tuber roots

anonymous asked:

In regards to pigeon diets; I've seen vets and wildlife rehabilitators mention that pigeons can eat a variety of vegetables,(appears corn and peas are recommend for young ones if they're abandoned and need to be cared for, in particular) berries, and insects as well, and according to ornithologist, rock pigeons regularly have a varied diet similar to that in a nature setting. I'm wondering where the idea that pigeons can't digest foods besides seeds and grain comes from?

So I have to ask you:

Do you know what anatomical part of the plant corn kernels and peas are?

Given that you called them vegetables, I have to assume not.

They are seeds.

Seeds have a VERY different structure from the rest of a plant’s anatomy.

They are embryonic tissue wrapped in a protective shell. Almost pure protein, and in terms of digestion, closer to processing meat than any other part of a plant’s anatomy.

Leaf, stem, root, tuber and vegitable flesh are largely comprised of Cellulose, the stuff that makes wood rigid.

Animals cannot process cellulose on their own. 

They need bacteria for that, which is stored in a specialized organ called the Cecum, which branches off from the intestine in many species, and it just an extra length of it in others (such as humans and ruminants.)

In most birds, the cecum branches off of the intestines and food does not directly pass through it.  Bacteria are excreted from it to digest the vegetation that the body cannot break down unaided.

Animals that eat a lot of leafy or fleshy vegetation have very large caeca to store the volume of bacteria required to break it down enough to get any nutrition out of it.

Here, for example, is the Cecum of a horse.

@why-animals-do-the-thing talked about the cecum in their post about why feeding a cat a vegetarian or vegan diet would kill it, and they found this helpful comparative image set.

Animals with a low cellulose diet tend to have either a very small cecum or none at all.

So, the idea that a pigeon cannot process cellulose stems from the fact that pigeons have less of a cecum than a DOG does.

Let’s have a look at the anatomy of a genuinely omnivorous bird that eats everything from flesh to bugs, to grass and does a LOT of grazing on vegetable matter:

A chicken has, not one cecum, but TWO very long Caeca.

Chickens eat a LOT of vegitation, so they need a LOT of storage space for their bacterial partners.

Now, let’s look at a pigeon.

See that teeny little blip of a cecum?

That’s all they need because the only cellulose in a seed diet is the shell of the seed, which pigeons swallow whole.

Unlike parrots, finches, and other seed eating birds, Columbids to not remove the shell from the seed. 

The shell is an absolutely necessary source of dietary fiber that finches and psitticines get no use out of.

Animals that can process sugars need to be able to detect them.

Pigeons have 40 taste buds. None of which can detect sweetness.

Their enjoyment and selection of favorite food items is based more on texture than taste.

Pigeons who have never seen other birds eat a berry, when offered a berry, will generally fail to recognize it as a food, so the conclusion I have reached is that feral pigeons who do eat them have observed song birds do it, and with food being scarce and most of the,m being hungry, they don;t have the option to be picky. 

That’s why you see ferals eating discarded hot dogs when they are not even remotely built to be flesh eaters.

 Insects are actually very nutritionally similar to the embryonic tissue that seeds are, and there tend to be insects on or in seeds that birds pick up and swallow.

But now let me ask you:

Have you spent any time observing feral pigeon flocks?

Have you ever seen them employ hunting behavior?

Honing in on something that moves, stalking it and pecking it up like a chicken or corvid (both of which are omnivorous) would?

Because watching pigeon flocks is a big part of my research, and I have yet to see them react in a predatory manner to live insects.

Peeps are interested in the movement, but consumption largely seems to be incidental rather than intentional.

Foodstuffs in Morrowind and What They Taste Like

Ash Yams:  “Ash yam is a tough tuberous root vegetable…”

  These taste like sweet potatoes, although very grainy and with a tough outer skin that outlanders peel off before eating because it is both tough and bitter.  A true Dunmer would never dream of peeling off this skin.  They like it.


   Very common food, very basic.  Generally cooked in a wood-burning oven, the texture is baguette-like and extremely crusty.  The flavor itself is bland but palatable.  The amount of salt added to the dough depends on the region; water-rich areas tend to eat saltier bread.

