tsardom

the Growth of the Tsardom of Russia

sayat-nova:

In 1547 the 16 year old Ivan the Terrible, son to the Grand Duke of Muscowy, was wed to the Tsardom of Russia. This notion he borrowed from the Rus state which was destroyed by the Tatar Invasion of 1237. He would proceed to annex the Khanates of Astrakhan, Kazan and Sibir leaving only Crimea of what was left from the Golden Horde.

In 1721 Peter the Great proclaimed himself the Emperor of Russia to celebrate his victory in the Great Northern War. The Russian Empire thus entered European politics at the expense of the Kingdom of Sweden.

The last date on this map, 1725, is the year of his death.

“… The next poor idiot to hit the Russian throne was Michael Romanov, whose descendants held onto it with an iron fist until the Communists shot them.  The Romanov dynasty was uneventful until Peter the Great, who decided to copy the west and forced all the nobles to shave and learn French.  He also pwned the Church.  Everybody hated him.  His grandson was a drunk and let his wife Catherine rule the country.  She was called ‘The Great,’ too.  This is because Russian historieans aren’t very imaginative.  They could have called her 'Catherine the Slut.’”

-ED

On This Day In History~ May 2nd

1729; The birth of Catherine the Great

Catherine II, also known as Catherine the Great (2 May 1729 – 17 November 1796), was the most renowned and the longest-ruling female leader of Russia, reigning from 9 July 1762 until her death in 1796 at the age of 67. Her reign was called Russia’s golden age. She was born in Stettin, Pomerania, Prussia as Sophie Friederike Auguste von Anhalt-Zerbst-Dornburg, and came to power following a coup d'état and the assassination of her husband, Peter III, at the end of the Seven Years’ War. Russia was revitalized under her reign, growing larger and stronger than ever and becoming recognized as one of the great powers of Europe.

In both her accession to power and in rule of her empire, Catherine often relied on her noble favourites, most notably Grigory Orlov and Grigory Potemkin. Assisted by highly successful generals such as Pyotr Rumyantsev and Alexander Suvorov, and admirals such as Fyodor Ushakov, she governed at a time when the Russian Empire was expanding rapidly by conquest and diplomacy. In the south, the Crimean Khanate was crushed following victories over the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish wars, and Russia colonised the vast territories of Novorossiya along the coasts of the Black and Azov Seas. In the west, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, ruled by Catherine’s former lover, king Stanisław August Poniatowski, was eventually partitioned, with the Russian Empire gaining the largest share. In the east, Russia started to colonise Alaska, establishing Russian America.

Catherine reformed the administration of Russian guberniyas, and many new cities and towns were founded on her orders. An admirer of Peter the Great, Catherine continued to modernise Russia along Western European lines. However, military conscription and economy continued to depend on serfdom, and the increasing demands of the state and private landowners led to increased levels of reliance on serfs. This was one of the chief reasons behind several rebellions, including the large-scale Pugachev’s Rebellion of cossacks and peasants.

The period of Catherine the Great’s rule, the Catherinian Era, is often considered the Golden Age of the Russian Empire and the Russian nobility. The Manifesto on Freedom of the Nobility, issued during the short reign of Peter III and confirmed by Catherine, freed Russian nobles from compulsory military or state service. Construction of many mansions of the nobility, in the classical style endorsed by the Empress, changed the face of the country. A notable example of an enlightened despot, a correspondent of Voltaire and an amateur opera librettist, Catherine presided over the age of the Russian Enlightenment, when the Smolny Institute, the first state-financed higher education institution for women in Europe, was established.

awwwwww thanx ^///^

We call this flag ‘Krestovka’. This is the flag of the first Russian state - Tsardom of Russia (Tsarstvo russkoye). Appeared in the XVII century, during the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov. Basically, the first flag of Russian state, before Russia used banners, like this:

Krestovka used by Russian national movement (nationalists, but not imperialist or monarchist). 

Imperialists-nationalists uses house of Romanov flag or ‘Imperka’
This one:

Now, you know how ‘Russian Federation’ will be in russian? It will be 'Rossiyskaya Federatsiya’. And how 'russian’ will be in russian? And here we have two interpretation: 'russkiy’ - ethnic russian, and 'rossiyanin’ - citizen of russia. In english this two terms means the same.

Russians don’t actually like been called 'rossiyane’ because 'rossiyanin’ is every citizen of Russia, he may be chechen, tatar or ukrainian, whatever. And we clearly identify ourselves as 'russkiye’. 
Why is this important? You see, all nations has their own flag even if they don’t have their own state like ingrians, rusyns, crimean tatars etc. So for me 'Krestovka’ is the flag of my nation (you may say this is the flag of ethnic russians).

