this day in 1890, the Native American Lakota Sioux chief,
Sitting Bull, was killed at the Standing Rock Indian Reservation. Formal peaceful relations between the Sioux and
the United States
government began in 1868 upon the signing of the Fort Laramie
Treaty. However, the discovery of gold in the Black Hills - which were in Sioux territory - in the
1870s led to a torrent of white prospectors invading the Sioux lands.
The numerous Sioux tribes united
under Sitting Bull’s leadership, and initially secured some
victories over American forces. The most famous battle of the Great Sioux War of 1876 was the Battle of Little
Bighorn, where Sioux and Cheyenne warriors defeated the famed General
Custer. Sitting Bull then led his people to Canada, only to come back to America in
It was around this time that he joined Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West
Show, but he soon returned to
his people to protect the rights of indigenous Americans. Sitting Bull
was killed on the Standing Rock Indian
Reservation in 1890 by U.S. troops, who were trying to arrest him under fears
would join the Ghost Dance movement.
“I would rather die an Indian than live a white man”
In a historic but conditional victory for the Standing Rock Sioux tribe, the United States Army Corps of Engineers chose not to grant an easement Sunday allowing the Dakota Access oil pipeline to burrow under Lake Oahe.
But the victory depends largely on a friendly federal government being in power. The administration of President Barack Obama was sympathetic enough to delay — if not definitively block — construction on the pipeline by supporting a re-route plan and more thorough investigation of the project’s potential environmental impact.
But there’s no guarantee President-elect Donald Trump will honor the decision. The new president-elect isn’t just openly antagonistic toward environmental causes; in 2000, Trump bankrolled a series of racist attack ads to prevent the St. Regis Mohawk tribe in New York from building casinos that competed with his in Atlantic City, New Jersey. The campaign claimed that Mohawk-run gambling facilities would bring “increased crime,” “broken families” and “violence” to the area, according to the Los Angeles Times. Read more
Very rare and perhaps the finest known specimen, this stater was struck in the late 2nd to early 1st century BC by the Celtic Parisii tribe. The obverse shows a male head (probably Apollo) surrounded by beaded filaments, a star amidst his swirling hair and a cross on his cheek. The reverse has a horse with a curvilinear design, thought to be a wing (like Pegasus).
The late Iron Age village of Lutetia, located at the site of modern-day
Paris, was the capital of the Celtic Parisii tribe. Its main
settlement was on the Ile de la Cité on the River Seine (Sequana). With the Suessiones, the Parisii participated in the general rising of
Vercingetorix. He was the chieftain of the Arverni tribe, who united the
Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius
Caesar’s Gallic Wars in 52 BC. During
the Roman advance in 52 BC the Celts burned their city, and the bridges
that linked it to the banks on either side, but after Roman dominion
was established it was rebuilt and named Parisii.
Fans of “Until Dawn” might appreciate this post, as does one of our writers whose favorite monster is in fact the Wendigo.
Wendigos, or sometimes Wendigoags, are creatures with an insatiable hunger from Native American lore; it is largely tribes within the northern United States and Canada who mention this monster. Wendigoag are said to roam the forests in the North, and those who become lost within the forests are said to have been eaten by the beasts.
Wendigo, in a rough translation, means “the evil spirit that will devour mankind” the wording is very specific as this is a monster who is said to come about in order to encourage cannibalism, and the Wendigo themselves have an insatiable desire to consume human flesh, although regardless of how much they eat, they always remain hungry.
There appearance is reflective of a beast plagued by starvation. They are deathly thin with gaunt features, often they are extremely tall, depicted as being anywhere from 9 to 15 feet tall, and they have yellowish decaying skin, with thin matted hair; their sunken in eyes are said to glow and the possess big, sharp teeth, and an overly long tongue. In drawings Wendigos are often depicted to be part deer or moose, as their feet are hooves and they possess antlers and in some depictions, the entire skull of a deer. Whatever a Wendigo looks like now, is far different than what it started out as; Wendigos are spirits who possess those who have committed extreme sins, usually cannibalism, and the monster you see was once human.
But even evil spirits come from somewhere, right? In legend the first Wendigo came from a Native American warrior who sold his soul to the devil in order to save his tribe.
There are some people who believe that the person still exists inside the monstrous Wendigo, specifically where the heart should be. That being said there is no cure, no way to reverse the transformation, the only solution is death. Whether you want to save the person, or simply kill the Wendigo, you cannot kill one without killing the other, as their souls are connected. In the game, “Until Dawn,” its noted that it may be safer just to keep Wendigos alive, but imprisoned, as killing a Wendigo sets the spirit of the master free, and just creates the chance for a new person to be afflicted.
Believe it or not there are several real-life occurrences of people being possessed by the spirit of the Wendigo, and whether or not you want to believe in the supernatural side of it, the condition of “Wendigo Psychosis” in which a person with reasonable access to food becomes overwhelmed by the need to consume human flesh.
Here are some examples of real life Wendigo possessions:
- In 1878, a Cree man named Swift Runner, slaughtered and ate his entire family, which consisted of his wife and their 5 children, in the middle of winter, despite only being only 25 miles away from the Hudson Bay Company’s supply post. No one in the tribe knew of the killings until winter had ended and the snow had dissipated, in what was perhaps an attempt to cover up his crime, it was in fact Swift Runner who went to the police to tell them that his wife and committed suicide and his children had died of starvation during the harsh winter. However the officers noted Swift Runner didn’t look underfed himself. Suspicious of the story the police went to investigate and eventually found the remnants of a campfire with bones and human skulls piled nearby. The bones were described to be dry and hollow, even empty of their marrow. Swift Runner was sentenced to death for his crimes.
