tribal region

The "Celtic" Pantheon(s)

I felt inspired to write something like this again, because it’s been a while.

Celtic is an umbrella term for a variety of cultures, languages, and religions. It does not describe a single culture or pantheon. The word originally springs up from Hellenic Keltoi, a name applied by the Greeks to the invaders from Gaul who settled in Eastern Europe. While the word celt- does exist in the Gaulish language, it was not used to describe whole peoples, rather simply served as an element in personal names. It’s meaning is something similar to “warrior”, implying that the Greeks heard “we are warriors” and assumed it was the name for an entire people. In modern times, the word Celtic is used as an umbrella term for a variety of nations and cultures who all speak languages that fall into the same language family. However, their religions, and their cultures, are distinct from one another, with only a few borrowed concepts between them.

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I seriously can’t wait to see Black Panther, because they have and always will be one of the most fascinating fictional civilizations in comics for me.

Like, you can tell they’ve revamped how Wakanda is compared to the comics. In the comics, they presented Wakanda as a super-hyper-advanced african utopia that has stood as the most powerful nation on Earth for centuries. They had technology long before the Europeans even figured out steam power. And their nation was isolationist; completely self-sustaining, had complex education system, and their skill with crafting anything was beyond believable. They had equality among the sexes, and the Dora Milaje were the MIGHTEST WARRIORS IN THEIR SOCIETY. And they were all women. There were lesbians. The nation itself was protected by miles upon miles of scary-ass jungle with panthers bigger than a fucking tiger and creatures that evolved to eat humans. And, not to mention to ten or so foot wall made from vibranium.

And seeing that the trailer showcases an insane amount of costume, character, and set design, I expect a ton of really good cultural exploration. I want to know how they are hiding the fact Wakanda is so powerful and why, when in the comics the world knew their nation existed but rightfully never tried to get to it from fear. I want to know if there are specific meanings behind various colors, as the Dora Milaje seem to all wear red and warriors seem to adorn themselves in certain ways that remind me of a bunch of different tribal quirks from various regions in Africa. Did they assimilate outside traditions? Did they create the traditions and spread it to the outside passively throughout the ages?

Beyond watching a superhero film on the first black superhero, I want to be immersed in a fictional culture that was created to be the epitome of black excellence. 

Give me everything.


beautiful palaces in a village in wadi doan, the tribal region of Hadramawt, northeast Yemen by Anthony Pappone


It was the day after Christmas– the Brits and Canadians call it Boxing Day.
We’d been in the tribal regions for months brokering deals with the Hazaras, the Hezb-e-Islami, the Tajiks, you name it. And we were this close to getting Mullah Akhtar Mohammad Mansour on board when we ran into some local heroes. Nothing we couldn’t handle. Except they had some Americans helping them. One minute I’m riding my horse, the next thing you know we’re taking sniper fire. And some bitch blows my leg off. You and your team shouldn’t have been there and you sure as hell shouldn’t have been interfering with our operations. So, you see, for the other guys, it’s just business, but for me, it’s it’s kind of personal.

To Play Sports Under Taliban Rule, ‘Different Kind Of Daughter’ Dressed As A Boy

Growing up in the tribal region of Pakistan, Maria Toorpakai pretended she was a boy in order to compete as a weightlifter. Later she became an internationally known squash player.

“Sometimes I don’t believe who I am today. It’s unbelievable for me. I come from that region and there the girls are not allowed to go outside the house, they are not allowed to get education. [At a] young age they are getting married. So it’s a very sad situation in there for girls, and I am very lucky to be who I am today.” 

Kongo Wooden Nkisi Nkondi Sculpture
Origin: Southwestern Congo/Angola
Circa: 20 th Century AD

This superb sculpture is an nkisi nkondi figure, made by the Kongo people of what was once Zaire. It is a standing man, with an oversized head, an open mouth, glazed eyes and one arm upraised. The whole body is irregularly pierced with hundreds of iron nails and other objects, with organic and ferrous elements attached to them (see below). The centre of the chest bears two eminences that hold magical materials; in religious terms, this was the most important part of the sculpture, which only served as a receptacle for the bilongo’s spiritual power.

The Kongo (or Bakongo) people live in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola and the Congo. They lived in a series of loosely-connected yet autonomous kingdoms, which were modified by tribal warfare from neighbouring regions and the arrival of the Portuguese. The kingdom absorbed European traditions and religion while retaining much of their indigenous culture intact. Indigenous Kongo society was based around the kingship model.