I don’t like official flag of Russian federation (Rossiyskaya Federatsiya), because we are not 'rossiyane’ we are 'russkiye’. Plus, if you don’t know (i’m sure, u don’t) tricolor were used by Vlasov’s army (russian traitors who fought for Hitler). This is also the reason why i don’t feel myself comfortable with official Russian Federation flag.

Thank you for your questions :3

So I desperately needed a break from the Preview art. Like, hard-core needed it. I’ve churned out over 35 individual pictures in the last 2 and a half weeks, and I’m really afraid of burning myself out. So here, have something that has absolutely nothing to do with the preview!

The 1400′s was a hell of a time for both Vanya and Ivan. Novgorod, birthed out of the marshes and rivers feeding into the Baltic sea, started the century riding high on a sound defeat of the Swedish, wealthy, militarily sound, and establishing strong alliances with the Lithuanians. Muscovy, once a wooden matchstick out that would burn at the drop of a hat, rose to power on the backs of the dead, establishing the first proper Tsardom and started the long process of shaking off the yolk of the Tartars. For a long while, the two of them left each other alone. Tver came along, and fed by Novgorodian and Lithuanian patronage, blossomed. Only one city could become the new Capital. After Tver toppled, the two were bound to clash, and they did. …violently.

Vanya would not live to see the end of the century, nor would he survive to see his once powerful Republic laid low and subservient under the boot of his cousin.

Rurik

Rurik or Riurik (Old Church Slavonic: Рюрик, from Rørik, the Old East Norse form of the name Roderick; c. 830 – c. 879) was a legendary Varangian chieftain who gained control of Ladoga in 862, built the Holmgard settlement near Novgorod, and founded the Rurik Dynasty, which ruled Kievan Rus (and later Grand Duchy of Moscow and Tsardom of Russia) until the 17th century.

There is a debate over how Rurik came to control Ladoga and Novgorod. The only information about him is contained in the 12th century Primary Chronicle, which states that Chuds (Estonians), Eastern Slavs, Merias, Veses, and Krivichs “…drove the Varangians back beyond the sea, refused to pay them tribute, and set out to govern themselves”. Afterwards the tribes started fighting each other and decided to invite the Varangians, led by Rurik, to reestablish order.

According to the Primary Chronicle, Rurik was one of the Rus, a Varangian tribe likened by the chronicler to Danes, Swedes, Angles, and Gotlanders. In the 20th century, archaeologists partly corroborated the chronicle’s version of events, but mostly the excavations denied most of the chronicle’s data about Rurik’s arrival when it was apparent that the old settlement stretched to the mid-8th century and the excavated objects were mostly of Finnish-Ugric and Slavic origin, dated to the mid-8th century, which showed the settlement was not Scandinavian from the beginning.

Rurik remained in power until his death in 879. His successors (the Rurik Dynasty), however, moved the capital to Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus’, which persisted until the Mongol invasion in 1240. A number of extant princely families are patrilineally descended from Rurik, although the last Rurikid to rule Russia, Vasily IV, died in 1612

According to the entries in the Radzivil and Hypatian Chronicles under the years 862–864, Rurik’s first residence was in Ladoga. It is only later that he moved his seat of power to Novgorod, a fort built not far from the source of the Volkhov River. The meaning of this place name in medieval Russian is “new fortification”, while the current meaning (“new town”) appeared only later.

There is a large, 9th-century funerary barrow in Novgorod Oblast, reminiscent of the mounds at Old Uppsala, Sweden, which is called Shum Gora. Intricately defended against looting, it remains to be excavated. The local inhabitants refer to it as Rurik’s Grave

3

one period in history: the tsardom of russia (1547-1721)

Fatherland! Holy Russia! I am thine! With scorn from off my clothing now I shake the foreign dust, and greedily I drink new air; it is my native air. O father, thy soul hath now been solaced; in the grave. Thy bones, disgraced, thrill with a sudden joy! Again doth flash our old ancestral sword, this glorious sword—the dread of dark Kazan! This good sword—servant of the tsars of Moscow!   Now will it revel in its feast of slaughter, serving the master of its hopes.

Aleksandr Pushkin, Boris Godunov

Today, thus far

I started off the day joking about the animated film Anastasia, which despite being historically inaccurate is a movie (and soundtrack) I adore beyond belief, with homegrownoregano.

Then, I was discussing the Russian Tsardom with ishiptoomanypeopleontv

Now, wallflowerings has reblogged a post with GIFs and tidbits on the History of the Romanovs.  

Today is one of those days on Tumblr when I feel like I’ve found my people.

Russian history starts when the Eastern Slavs and Finno-Ugric peoples start to settle down and establish a state, and they open relations with the Byzantines and adopt Christianity.

And then things got worse.

Genghis came (in the winter, mind you) and in less than three years, the Mongols completely destroyed the young state of Rus’, killing over half it’s people.

