Sporozoites of the parasite Cryptosporidium parvum emerging from their oocyst to infect gastrointestinal epithelial cells.
Cryptosporidium, commonly known by the comic book supervillian name “Crypto,” is transmitted by ingesting water or food contaminated with Crypto oocysts. Once ingested, the oocyte ruptures, and the sporozoites contained within infect the gut of their new host, causing watery diarrhea.
Though outbreaks occasionally occur in the developed world, few infected in those outbreaks die from Crypto. However, in the developing world, some of those infected with Crypto develop chronic disease and die, particularly small, malnourished children.
For more on Crypto and how scientists are tackling this tricky parasite, check out this article on NPR’s All Things Considered about the work being done by the Striepen lab at the University of Georgia Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases.
Image courtesy Boris Striepen and Muthgapatti Kandasamy, University of Georgia Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases
Misool Eco Resort is built on the private island of Batbitim, located in remote southern Raja Ampat, nestled deep in an archipelago of uninhabited islands in Indonesia. An exclusive dive resort and conservation center, this tropical hideaway is fringed with powder-white beaches and pristine coral reefs. With a maximum capacity of just 32 guests and a staff-to-guest ratio of 3 to 1, the resort offers exclusive luxury diving holidays, surrounded by the world’s richest reefs. The resort island is leased from the local community, along with 1,120 square meters of surrounding reefs.
“ Fewer crop species are feeding the world than 50 years ago - raising concerns about the resilience of the global food system, a study has shown. The authors warned a loss of diversity meant more people were dependent on key crops, leaving them more exposed to harvest failures. Higher consumption of energy-dense crops could also contribute to a global rise in heart disease and diabetes, they added. The study appears in the journal PNAS. "Over the past 50 years, we are seeing that diets around the world are changing and they are becoming more similar - what we call the 'globalised diet’,” co-author Colin Khoury, a scientist from the Colombia-based International Center for Tropical Agriculture, explained. “This diet is composed of big, major cops such as wheat, rice, potatoes and sugar. "It also includes crops that were not important 50 years ago but have become very important now, particularly oil crops like soybean,” he told BBC News. While wheat has long been a staple crop, it is now a key food in more than 97% of countries listed in UN data, the study showed. And from relative obscurity, soybean had become “significant” in the diets of almost three-quarters of nations. He added that while these food crops played a major role in tackling global hunger, the decline in crop diversity in the globalised diet limited the ability to supplement the energy-dense part of the diet with nutrient-rich foods. “
and neoliberal capitalism found a new way to kill us all too.
Just In: Hurricane Patricia weakens to a Category 4 storm with 130 mph winds over Mexico
HURRICANE PATRICIA ADVISORY NUMBER 17
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL EP202015
1000 PM CDT FRI OCT 23 2015
...PATRICIA WEAKENING BUT REMAINS AN EXTREMELY DANGEROUS
MAJOR HURRICANE OVER SOUTHWESTERN MEXICO...
SUMMARY OF 1000 PM CDT...0300 UTC...INFORMATION
ABOUT 85 MI...135 KM NNW OF MANZANILLO MEXICO
ABOUT 50 MI...75 KM SE OF PUERTO VALLARTA MEXICO
MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS...130 MPH...215 KM/H
PRESENT MOVEMENT...NNE OR 20 DEGREES AT 20 MPH...31 KM/H
MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE...946 MB...27.94 INCHES
WATCHES AND WARNINGS
CHANGES WITH THIS ADVISORY:
The government of Mexico has discontinued the Hurricane Watch for
Mexico from east of Punta San Telmo to Lazaro Cardenas.
SUMMARY OF WATCHES AND WARNINGS IN EFFECT:
A Hurricane Warning is in effect for...
* San Blas to Punta San Telmo
A Tropical Storm Warning is in effect for...
* East of Punta San Telmo to Lazaro Cardenas
* North of San Blas to El Roblito
A Hurricane Warning means that hurricane conditions are expected
somewhere within the warning area.
A Tropical Storm Warning means that tropical storm conditions are
expected somewhere within the warning area.
For storm information specific to your area, please monitor
products issued by your national meteorological service.
DISCUSSION AND 48-HOUR OUTLOOK
At 1000 PM CDT (0300 UTC), the center of Hurricane Patricia was
located near latitude 20.2 North, longitude 104.6 West. Patricia is
moving toward the north-northeast near 20 mph (31 km/h). Patricia
should continue to move farther inland over southwestern Mexico, and
move quickly north-northeastward across western and northern Mexico
Maximum sustained winds have decreased to near 130 mph (215 km/h)
with higher gusts. Patricia is a category 4 hurricane on the
Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. Rapid weakening is forecast,
with Patricia expected to become a tropical storm tomorrow morning,
and a tropical depression tomorrow afternoon.
Hurricane-force winds extend outward up to 35 miles (55 km) from the
center and tropical-storm-force winds extend outward up to 140 miles
The estimated minimum central pressure is 946 mb (27.94 inches).
HAZARDS AFFECTING LAND
WIND: Hurricane conditions are occurring across the hurricane
warning area. Tropical storm conditions are expected to continue
across portions of the warning area and in inland areas near the
center through early Saturday.
RAINFALL: Patricia is expected to produce total rainfall
accumulations of 8 to 12 inches, with isolated maximum amounts of
20 inches, over the Mexican states of Nayarit, Jalisco, Colima,
Michoacan, and Guerrero through Saturday. These rains are likely
to produce life-threatening flash floods and mudslides.
STORM SURGE: Water levels are expected to gradually subside
overnight but remain above normal through late Saturday. Near the
coast, large and destructive waves are forecast to continue
SURF: Swells generated by Patricia are likely to affect the
southwest coast of Mexico for the next day or so. These swells are
likely to cause life-threatening surf and rip current conditions.
Please consult products from your local weather office.
Next intermediate advisory at 100 AM CDT.
Next complete advisory at 400 AM CDT.