Comberry:  "The comberry is a bush that produces a bitter berry, best known as the basis of the native comberry brandy, a rough but potent alcoholic beverage of Morrowind…”

   Similar in flavor to an unripe mulberry.  Except incredibly bitter, like you-just-licked-the-spout-of-a-well-used-Keurig bitter.  It sweetens during the fermentation process, however not by much.

Crab Meat"The mudcrab native to Vvardenfell is prized for its sweet crab meat…”

   Because mudcrabs are, at their smallest, the size of a large chihuahua, they usually produce enough meat to feed a modest family of three (elves don’t have many children).  Though all mudcrap meat is tough and chewy, the younger the crab the more tender the meat.

Hackle-Lo Leaf:  "Hackle-lo leaf is a tasty edible succulent leaf…”

   One of the most common vegetables eaten on Vvardenfell.  Though its shape and texture are similar to a fat kale leaf, its properties are more similar to a squash.  When left uncooked, it has a crispness and flavor like a cucumber.  Cooked, it tastes like sauteed zucchini.  Its versatility with spice and other foods is why it is preferred over other vegetables.

Hound Meat:  "Hound meat is the flesh of the nix-hound. The meat is sweet and tender…”

   Most similar to beef.  Nix-Hounds are much, MUCH leaner than cows, however, and so the meat they produce has a very low fat content.  Maybe that’s why all the Dunmer are so thin?  Or maybe they are constantly burning calories by scowling all the time?  Nirn may never know.

Kwama Eggs:  "Kwama eggs are a rich, nutritious foodstuff…”

  Large kwama eggs are the size of ostrich eggs, and small kwama eggs are the size of bigger-than-average-jumbo chicken eggs.  Whatever the case they’re bigger than a chicken egg, and if you wanted to scramble them for breakfast you’d just have to crack one open for a heaping plate.  The taste is yolky, but the yolk-to-albumen ratio is pretty even.  A waxier texture, it squeaks on your teeth when eaten.

Marshmerrow"The sweet pulp of marshmerrow reeds is a delectable foodstuff…”

   Fruity and sweet, it is served both raw and cooked.  The taste is honestly kinda like a marshmallow (believe it or not), but with an almost peachy undertone.  The raw, watery pulp is eaten with a spoon, but when cooked, it’s eaten with a fork.  To use the wrong utensil is a grave social mistake, as is every other action done by outlanders.  Like existing.

Rat Meat:  "Rat meat is tough and greasy, with an unpleasant odor and taste. Nonetheless, it is cheap, abundant, and nutritious, and palatable when cooked in a stew and masked by strong strong spices.”

   Texture is most like pork.  Eating rat meat in a stew is like eating the little meatballs in Spaghetti-O’s; you can eat it just fine when you don’t think about it.  It has high tryptophan content, so it makes you sleepy, just like eating turkey does.

Saltrice:  “Saltrice is another of the tasty and nutritious foodstuffs…”

   Though fibrous, it becomes easier to chew the longer you cook it, often by boiling (Dunmer need their colons cleansed, too).  Similar in flavor to cabbage, it is eaten both raw and cooked, usually as an additive to stews.

Scrib Jelly:   “…Crushed scribs produce a nutritious but sour-tasting gelatin… that the natives eat with gusto.”

   This is nothing like sweet pectin fruit jellies.  It’s like pork-bone-yellow-nasty-meat-gelatin.  But the coagulative properties come from the chitin (pronounced KITE-in) shell of scribs.  They don’t have bones.  It’s definitely an acquired taste, and it does grow on you with each successive mouthful.  The texture is like that of thick refried beans, and the flavor is that of mild buttermilk.

Scrib Jerky:  “Scribs cut into strips and dried in the sun are called scrib jerky… tastes scarcely worse when spoiled than when fresh, and are a practical foodstuff for the hardy native traveler.”

   Very chewy, very dry.  But all around not bad.  One of the most versatile foods in terms of flavors, it ranges from sweet to savory.  Scrib jerky produced in traditional dry-rub methods is incredibly salty and rather spicy, and is eaten regularly among the ashlanders.  In modern cities, the meat is marinated first in a usually sweet sauce, and it produces a more tender jerky, but it doesn’t last as long.