Their religious beliefs have a far wider circulation, and are based around a reverence for the dead who are believed to be able to assist in the determination of future destinies. They are also believed to inhabit minkisi/nkisi charms that can be appealed to for assistance in times of duress. This is the most notable form. Nkisi Nkondi figures – often referred to as nail fetishes – are endowed with a magical “charge” (bilongo) made from vital substances such as earth from an important person’s grave, or bodily elements from fierce animals (i.e. leopards) or abnormal humans such as epileptics. The figures are insulted and “hurt” with explosions and nails so that they will carry out the wishes of their tormentor. Some bear small bundles of textile or other organic material referred to as “dogs” – these direct the vengeful spirits to the correct source, so a fragment of goat hair tied to the nkisi would ensure that the spirit hunted down the thief who had taken the animal.

This is an especially aggressive example in terms of facial expression, and the use of glass in the eyes and double bilongo. The bimpangula vocabulary of sculptural gestures states that this figure is standing in a pose known as “telama lwimbanganga” – literally, “standing against power”. It means that the plaintiff’s enemies no longer have access to him/her, and that the figure is a wall or barrier between them and any further harm. The right hand would have held a sceptre of power or a weapon. He is riddled with nails, blades and miscellaneous metalwork which were driven into him as individual prayers, often with organic materials or other objects – including an iron ring – attached.


beautiful palaces in a village in wadi doan, the tribal region of Hadramawt, northeast Yemen by Anthony Pappone


Mosul offensive: ISIS militants fleeing to Syria, says tribal leader

over 100,000 allied forces converge on a region controlled by only 5000 islamic state fighters


Near Mosul, Iraq (CNN)Hundreds of ISIS fighters are fleeing Mosul in Iraq and crossing into neighboring Syria as coalition forces close in on the city, a powerful tribal leader in the region says.

Sheikh Abdullah Alyawer, a tribal leader in the town of Rabia, on Iraq’s border with Syria, told CNN Monday that dozens of ISIS militants and their families were fleeing the city each day, and crossing into Syria at Ba'aaj, an ISIS-controlled crossing point south of Sinjar.

The route was entirely along corridors under ISIS control, he said. Fleeing civilians with no affiliation to ISIS usually ended up in the Syrian town of al Houl, which is under Kurdish control, he said.

Better than expected gains

Coalition forces celebrated better-than-expected territorial gains over the weekend and artillery fire pummeled ISIS positions in the encircled town of Bashiqa early Monday morning in the relentless push for Mosul.

According to the Iraqi Joint Operations command center, 78 towns and villages have been liberated so far as the operation to retake the city enters its second week.

The center said 772 ISIS fighters had been killed and 23 were detained, 127 vehicle-borne explosive devices were destroyed, two bomb-making factories were discovered and nearly 400 improvised-explosive devices were remotely detonated so far.

United against ISIS

The offensive is remarkable for both its speed and the level of cooperation that this disparate group is showing in the face of its common enemy – an extraordinary union of factions that have long stood on opposing sides in Iraq’s history, with Kurdish forces, Christians and Shia Muslims fighting alongside the majority Sunni Arabs.

The thousands of ground troops were supported from above with a concentrated program of airstrikes aimed at weakening ISIS’ defenses – the highest weekly number since the campaign against the terror group began, according to Brett McGurk, Special Presidential Envoy for the Global Coalition to Counter ISIL.

“One week into #Mosul operation, all objectives met thus far, and more coalition airstrikes than any other 7-day period of war against #ISIL,” he wrote on Twitter, using another name for ISIS.

The coalition force, which vastly exceeds ISIS’ numbers, is closing in on the beleaguered city, still home to an estimated 200,000 to 300,000 civilians.
But the coalition is well aware that resistance – already tough in the open fields and small villages surrounding the main prize – is likely to ramp up significantly when the city’s perimeter is breached.

ISIS has been in control of Mosul for two years, giving its fighters plenty of time to fortify defenses, and the militants have time and time again proved themselves adept at bloody, urban warfare.

The city was important to the terror group as the cultural capital of its envisaged caliphate, or Islamic state.

‘Freed’ and then forgotten

With this weekend’s gains have come pockets of horrific losses.

ISIS executed about 40 people who were celebrating the apparent liberation of their villages by Iraqi forces, a Mosul City Council official said Sunday, citing local sources.

The official said that although Iraqi troops passed through the village where the executions took place – near Nimrud, south of Mosul – they did not leave units behind to ensure that ISIS militants stayed out.

These follow executions on Thursday and Friday, when ISIS militants rounded up and shot dead 284 men and boys, an Iraqi intelligence source told CNN.

Emergency crews have been working around the clock to extinguish a fire at a sulfur factory in Qayyara, about 30 kilometers south of Mosul, that was torched by ISIS militants.

