treaty of union


February 7th 1992: Maastricht Treaty signed

On this day in 1992, the European Union was brought into being by the signing of the Maastricht Treaty. It was signed by the twelve member nations of the European Community -  a precursor to the EU. The treaty was named for the city in the Netherlands where it was drafted and signed. Maastricht became effective on November 1st 1993, and on that day the EU was formally established. It also provided for common security and foreign policy and gave the people of the signatory states European citizenship. Most importantly, Maastricht provided a blueprint for the later monetary union seen in the establishment of the common currency: the Euro. While the signing occurred without event, the ratification of the Maastricht Treaty was more contentious, with many states struggling to ratify it, including the British Parliament. Today, 25 years since the formation of the European Union, these contentions continue and its future is uncertain. The Euro is struggling financially, and, in 2016, the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union.

Things I learned from AP Euro this year:
  • people don’t like people who are different (Wars of Religion, Reconquista, Inquisition)
  • women can do everything men can do - and better (Elizabeth I, Catherine the Great, women in the workforce during WWI and WWII, women in the Soviet Union)
  • you can be successful and people still won’t like you (Otto von Bismarck, Wilhelm II, and the “dropping of the pilot”)
  • when you forgive someone, forgive them completely (Treaty of Versailles, The War Guilt Clause, German-French conflict)
  • stand your ground (appeasement, Munich conference, Hitler’s eventual empire)
  • teamwork is safer (North Atlantic Pact, Treaty of Rome, Common Market, Maastricht Treaty, European Union)
  • …but you should never completely trust the other person (Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact)
  • good ideals become twisted over time (Karl Marx, Marxian communism, Lenin, Stalin, socialism)
  • when things go wrong, you can always start over (French Revolution, National Assembly, Legislative Assembly, National Convention, Directory, Consulate, Empire, 2nd French Republic, 3rd French Republic, 4th French Republic, 5th French Republic)

So regardless of what score I get on the exam today, I want to acknowledge that, on the whole, I think I really loved this class.

So it’s gone midnight and I’ve got work in the morning, so naturally I’m reading colonial state papers from the early eighteenth century. Anyway, I found something interesting. The Treaty of Union was being negotiated, but wasn’t signed, when the Governor of Massachusetts Joseph Dudley wrote that

[And] as to the business of Quebeck and Nova Scotia, upon the news of the Union of the Kingdoms, I most humbly propose to your Lordships, that a Scotch Colony there of 5,000 men would find their own Scotch climate and health, and a country farr [sic] surpassing all Scotland, for all sorts of provisions, flesh and fish, infinite timber and masts the first of the whole continent, and would with the assistance of these Provinces very easily remove the French and put an end to the troubles upon the whole shore of America, and they would therefore be very acceptable here. (CSP, 511)

That’s interesting for a number of reasons.
Cabinlock fic: God Save the Ode to Joy
By Organization for Transformative Works

Fandom: Sherlock (TV), Cabin Pressure, European Union (See! Now there is!)
Rating: General Audiences
Warnings: No Archive Warnings Apply
Relationships: Anthea/Martin Crieff
Characters: Anthea (Sherlock), Martin Crieff
Additional Tags: Crossover, European Union, Brexit
Series: Part 6 of All mobile phones should be turned off for the duration of the flight

Summary: On 29 March 2017 Anthea shows up at Martin’s door with their daughter and an overnight bag, because earlier that day, the signed letter invoking Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union was delivered to the President of the European Council and started the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the EU.

Notes: And the prize for most boring sounding summary of the year goes to… Trust me, it’s better than the first attempt, and I had to write an Anthea-reaction-fic since I’ve built all my Anthea headcanons around the EU.

Many thanks to @zedille who helped me see some of the storytelling issues with this one, and who has a never ending patience with my lack of proper structure insight and English. I’m becoming increasingly better at listening to her ;) (I hope…)

Macron Rejects Sharing Euro Debt, Pledges EU Reforms With Merkel

President Emmanuel Macron rejected sharing existing euro-area debt among member states and pledged to implement economic reform in his home country as he sought to revive the French-German partnership during his first official meeting with Chancellor Angela Merkel.