Scuttle:  “Scuttle is Vvardenfell’s favorite local dish. This cheese-like, greasy substance made from the flesh of local beetles is remarkably tasty…”

      Eaten with a knife and fork, it is generally reserved for those in the upper class, though all but the poorest Dunmer will find a way to eat it at least twice a year on special occasions.  A robust dish, it is comparable in texture to paneer.  The flavor is spicy, and it tastes like a Masala dish. 

Trama Root:  "A calming tea with modest magical properties is brewed from the thick, bitter-tasting root of the trama shrub…”

   Most similar in taste to Oolong tea.  Almost a smokey flavor, but definitely a woody undertone.  Perhaps more like an overtone.  No one eats the trama root itself, except for confused and inferior outlanders.  But the tea is good and is drank throughout the day, especially in the evening.

Mandrake, mandragora autumnalis

The mandragora autumnalis is from the nightshade family solanaceae. It is a hardy perennial herb that can grow up to a height of 10 centimeters, and is native to the south-eastern Mediterranean region. This magical plant is highly useful but deadly, and has been cultivated by witches and wizards for hundreds of years.

When unearthed from the ground, the tuberous human like roots emit a high pitched wail that is fatal to all who hear it. The younger, less mature plants are less likely to cause death, and instead their scream can cause unconsciousness in the victim. When growing young mandrake, it is good to observe the plants growth closely. When the mandrake plants start acting secretive and moody, it is sign that the plants are close to full maturity. 


Last in the Harry Potter magical plants botanical illustrations that I’ve been working on. The others can be found in my herbology tag.

Onions, and by extension Shrek, have layers.  Onions are a bulb, a sort of modified stem in a plant. Potatoes are tubers, which are modified roots and do not have layers. Potatoes are not onions. Shrek is not a potato.

So bulbs are special underground stems that some plants, like Shrek, can have. Therefore you can think of the layers of an onion are just leaves. Just like rings in a tree, bulbs grow layers as they grow older. The more layers an onion has, the older and more successful it has been in its life. Shrek must have lots of layers.

The purpose of a bulb is to store and protect water, nutrients, and other things Shrek needs to survive. This gives it an advantage over say, trees, which need a constant intake of sun and nutrients to survive. Onions like Shrek can store nutrients to use them when they need to.

The layers then also serve an evolutionary purpose. If a predator wants to eat the onion, it must first eat through many layers of icky tasting onion and will likely be discouraged. Of course, Shrek has no natural predators so this is not an issue.

Shrek’s layers are modified leaves which help protect the nutrients it stores inside. The more layers a Shrek has, the older and stronger it is.

If you’ve ever chopped up an onion, or looked at Shrek, you’ve probably ended up crying. Onions make you cry for the same reasons they taste bad. Onions are filled with enzymes, and when you break through their cells, with a knife or with your teeth, these enzymes are released.

Enzymes that were kept separated from the sulfenic acid by the cells are then free to mix, forming propanethiol S-oxide. Propanethiol S-oxide is a gas, which rises up and reacts with water in your eyes to form sulfuric acid. That burns your eyes, so your eyes produce more water to try to wash the acid away. So you cry.

If you want to protect your eyes from onions, you can cut the onion under running water (which washes the propanethiol s-oxide away before it can get to your eyes), or refrigerate it before you cut it. A cooler temperature will slow down the chemical reaction in general. If you want to protect yourself from Shrek, you can’t.

When you cut an onion, the natural enzymes mix with the water in your eyes to form sulfuric acid. Your eyes produce tears to try to wash the acid away.

The Average American eats 20 pounds of onion per year, so it would take 10-15 Americans to consume an entire Shrek in one year. There are 45 calories in a single serving of Shrek.

Happy April Fool’s Day from the Scientific Pokedex!

anonymous asked:

Does Muriel's diet mainly consist if eggs?

Muriel’s diet mainly consists of roots and tubers. As fall turns to winter, he must begin the task of seeking out richer meals to prepare for the long sleep 

anonymous asked:

What are some of your issues with Palomancy? (You've mentioned not being 100% in agreement with them and I was just wondering)

I’m going to put the answer to this question under a readmore.

Before we go one word further, please keep in mind that Palomacy is currently the largest single network even attempting to advocate for he humane treatment of domestic Pigeons and Ringneck doves.

Palomacy stemmed from the parrot rescue, Mikaboo. 

