetable…”

  These taste like sweet potatoes, although very grainy and with a tough outer skin that outlanders peel off before eating because it is both tough and bitter.  A true Dunmer would never dream of peeling off this skin.  They like it.


   Very common food, very basic.  Generally cooked in a wood-burning oven, the texture is baguette-like and extremely crusty.  The flavor itself is bland but palatable.  The amount of salt added to the dough depends on the region; water-rich areas tend to eat saltier bread.

Comberry:  "The comberry is a bush that produces a bitter berry, best known as the basis of the native comberry brandy, a rough but potent alcoholic beverage of Morrowind…”

   Similar in flavor to an unripe mulberry.  Except incredibly bitter, like you-just-licked-the-spout-of-a-well-used-Keurig bitter.  It sweetens during the fermentation process, however not by much.

Crab Meat"The mudcrab native to Vvardenfell is prized for its sweet crab meat…”

   Because mudcrabs are, at their smallest, the size of a large chihuahua, they usually produce enough meat to feed a modest family of three (elves don’t have many children).  Though all mudcrap meat is tough and chewy, the younger the crab the more tender the meat.

Hackle-Lo Leaf:  "Hackle-lo leaf is a tasty edible succulent leaf…”

   One of the most common vegetables eaten on Vvardenfell.  Though its shape and texture are similar to a fat kale leaf, its properties are more similar to a squash.  When left uncooked, it has a crispness and flavor like a cucumber.  Cooked, it tastes like sauteed zucchini.  Its versatility with spice and other foods is why it is preferred over other vegetables.

Hound Meat:  "Hound meat is the flesh of the nix-hound. The meat is sweet and tender…”

   Most similar to beef.  Nix-Hounds are much, MUCH leaner than cows, however, and so the meat they produce has a very low fat content.  Maybe that’s why all the Dunmer are so thin?  Or maybe they are constantly burning calories by scowling all the time?  Nirn may never know.

Kwama Eggs:  "Kwama eggs are a rich, nutritious foodstuff…”

  Large kwama eggs are the size of ostrich eggs, and small kwama eggs are the size of bigger-than-average-jumbo chicken eggs.  Whatever the case they’re bigger than a chicken egg, and if you wanted to scramble them for breakfast you’d just have to crack one open for a heaping plate.  The taste is yolky, but the yolk-to-albumen ratio is pretty even.  A waxier texture, it squeaks on your teeth when eaten.

Marshmerrow"The sweet pulp of marshmerrow reeds is a delectable foodstuff…”

   Fruity and sweet, it is served both raw and cooked.  The taste is honestly kinda like a marshmallow (believe it or not), but with an almost peachy undertone.  The raw, watery pulp is eaten with a spoon, but when cooked, it’s eaten with a fork.  To use the wrong utensil is a grave social mistake, as is every other action done by outlanders.  Like existing.

Rat Meat:  "Rat meat is tough and greasy, with an unpleasant odor and taste. Nonetheless, it is cheap, abundant, and nutritious, and palatable when cooked in a stew and masked by strong strong spices.”

   Texture is most like pork.  Eating rat meat in a stew is like eating the little meatballs in Spaghetti-O’s; you can eat it just fine when you don’t think about it.  It has high tryptophan content, so it makes you sleepy, just like eating turkey does.

Saltrice:  “Saltrice is another of the tasty and nutritious foodstuffs…”

   Though fibrous, it becomes easier to chew the longer you cook it, often by boiling (Dunmer need their colons cleansed, too).  Similar in flavor to cabbage, it is eaten both raw and cooked, usually as an additive to stews.

Scrib Jelly:   “…Crushed scribs produce a nutritious but sour-tasting gelatin… that the natives eat with gusto.”

   This is nothing like sweet pectin fruit jellies.  It’s like pork-bone-yellow-nasty-meat-gelatin.  But the coagulative properties come from the chitin (pronounced KITE-in) shell of scribs.  They don’t have bones.  It’s definitely an acquired taste, and it does grow on you with each successive mouthful.  The texture is like that of thick refried beans, and the flavor is that of mild buttermilk.

Scrib Jerky:  “Scribs cut into strips and dried in the sun are called scrib jerky… tastes scarcely worse when spoiled than when fresh, and are a practical foodstuff for the hardy native traveler.”

   Very chewy, very dry.  But all around not bad.  One of the most versatile foods in terms of flavors, it ranges from sweet to savory.  Scrib jerky produced in traditional dry-rub methods is incredibly salty and rather spicy, and is eaten regularly among the ashlanders.  In modern cities, the meat is marinated first in a usually sweet sauce, and it produces a more tender jerky, but it doesn’t last as long.

Scuttle:  “Scuttle is Vvardenfell’s favorite local dish. This cheese-like, greasy substance made from the flesh of local beetles is remarkably tasty…”

      Eaten with a knife and fork, it is generally reserved for those in the upper class, though all but the poorest Dunmer will find a way to eat it at least twice a year on special occasions.  A robust dish, it is comparable in texture to paneer.  The flavor is spicy, and it tastes like a Masala dish. 

Trama Root:  "A calming tea with modest magical properties is brewed from the thick, bitter-tasting root of the trama shrub…”

   Most similar in taste to Oolong tea.  Almost a smokey flavor, but definitely a woody undertone.  Perhaps more like an overtone.  No one eats the trama root itself, except for confused and inferior outlanders.  But the tea is good and is drank throughout the day, especially in the evening.

Culinary History (Part 16): Knives and Teeth

An overbite is the top set of teeth hanging over the bottom layer. Primates (such as chimpanzees) have an edge-to-edge bite, where the sets rest one on top of the other, with the incisors (front teeth) touching.