And then things got worse.

The Mongol Empire collapsed, leaving a power void in Asia. Russia reestablished itself as the Grand Duchy, and then the Tsardom, but it took a very long time before Russia could be considered a regional power.

And then things got worse.

In the age of Empire, Russia, with no warm water ports, could not expand across the seas, and was blocked by powerful Germany/HRE/Austria in the West, so they expanded East, and the more they expanded, the more clear it was that Russia was forming an identity for itself that was somehow different from the rest of Europe. As the empire grew, it also grew more isolated. They fell behind, economically and socially. Feudalism in the form of lords and serfs existed in Russia until 1861, but when it was abolished, it only made the lower classes even poorer. In 1906 a constitution was written, but the Aristocracy rejected it.

And then things got worse.

World War 1 began. It was kind of Russia’s fault, they were the first to mobilize their military (well, they somehow managed to sneak around using the word “mobilize” so that after the war they could point the finger at Germany, who mobilized in response to Russia’s “totally-not-a-mobilization”) Russia was not ready for the war, the people didn’t want the war, they had no stake in the squabbles of Balkan powers,

And then things got worse.

Revolution! The Tsars were kicked out in March of 1917, and were replaced by the Russian Republic.

And then things got worse.

Revolution! The Russian Republic was kicked out by the Bolsheviks in the Red October, establishing the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, led by Vladmir Lenin. They made peace with the Germans and Austrians, and consolidated power for the next several years, socializing every business they possibly could, and then forming the USSR.

And then things got worse

Lenin died, and the Communist Party was fractured into two groups, led by Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky. Stalin came out on top, and killed Trotsky and exiled his followers. He then began a long reign of terror. Millions of people were killed by his order. Dissidents were sent to hard labor camps in Siberia, whence they never returned.

And then things got worse.

It’s Hitler time, everybody! That’s right, the nutty German himself suddenly invaded in June 1941, and by November they had captured Ukraine and much of the Russian countryside, and were camped outside the gates of Moscow and Leningrad. But, Stalin, with his innovative and brilliant strategy (throw worthless grunts at them until they run out of bullets) began to push the Germans back, eventially all the way to Berlin. Overall, the war costed 30 million soviet deaths.

And then things got worse.

The war was expensive, and took an extreme toll on the Soviet economy and it’s population. But, they managed to hang on, they stole nuclear technology from the United States, and then began developing it themselves. The space race happened, yada yada

And then things got worse.

For very complicated reasons, not limited to overspending on nuclear and space technology and military, and the general lack of concern for it’s people, the Soviet Union declined, and eventually soffered widespread economic collapse and public outrage, especially when Gorbachev instituted his “glasnost” policy, which revealed decades of repression and deception. A coup threw Gorbachev out of power, but the coup government itself only lasted three days, leaving a new power vacuum. The government of the various Soviet Republics took over administrative control from the old central Soviet government, and soon, the Communist Party was banned (though the ban was never actually enforced). Yeltsin, the president of Russia, reorganized the country, and tried to rescue the economy in every way he could, including privatization of as many industries as possible as fast as possible.

And then things got worse.

Yeltsin’s privatization wasn’t well planned and was much too fast. It opened the door for criminal mafias and greedy corporations to seize economic power, and soon Russia effectively had an Oligarchic Aristocracy again, just like in the 19th century. The country wasn’t able to get out of it’s depression before the 1998 financial crisis, which decimated the economy again, and forced Yeltsin to resign.

And then things got worse.

Vladmir Putin. Ex-KGB officer, often reminisces about the glory of the Soviet era. He won a landslide victory in every election under suspicious circumstances, he took control of the Parliament, but pretended to uphold the constitution by letting his head of staff win the election after his second term, because the constitution says presidents cannot serve more than two consecutive terms, but as soon as Medvedev’s first term ended, Putin won another landslide victory. All the while, political opponents of Putin disappear, or die in unexpected, tragic accidents.

And then things got worse.

Putin invaded Georgia, and then Ukraine, paving the way for a new Russian Empire, just as unequal and authoritarian as any other.
And that’s Russian history for you.

nonsensicaljello asked:

“Ah, my memory is fleeing me, but let’s see… Way back in my younger years when I was still getting used to tsardom, I would often sneak away from royal lessons to mingle with the peasants. I remember walking the streets of Saint Petersburg, always thinking about how melancholic the people were, so one day I went as a, uh, street musician? Yes, I think that’s the word. Fin had always told me when I was living with him how wonderful my music was so at the time I thought it’d help liven up the place. It was nerve-wracking, the first performance, but gods was it loads of fun! Plus, I earned many a ruble that day that I ended up feeding this large group of urchins I’d see running through the parks. I mean, I didn’t need it, I was Karelia after all, so it seemed like a good idea at the time. Anyhow, after the first, I decided that every other time when I was forced to trek all the way to the tsar’s home just to listen to another of their dreadfully long lectures on things like posture, I would return to that little corner to play my kantele and play epics with and for the people… 

Ah! I’m sorry, I hope I’m not boring you! I mean, it’s not the most glamorous thing to talk about, but just thinking about it always made me smile.”