Their founder did not intend or want to advocate for pigeons, but was compelled by compassion after finding out that pigeons and doves in CA shelters were just being destroyed because no one knew what to do with them, and there was no one even trying to advocate for them.

They are an Animal Rights leaning group, but follow Animal Welfare practices, insisting that birds who cannot fend for themselves be cared for, rather than destroyed.

Palomacy does overwhelmingly more good than harm and makes every effort they know of to mitigate the known risks of potential harm.

What they need, and the birds in their care deserve, is support.

And after all the shit I’ve shared with you guys and I’ve seen and heard and experienced from other breeders, I really can’t blame them for being skeptical of a breeder’s word and research.

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Plant of the Day

Sunday 28 May 2017

The large, dramatic flower spikes of Eremurus robustus (giant desert candle, foxtail lily) reach up to 3m and are attractive to butterflies. The large starfish-like root tubers grow in fertile, sandy, well-drained loam in full sun, and the tall flowers need shelter from the wind. 

 Jill Raggett

Recipe: Roots Platter

Description: This’ll keep you digging for more.

Game ingredients: Cave Carrot, Winter Root

This recipe restores 125 energy and 50 health. It also gives a +3 Combat bonus. It can be obtained from achieving Level 3 Combat and sells for 100g.

Difficulty: Easy, 45 minutes. Serves 4.

I make this recipe quite often, but I usually just use potatoes and carrots.

-Root vegetables: turnips, parsnips, carrots, rutabaga, etc
-Tubers: potatoes, yams, etc
-¼ to 1/3 cup olive oil, as needed
-One Step Greek seasoning (or seasoning of your choice!)

For 4 servings I used 2 parsnips, 2 carrots, half a rutabaga, 3 small potatoes, and half a yam. I didn’t use turnips, but about 2 of those will do if you choose to have some as well.

Preheat the oven to 395°F. 

Chop up the tubers and roots into small chunks, removing any unwanted peels and ends. I keep the peels on the potatoes. For rutabagas, you may need to use a knife to remove the peel since most vegetable peelers aren’t strong enough to remove the skin. 

Combine the olive oil and seasoning in a large bowl, and add all the vegetables. Toss to fully coat them, ensuring an even distribution of oil and seasoning. 

Transfer the vegetables to a baking dish and cook for 35 minutes, or more if needed. The larger the chunks, the more time needed. 

Serve hot with lunch or dinner. Some root vegetables don’t hold a lot of flavour, so the seasoning helps a lot! This dish is tasty and nutritious. 


natgeo Photograph by David Chancellor @chancellordavid - catching vulturine guineafowl for a research project, Mpala research centre, northern Kenya - The name of the vulturine guineafowl (Acryllium vulturinum) comes from its bald head and neck, which is similar to a vulture’s. They have a range throughout North East Africa and can be found in the grasslands, savannahs and scrublands of Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania and Uganda.
Using their beak and claws to dig and scratch for food, vulturine guineafowl forage for fruit, grubs, insects, roots, seeds, tubers and vegetation. Due to their dry environment, water is not always readily available to them but they can survive for long periods without drinking and are able to obtain all their liquid requirements from their food.
Although they can fly well, vulturine guineafowl spend the majority of their time on the ground and prefer to flee from danger on foot rather than fly away. They are able to call to each other over long distances, not only to warn of danger but also to call the flock together to roost. Although they live together in large flocks, vulturine guineafowl can become aggressive and injure each other if food becomes scare or roosting sites become crowded. This is not just limited to adult birds; chicks will also fight each other for food. There is currently very little information on the vulture guinea fowl as a species and researchers are currently observing the birds, their associations, and construction of social networks here at Mpala research centre, northern Kenya.

anonymous asked:

Sharing a dessert for your favs

Just a little Shadow of Revan fluff, with a small return of Theron the Food Snob.

Apparently they were dipping into the Imps rations tonight, if the excessive spice on the main meal was any indication. Whoever was on mess duty must have stubbed their toe and dumped half of the Coalition’s supply of firespice in an attempt to bring some semblance of flavor to the rubbery meat-like substance. He was mostly certain it wasn’t some poor Ginx that had wandered too close to the patrols. (Mostly.) Theron had choked his portion down — beggars couldn’t be choosers, even if his tastebuds may have wanted to claim otherwise. The only bright point of the meal was the pastry someone had managed to scrape together that vaguely reminded him of a Vagnerian canapé. The sugar and fruit combo almost doused the fire that had been set to his tongue.