The fire, started when the ISIS militants left explosives and slow-burning oil in sulfur deposits and around the facility, has sent plumes of toxic smoke in the air, causing hundreds to seek medical help.

EDITORIAL: Wyoming town taken over by an Indian tribe

Residents of Riverton, a quiet town of 11,000 in Wyoming, were shocked to wake up one recent morning to learn they were now Indians. Sort of. Their town had been taken over by an Indian tribe without a bullet or arrow being fired. This hasn’t happened since Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman, having put the torch to the South, arrived to take on the Nez Perce. Yet no battles took place last month. The Environmental Protection Agency simply approved an application by the Northern Arapaho and Eastern Shoshone tribes to declare the newly expanded tribal region henceforth be treated “as a state.”

anonymous asked:

how did vikings called themselves (is it different by country/area?)? the term, "Viking" came later after the viking age (if I recall this well).

Góðan daginn, nafnlaus,

This is a wonderful question, because the term “Viking” is now a convoluted mess of our own creation.

The “Vikings” never addressed themselves as “Vikings” in the sense of ethnicity. It was always reserved for certain Scandinavians, speaking a common language, Dönsk Tunga (Danish Tongue/ Old Norse) [1], who went abroad raiding. Yet, even these men were not always referred to as being “Viking.” They were only “Viking” while raiding abroad, but once they returned it was no longer their identification. However, literature often says hann var víkingr (he was a Viking), implying that a man once was a Viking, but is no longer a Viking [1].

The use of the term víkingr dates back to the period, but it was not to used in the same sense that it is today until afterwards. Based on native literature, and not just foreign chronicles, they usually referred to themselves based on region - Íslendingr (Icelander), Norrœnn (Norse, Norwegian), Danskr (Danish), or Svenskr (Swedish) [2][3]. Yet, the terminology was far more complex than that. Those countries did not actually develop until the end of the Viking Age. The “Vikings” were hardly a unified people, and they did not see themselves as being unified either.

In the end, tribal and regional identifications would have been the most common. The term “Viking,” to them, meant more of an action or a job (past or present, but temporary). We use the term much differently today to simplify the complexity of their time period.

Here are some other posts I have made about the term “Viking:”

- A Concise History of Medieval Iceland - Lesson 3: Language.
- (#10) Old Norse Words - Víkingr & víking.
- Previous question asked about the terms Víkingrviking.

I hope that was helpful! If not, try looking into some of the sources I listed below. Also, if you would like any quotes from primary source material, let me know and I can post a few of them.

Skál og ferð vel, vinur.


[1] Jesse L. Byock, Viking Age Iceland. (London: Penguin, 2001), 11-13.

[2] Geir T. Zoëga, A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic. (Mineola: NY, Dover Publications, 2004), 315, 421. 

[3] Jesse L. Byock, Viking Language 1: Learn Old Norse, Runes, and Icelandic Sagas. (Pacific Palisades, CA: Jules William Press, 2013), 342, 360, 367.

How My Family Got Through The Recession

I was born and raised in Smithers, a small, isolated town of about 5000 people in central British Columbia. I lived in an old bungalow with my parents and three older brothers. It was a typical, quiet little town where everyone knew each other, and everyone had an intrinsic sense of care and respect for each other. I lived a relatively normal life until 2007, when the recession came.

Canada wasn’t impacted as severely as the US but British Columbia was hit quite hard. Thus, my fragile, little town obviously felt the wrath, too. Lots of people started moving from Smithers in hopes of finding new and more sustainable jobs in bigger cities like Vancouver and Victoria. I loved my town so this was a bit disheartening to witness as a sheltered and naive 15-year-old. My parents simply explained to me that people were just eager to leave our then dying town for the sake of survival. Several of our neighbours even left without uttering a single goodbye, desperate to leave, shamelessly vanishing into thin air. At one point, someone we knew would move away almost every week. My parents adamantly chose to stay, unable to embrace the idea of leaving our way of life.

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DAY 2116

BlackBuck Lodge, Bhavnagar,      Jan 30/31, 2014     Thu/Fri 12:23 am

As the day ends in the wilds of the Little Rann, and comes away from it exhilarated , the owners of the resort where I stay in my little hut, and the owners of this Siamese feline possession sums it all up .. this furry fellow or fellowi, takes its seista inside a lamp box .. and the expression on its face says it all … bliss !!

That was done to please many cat lovers among the EF ..

And this to prove to you that girls start off pretty young, to recognise the importance of a man’s hand … she was just adorable !

And then this …

The tribals of the region in their normal attire and their jewellery .. so unique … and their children so cute and pretty looking ..