- In 1907, two Oji-Cree men named Jack and Joespeh Fiddler was arrested for killing over 14 people with his brother, because they thought they were all Wendigos, or about to transform into them. Peter Flett, their other brother, was killed himself after turning Wendigo when the food ran out on a trading expedition. However for a long time it wasn’t an unusual occurrence for Jack or Peter. Friends and family had before asked them to kill relatives who were very sick and “about to turn Wendigo.” They weren’t arrested until 1907, because it was actually 2 non-tribe members who made the arrest, two Canadian mounties; the tribe was well aware and even accepting of what had happened, as they feared the spirit of the Wendigo.
- From the late 1800s to the 1920s there were a bundle of Wendigo reports in the town of Rosesu, Minnesota. Each time there was a Wendigo sighting a mysterious death would follow shortly after. After reports of the sightings stopped, so did the deaths.
- As recent as 2008 there have been reports of Wendigo possessions. On the Trans-Canada Highway on a Greyhound bus, a man named Vincent Weighing Li stabbed another passenger 40 times, before slicing off his victim’s head and gutting him, he them proceeded to store parts of the intestines, nose, ears, and mouth in a plastic bag. He was later accused of having eaten parts of his victim as well. As the attack occurred the bus driver as well as the other 30+ passengers fled the seen and called the police. Li was described as being robotically calm throughout the entire incident, only seeming to realize what he did after the fact. In court he remained silent and spoke once only to say, “Please kill me. This was a completely random attack.”
All of these events follow the same pattern. Successful, well-mannered, quiet, seemingly-normal individuals with jobs and family suddenly snap and commit horrible, gruesome murders, and indulge in cannibalism. They can never quite explain why it happened, what led them to it, or explain what happened in the moment, and often to them its like it never happened at all.
(As always sites we used to help us write this piece can be found under our references tab)
was a writer and political activist belonging to the Sioux tribe of Native
Americans. The many books she wrote on her identity and struggle to reconcile
the majority culture with her traditional heritage were among the first works
to bring Native American stories to a wide readership in the United States.
As a child, she was taken away from her reservation and educated in a
Quaker institution, where the distress caused by the denial of her origins
paved the path to a lifetime of activism. She was responsible for translating
old legends of her tribe into English, therefore making them accessible to a
wide audience. Among other endeavours, in 1926 she founded the National Council
of American Indians, which aimed to unite tribes and advance their rights, as
well as attempting to secure full citizenship for its members.
Ratified Indian Treaty #8, more commonly referred to at the Treaty of Fort Pitt was recently treated in the Conservation Laboratory. Signed in what is present-day Pittsburgh in 1778, it is the first treaty negotiated between a Native American tribe and the United States after its independence. This fragile record had been laminated between sheets of thin tissue and cellulose acetate film, probably in the mid-20th century. The red resin seals at the bottom right had been cut from the record before lamination and reattached afterwards. Prior to lamination a number of pieces of pressure-sensitive tape had been used to repair tears. Conservation treatment included reducing the lamination through immersion in a series of acetone baths to dissolve the cellulose acetate and release the tissue layers. The pressure sensitive tapes were removed after delamination. Next, the record was immersed in a series of deionized water baths to reduce discoloration and acidity. Remaining treatment steps included realigning the record which was in a number of pieces after delamination; lining the document with Japanese mulberry paper adhered with wheat starch paste, infilling losses with cotton and linen paper pulp, toning the infills with watercolors, and reattaching the resin seals. [RG 11, Ratifed Indian Treaty #8]
But appearing in an Oscar-award-winning film was one of the least interesting things David Bald Eagle ever did.
Bald Eagle died last Friday at 97. In his long, extraordinary life, he was a champion dancer — both ballroom and Lakota styles — a touring musician, a rodeo cowboy, a tribal chief, an actor, a stunt double, a war hero.
He danced with Marilyn Monroe. He drove race cars. He parachuted into the front lines at Normandy. He played professional baseball. He was a leader not just of his tribe, but of the United Native Nations. He was an advocate for Native people.
And he was a bridge between the past and present — a man who, in his childhood, heard stories from survivors of the Battle of Little Bighorn.
A United Nations investigator probing discrimination against Native Americans has called on the US government to return some of the land stolen from Indian tribes as a step toward combatting continuing and systemic racial discrimination.
James Anaya, the UN special rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples, said no member of the US Congress would meet him as he investigated the part played by the government in the considerable difficulties faced by Indian tribes.
Anaya said that in nearly two weeks of visiting Indian reservations, indigenous communities in Alaska and Hawaii, and Native Americans now living in cities, he encountered people who suffered a history of dispossession of their lands and resources, the breakdown of their societies and “numerous instances of outright brutality, all grounded on racial discrimination”.
“It’s a racial discrimination that they feel is both systemic and also specific instances of ongoing discrimination that is felt at the individual level,” he said.
Anaya said racism extended from the broad relationship between federal or state governments and tribes down to local issues such as education.
“For example, with the treatment of children in schools both by their peers and by teachers as well as the educational system itself; the way native Americans and indigenous peoples are reflected in the school curriculum and teaching,” he said.
“And discrimination in the sense of the invisibility of Native Americans in the country overall that often is reflected in the popular media. The idea that is often projected through the mainstream media and among public figures that indigenous peoples are either gone or as a group are insignificant or that they’re out to get benefits in terms of handouts, or their communities and cultures are reduced to casinos, which are just flatly wrong.”
The land is made of giant chandeliers that have been unpowered for millennia, keeping the planet shrouded in darkness from the brick roof above. Each chandelier shines a different light and is home to a different color of Chameleon - you need to turn on all the chandeliers in order to unite the tribes. The denizen is Chimera.
This was the first land that I drew, and is “mine”, as described by the wonderful @classpectanon. Most of the lands that I draw are based on his great descriptions, so go take a look.