To us, the overbite is normal (and if we don’t have one, we get braces).  But it’s actually quite recent – in the West, humans only developed an overbite about 200-250 years ago.  Before then, we had an edge-to-edge bite.

The timeframe is too short for this to be the result of evolution. It seems to be due to the way we cut our food as children.  Professor Charles Loring Brace (b.1930) was the one who worked this out.

Originally, he thought that the overbite developed because of the agricultural revolution – grains and cereals need less chewing than the meat, roots and tubers that we ate before.  But he found that the edge-to-edge bit lasted far longer than that.  In Western Europe, it began to occur in the late 1700’s, first with the elite.

There didn’t seem to be any sense in this.  The aristocratic didn’t undergo some huge shift in diet around this time – yes, they had different seasoning & sauces, less sugar & spices, and more butter, herbs & lemon.  But that wasn’t enough to cause it.  It was how they ate that made the difference.  At this time, the middle & upper classes began to eat with a knife and fork, cutting the food into little pieces before eating it.

Brace suggests that the usual method of eating before the knife-and-fork way became the norm, was what he calls the “stuff-and-cut” method.  Hold the food in your hand; clamp your teeth onto the end of it; pull the main part of the food away to leave a large bite in your mouth (or cut it away with your knife, making sure not to cut yourself).

The adoption of the fork (which took a while) changed this.  We used our teeth less and less.  And because table knives were blunt, the food had to be softer, which meant the teeth had even less to do.

Brace argues that the incisors are misnamed.  Their name comes from the Latin incidere (to cut), but their real purpose, he says, is to clamp food in the mouth, as in the stuff-and-cut method.  He believed that if the incisors are used in this way several times a day, from when they first begin to grow (i.e. referring to the adult teeth), then they will grow into an edge-to-edge position, because they need to.  But once we started cutting our food up, we didn’t need to use them in this manner, and so the incisors keep growing into an overbite.

Of course, this theory is not definite.  There were more ways of eating than just stuff-and-cut – people nibbled; they drank soup; they ate with spoons.  (Although obviously you wouldn’t need to only use stuff-and-cut, for your teeth to need to position that way.) “Gluttonous stuffing” was often looked down upon: Posidonius (a Greek historian, b. c.135 BC) accused the Celts of rudeness, because they “clutch whole joints and bite”.  And correlation doesn’t equal causation.  But it’s the best theory at the moment, with skeletal evidence.

Brace spent a great deal of time looking for dental evidence, to see if it supported his theory.  Americans took a few more decades than Europeans to accept the knife-and-fork way of eating, so their overbite should appear later.  A cemetery in Rochester (NY) from these decades had 15 skeletons with their teeth & jaws intact – and 1/3 of them had an edge-to-edge bite, as he expected.

In China, the stuff-and-cut method was definitely not used after the finely-chopped food & chopsticks became common, in the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD).  So their overbite had to have shown up far earlier than in Europe.  It took longer to find evidence for this, but in the Shanghai Natural History Museum there is a pickled skeleton of a graduate student from the Song Dynasty, who died around the time he would have sat his exams.  And he has an overbite.

Further research showed that the Chinese overbite developed 800-1000 years before the European overbite (with the exception of peasants, who often had an edge-to-edge bite even quite far into the 1900’s).

This isn’t the only change that our method of eating has made to our mouths.  The Stone Age development of cutting tools was one of the factors causing the smaller jaws & teeth of humans than our hominid ancestors.

311: It Conquered the World

So I’m curious – what colour did you guys assume the Venusian Squash Monster was?  Because I was always picturing kind of a split-pea green.  It seems like an appropriate hue for an alien or a vegetable, and definitely for something that’s both.  In this case, however, my instincts were way off the mark.  Would you believe it was actually fire engine red?  No shit, here’s a picture of creature-makers Paul Blaisdell and Bob Burns with their creation, which they lovingly nicknamed ‘Beulah’.

Keep reading

Herb of the Week-Aconite

Common names

Auld Wife’s Huid
Blue Rocket
Cuckoo’s Cap
Friar’s Cap
Jacob’s Chariot
Soldier’s Cap
The aconite is a shrub which sports purplish blue aconite flowers that bloom during the summer as well as during the fall, and are generally shaped like a helmet. The form of the flowers is especially intended to draw as well as make use of the bees visiting them, particularly the humble bee. The sepals of aconite have a purple hue - the purple color particularly helps to attract the bees. In addition, the sepals have a fantastic shape and one of the sepals have the shape of a covering. On the other hand, the petals of aconite are simply embodied by the two extremely bizarre nectar-producing parts positioned inside the hood - rather in the shape of a hammer. Aconite flowers have copious stamens that are positioned in a depressed manner in the form of a bunch at the flower mouth. Initially, the stamens are drooping, but get up one after the other and position their anthers frontward in such a manner that any bee that visits the flower in quest of nectar is covered with pollen dust. Subsequently, the bees transport the anthers to the flower they visit next and, in this way, pollinate the immature fruits that are within a bunch at the center of the stamens. Every carpel of aconite encloses a solitary seed. This shrub has dark green shiny leaves, which are a lighter green color on their under surface. A perennial, the aconite is capable of growing anywhere from two feet to six feet in height. The thick tuberous roots support its stem.

Keep reading

Cotylorhynchus, Matt Celeskey

Behemoths pay no mind to the rain. A belly must be filled, and downpours, no matter how cold, no matter how hard, are easier to ignore than empty stomachs. Besides, the rain softens the soil making it easier to unearth tubers and roots. Those are the tasty parts of plants, more tender and less fibrous, more flavorful and less bitter. Thunder rumbles and the wind kicks rain into the synapsid’s eyes, but it doesn’t notice—it’s mind is focused on a thick knot of roots freshly revealed and glistening in the mud.