The kids … so innocent and a rare beauty within them ..

And the Ahmedabad EF lead by Prabir Bhatt in wheel chair and Ami on the extreme .. a quick meeting as I rush to catch the visit to IIMA ..

the prestigious IIMA, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, considered the best in the region of the world and producing some of the most genius minds this side of the Suez .. !! A pleasure and an honour, a moment of great pride that they interact on various topics - healthy meaningful conversation mixed with abundant excitement and laughter ..

Gujarat suddenly begins to have an intense attraction for all … to visit more often, to find residence here and to be in this wild environ, of animals, rare and attractive.

As we fly over from Ahmedabad towards Bhavnagar, we cross past the city of Alang, the largest ship breaking yard in the world … fascinating ! So many stories and details of this region, as in any other region in the country, but just not having the time and the inclination to go out and visit them, spend time at leisure and to do nothing but ‘breathe in a bit of Gujarat’ …

And signing off ..

Its another early morning tomorrow, in search of the Black Buck, to film it to talk about it and to head home ..

Gracious as always in the knowledge of your affection and love ..

I remain … yours truly

Amitabh Bachchan

befitandchase  asked:

Olicity: "Why did you get into a fight with a cactus?"

Of all the things in the world that could have happened to her, it had to be this

She hadn’t been shot, or stabbed, or beaten or a thousand other things that would have sent him over the edge to that dark place he pretends doesn’t exist. 

She’s been drugged. 

And evidently, she is enjoying every minute of it. 

There was a new, mild hallucinogenic making its way through the city, and while normally he would have tracked its wandering path of (non-deadly) daydreams, he’d spent his (their) time on trying to wrangle back his company. He had almost begun to think that he could live in both worlds without any real, major issue before he’d received a call about a particular blonde and a particular drug. 

She’d been dosed and then left on the streets as a lure, and of course he’d come running for her, hell bent on swooping in to save the day. 

There had been a scuffle. Then a skirmish.

The man had escaped. 

But she had been fine. Well, as fine as someone could be while hallucinating their participation in the 2011 World Science Symposium. She’d babbled and giggled and lectured all the way back to their new “lair” (a term that stuck even though this one was more of a “perch”) until he’d dumped her onto the rescued sofa and instructed his brother to keep her corralled. 

He is at a loss.

He doesn’t know the first clue about this drug, and anything that could have been brought up would require a tripping blonde to use some very sophisticated equipment. He knows from other reports that the drug isn’t fatal, but he doesn’t like that there is something in her unknown, that there is a substance running through her body that has no name, and no treatment.

He must have been talking aloud - he blames her for that new trend - because abruptly she stops her discourse on the numerous pros and cons of privatizing space travel to direct a question to him in all dead seriousness. 

“Why did you get into a fight with a cactus?”

He blinks once, then twice at the query (and the woman who asked it, rather soberly he might add) before responding with a strangled “what?”.

Immediately, she breaks into a very long, and very complicated description of a science project she created in the fourth grade about the uses of native plants for medicinal and religious purposes within the various tribal regions of New Mexico, which eventually lead into how her projects were never met with any sort of encouragement because they were always made in the manager’s office of whatever hotel her mother waitressed at, which then lead to how she was banned from at least six casinos for some ridiculous card-counting charge and that finally led up to her announcing she was the smartest damn person in the room. 

He doesn’t doubt that. 

But he wants to know more about the plants, because he has a feeling that smart part of her is trying to shove through the haze. So he prods her again, asking about that “fourth grade science project” and cutting into her rambling explanation of how carburetors work (to Dig).

She giggles at him, and waggles her fingers in the air in some mystical motion.

Ariocarpus. Weird. Dude was a cactus, obviously. But I can’t judge. Why would I judge? Man wants to be called a cactus, he can be a cactus. EVERYONE SHOULD BE FREE TO BE A CACTUS IF THEY WANT TO BE!”

She cackles and shouts then immediately launches back into a description of how a modern combustion engine works (again, to Dig). Meanwhile, he can’t believe how incredibly amazing she can be even while drugged on some unknown compound. 

Not unknown. 

She knows

“Felicity, you are a genius.”

He can’t help the words as they tumble free of his lips, and he catches just a snippet of her affronted response of “of course I am”, as he turns to the computers and hurriedly searches for Ariocarpus.

A cactus.

One used for peyote

He almost laughs aloud at finding that she will be fine, assuming the drug being used is similar to the one he reads, and turns back to see her addressing an unknown amount of very invisible cats and one very amused black man.

He doesn’t think he will ever be able to stop loving her.