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Ulluco small harvest! these plants only got half their season to grow and managed to still put out a few tubers! although half the size they look vibrant and amazing inside and out just boiled for 5 minutes they taste like potato with a little exta potato taste not so bland as potato. SUCCESS!!! Will be grown next year and will be a permanent crop as a groundcover in the greenhouse and outside.


Plant of the Day

Saturday 14 October 2017

It is not all autumn foliage colour at the moment as late flowering herbaceous perennials are still putting on a display including Dahlia ‘Autumn Lustre’. This tuberous rooted perennial is a waterlily type with the inner florets being bright red and the outer ones being lighter orange-red. This plant will need to be lifted and stored in a cool, dry, frost-free place for winter. Here it was the star of the hot coloured cottage garden, Sissinghurst, Kent, UK. 

Jill Raggett


Happy Submission Freedom Sunday!

This week I will be posting my Picture Storybook Fanfiction. Each day (except on October 31st and November 3rd) I will post a new chapter to this short adult fairytale story. The writing is very simple and the chapters very short. I hope you like it. (On October 31st I will be posting two chapters. On November 3rd - we will showcase another fanworker for fanwork friday.)

Belong by @moonofmorrigan / @elvenimagination / @moonofmorrigantolkien

Chapter One

“It is almost time for me to wake up. Come to me when the forest awakens!” he called.

Lisa had been having similar dreams, about the same forest, and the same man since she was a child. The forest was beautiful, if not lonely. Quiet and bound with a secret spell that she could not name, the trees were old, the plant life nearly so. The man, etherally beautiful and not human, would always call to her. His hair was long, just touching his waist, shining as moonlight on snow, ears pointed like rose leaves, flawless pale skin, high cheekbones, a perfectly formed mouth that would smile with pink lips, the nose perfect though long, and finally the eyes - those ice blue eyes that seemed to peer into your very soul.

When she was a child she would only dream of him in the spring, summer and fall - never in winter. It was as if he slept then, awakening when the frost thawed. Her dreams would be spent with him walking among the ancient trees, and having flower wreaths put in her hair. There were others there… they were like him, but not. He shined brighter than they somehow, and the others seemed to do his bidding without a second thought.

When she became a teenager, and had discovered an interest in the opposite sex, it was as if he sensed it. He would not hold her hand so long. Each year of her teenage years the dreams of him became less until they were absent all together. She thought them completely gone until she was 25 and experienced her first true heart break. She had not had many love affairs, something she attributed to the looks she had grown into. Her features were pretty, but not showy. Her figure was not slim, chubby for lack of a better description. She was not loud or easy to make friends with. Awkward at best, and her friends were few, and had long been living their own lives. Her parents took little interest in her, favoring her older sister, who was the picture perfect figure and student. She learned to like her uniqueness, but her parents were not so impressed with it. So contact was very limited.

After her first heartbreak she did not sleep for a couple of days, eating was sparse.  Finally, exhaustion claimed her, and the first of her dreams were dark and full of hateful images that would force her awake. Then after a month of such torment, for she remembered it clearly, on a sunny, cold, snow covered day, when she had left work to rest he came again. It was the first time he had ever appeared to her during the winter months.

He came to her as a mythical figure in the old stories, as if appearing out of nowhere in her dream, once more offering her his hand and chasing away the dark, faceless creatures trying to chase her down and choke her. She took it without question, and he led her deep into the bowels of the earth. Beneath tree and root, tuber and the cold of the winter. Down, down, down until finally light engulfed them by lanterns lit with some magic light.

He led her on further down hallways and pathways, hand in hers, giving her no pause to feel her pain or gape at what she would see. Finally he opened a set of ornate wooden doors and inside a bedroom that looked like a thing from a faerie story, with the forest canopy magically seen overhead, though no chill air or wind found it’s way into the room. He led her to the bed and sat her down, leaving for a moment and offering her a goblet of wine the next. Then when the sweet wine hit her senses and the grief came back once more, he gathered her in his arms and she cried in his chest.