Russian history starts when the Eastern Slavs and Finno-Ugric peoples start to settle down and establish a state, and they open relations with the Byzantines and adopt Christianity.

And then things got worse.

Genghis came (in the winter, mind you) and in less than three years, the Mongols completely destroyed the young state of Rus’, killing over half it’s people.

And then things got worse.

The Mongol Empire collapsed, leaving a power void in Asia. Russia reestablished itself as the Grand Duchy, and then the Tsardom, but it took a very long time before Russia could be considered a regional power.

And then things got worse.

In the age of Empire, Russia, with no warm water ports, could not expand across the seas, and was blocked by powerful Germany/HRE/Austria in the West, so they expanded East, and the more they expanded, the more clear it was that Russia was forming an identity for itself that was somehow different from the rest of Europe. As the empire grew, it also grew more isolated. They fell behind, economically and socially. Feudalism in the form of lords and serfs existed in Russia until 1861, but when it was abolished, it only made the lower classes even poorer. In 1906 a constitution was written, but the Aristocracy rejected it.

And then things got worse.

World War 1 began. It was kind of Russia’s fault, they were the first to mobilize their military (well, they somehow managed to sneak around using the word “mobilize” so that after the war they could point the finger at Germany, who mobilized in response to Russia’s “totally-not-a-mobilization”) Russia was not ready for the war, the people didn’t want the war, they had no stake in the squabbles of Balkan powers,

And then things got worse.

Revolution! The Tsars were kicked out in March of 1917, and were replaced by the Russian Republic.

And then things got worse.

Revolution! The Russian Republic was kicked out by the Bolsheviks in the Red October, establishing the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, led by Vladmir Lenin. They made peace with the Germans and Austrians, and consolidated power for the next several years, socializing every business they possibly could, and then forming the USSR.

And then things got worse

Lenin died, and the Communist Party was fractured into two groups, led by Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky. Stalin came out on top, and killed Trotsky and exiled his followers. He then began a long reign of terror. Millions of people were killed by his order. Dissidents were sent to hard labor camps in Siberia, whence they never returned.

And then things got worse.

It’s Hitler time, everybody! That’s right, the nutty German himself suddenly invaded in June 1941, and by November they had captured Ukraine and much of the Russian countryside, and were camped outside the gates of Moscow and Leningrad. But, Stalin, with his innovative and brilliant strategy (throw worthless grunts at them until they run out of bullets) began to push the Germans back, eventially all the way to Berlin. Overall, the war costed 30 million soviet deaths.

And then things got worse.

The war was expensive, and took an extreme toll on the Soviet economy and it’s population. But, they managed to hang on, they stole nuclear technology from the United States, and then began developing it themselves. The space race happened, yada yada

And then things got worse.

For very complicated reasons, not limited to overspending on nuclear and space technology and military, and the general lack of concern for it’s people, the Soviet Union declined, and eventually soffered widespread economic collapse and public outrage, especially when Gorbachev instituted his “glasnost” policy, which revealed decades of repression and deception. A coup threw Gorbachev out of power, but the coup government itself only lasted three days, leaving a new power vacuum. The government of the various Soviet Republics took over administrative control from the old central Soviet government, and soon, the Communist Party was banned (though the ban was never actually enforced). Yeltsin, the president of Russia, reorganized the country, and tried to rescue the economy in every way he could, including privatization of as many industries as possible as fast as possible.

And then things got worse.

Yeltsin’s privatization wasn’t well planned and was much too fast. It opened the door for criminal mafias and greedy corporations to seize economic power, and soon Russia effectively had an Oligarchic Aristocracy again, just like in the 19th century. The country wasn’t able to get out of it’s depression before the 1998 financial crisis, which decimated the economy again, and forced Yeltsin to resign.

And then things got worse.

Vladmir Putin. Ex-KGB officer, often reminisces about the glory of the Soviet era. He won a landslide victory in every election under suspicious circumstances, he took control of the Parliament, but pretended to uphold the constitution by letting his head of staff win the election after his second term, because the constitution says presidents cannot serve more than two consecutive terms, but as soon as Medvedev’s first term ended, Putin won another landslide victory. All the while, political opponents of Putin disappear, or die in unexpected, tragic accidents.

And then things got worse.

Putin invaded Georgia, and then Ukraine, paving the way for a new Russian Empire, just as unequal and authoritarian as any other.

And that’s Russian history for you.