From that time on it mattered not what the season was, she would dream of him, and from that time period, at least to her feelings on the matter, their relationship had taken an erotic turn. As the years droned on the touches became less fleeting and more drawn out, and were in places that he had never tried to touch her before. However, he always remained “a gentleman” and never let his hands wander too far up her thighs. The lips he would brush on her cheeks, forehead, or neck would never claim her lips. Always he would speak softly, and end it was with a plea.

“Come to me. Be mine. No one will hurt you again.”

Disclaimer: Original image © Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. All rights reserved. The Hobbit/Thranduil trademarked to Middle-earth Enterprises and licensed to New Line Cinema. No profit is being made from either the images or the writing.

In A Vacuum #1: Rust Beast

The Rust Beast is well known as that “horrifying dog-sized bug wot eats your equipment” in rpgs, and that, honestly, isn’t a very inaccurate basic description. Commonly found in Dungeons, it isn’t too difficult to imagine it living a simple life of eating whatever scrap or metal equipment is available: kettles, pickaxes, to expensive enchanted items, but how does such a creature, “Live in a Vacuum”?

Where do they Come From?
Rust Beasts compared to other ‘monsters in the wild’ are actually pretty mundane, there is nothing particularly special or strange about their breeding or life cycle: Rust Beasts reproduce sexually, they then use their antennae to find soil with a high mineral content before burying a hundred or so eggs. The eggs eventually hatch into forearm-length grubs that slowly burrow through the soil feeding on roots, tubers, dirt and the microbes within it- it’s very important that the grubs consume the metal-eating microbes within the soil so they can cultivate the gut-flora needed to eat metal themselves. Once fat enough, the grubs will pupate for about a year before an adult Rust Beast pops out- digging itself out of the ground. 

What do they eat when there’s no Humans?
The antennae of the Rust Beast are finely tuned, delicate, metal detectors; naturally magnetic, the fine, fluffy, static hairs of a Rust Beasts moth-like antennae create and read a magnetic field all around the insect so as to pin point the location of even the slightest hint of metal. Within nature, Rust Beasts naturally find themselves drawn to natural sources of metal, be they from traditional veins or deposits, mineral rich soils, to even the bones and carapaces of certain metallic monsters. The Rust Beast’s metal detection is specifically ferromagnetic, meaning it can only detect iron, nickel, cobalt, and adamantine . 

How do they get into Dungeons?
Within nature, Rust Beasts are naturally found wherever they can find metal, but typically find themselves living in dry, arid, environments where red iron-rich soil or clay is exposed and not soaked up by plant life. 
With Human (sapient) intervention, though, Rust Beasts can find themselves boxed up in wooden crates and purposefully released into Dungeons or naturally drawn to these same Dungeons given the allure of unguarded, metallic, mechanisms used in traps or just ordinary scrap metal-  There’s very little a Rust Beast can’t burrow through once they sense a high metal content. 

Peruvian Food. Peruvian cuisine includes influences from the indigenous Inca population and cuisines brought in with immigrants from Europe (Spanish, Italian, German cuisine), Asia (Chinese & Japanese cuisine), and West Africa. Without the familiar ingredients from their home countries, immigrants modified their traditional dishes by using local Peruvian ingredients. The 4 traditional staples are corn, potatoes & other tubers, Amaranthaceaes (quinoa, kañiwa & kiwicha), and legumes (beans, lupins). Staples brought by Europeans include rice, wheat, and meat (beef, pork, chicken). Many traditional foods such as quinoa, kiwicha, chili peppers, and several roots & tubers have increased in popularity in recent decades, reflecting a revival of interest in native Peruvian foods and culinary techniques. Peruvian food has been described as one of the world’s most important cuisines and as an example of fusion cuisine, due to its long multicultural history.

King in the North

(Jon x Reader)

Words: 1,993

A kinda-sorta sequel to this smutty bit here.

The shouts rumbled like thunder over the Bay of Ice. “KING IN THE NORTH! KING IN THE NORTH!” The very stones of Winterfell seemed to shake beneath the chanting, pounding of cups, and stamping of feet. “KING IN THE NORTH! KING IN THE NORTH!” And even from your far, far place in the hall, you could read the fear in Jon’s eyes.

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