Merkel, receiving her fourth French president since taking office almost 12 years ago, told the freshly elected Macron that Germany would be willing to consider changing European Union treaties if necessary. The two leaders, meeting in Berlin the day after Macron’s inauguration, pledged to create a new “road map” for medium-term cooperation and reviving the EU.

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After years of strained relations between France and Germany, Macron wants to reset the partnership to improve growth across the region and counter the populist fervor that triggered the U.K.’s exit from the EU, helped Marine Le Pen achieve the strongest-ever election result for France’s National Front party this month and powered the campaign of Geert Wilders in the Netherlands in March.

“The elections in the Netherlands and in France have made us aware what a treasure we have with Europe,” Merkel said during a press conference with Macron on Monday. “We can give the whole situation a new dynamic. I am aware of the responsibility at this critical moment that we make the right decisions.”

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While Macron was greeted by a small cheering crowd at the gates of the chancellery in Berlin, his May 7 election was also followed by newspaper headlines in Germany including “How much will Macron cost us?” and “The Expensive Friend.” During his appearance with Merkel, he sought to drive home that he wasn’t coming to Germany asking for money and that he’s committed to modernizing the French economy.

“For my part, in France I have to put in place deep reforms,” he said. “I have never favored mutualizing existing debt. What we need to do is work on greater integration for the future.”

At the same time, 39-year-old president repeatedly mentioned the need for the EU to protect its citizens in a globalized world, embrace free trade but also not be naïve about global competitors and to generally rebuild confidence among its members.

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“We’re at a turning point in Europe that requires mutual confidence,” he said.

Asked about the crowds who cheered his arrival, he said it showed that European citizens remain committed to the EU and that he wants to be cheered again – five years from now at the end of his term – because governments have produced results.

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anonymous asked:

Do you know what are the major treaties we should remember?

Well there are a whole bunch of important ones but teh key ones are:

Peace of Augsburg (1555) 

  • gave German Princes the right to chose their own religion for their region (cuius regio euius religio) 
  • only allowed to chose between Catholicism of Lutheranism 

Edict of Nantes (1598) 

  • put into plac by politique Henry IV 
  • gave religious tolerance to french protestants (Huguenots) 
  • revoked by Louis XIV - because of his belif in reliious unity 

Peace of Westphalia (1648)

  • ended Thirty Years War 
  • recognized Calvinism as a acceptable religion 
  • recognized independent authority over 200 German states 
  • Germany was politically still fragmented and torn apart 
  • Sweden gained territory and became a major power 
  • Netherlands were recognized as independent 

Peace of Utrecht (1713) 

  • ended Louis XIV’s attempts to dominate Europe 
  • Charles V was on the throne in Spain but couldn’t hold the French crown as well 
  • Spanish Netherlands (the Catholic ones) were given to Austrian Habsburgs 
  • England got a whole bunch of new territories 

Pragmatic Sanction (1713) 

  • guaranteed that Maria Theresa would be the successor to HRE Charles VI 
  • indivisibility of lands 
  • Broken when Frederick the Great of Prussia invaded Silesia 

Congress of Vienna (1815) 

  • post French revolution 
  • settlement that was equal to France and the other powers 
  • Balance of Power that would exist till the Unification of Germany 
  • used legitimacy to restore the Bourbons to the thrones 
  • Belgium + Netherlands = Kingdom of the Netherlands
  • loose confederation of 39 German states 

Berlin Conference (1884-1885)

  • led by Bismarck 
  • established rules over the “scramble for Africa” 
  • a country would have to establish control for that colony to be theirs 
  • Congo Free State was given to Leopold III

Treaty of Versailles (1919)

  • Both Germany and Communist Russia were NOT allowed to participate in the negotiations 
  • Germany was guilty and had to pay for all reparations 
  • Austro-Hungarian empire divided into states  ( Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia) 
  • League of nations created to settle disputes 
  • bitterness and resentment between the victors and Germany 

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) 

  • ended Bolshevik Russia’s participation in the war 
  • negotiated by Vladimir Lenin who did’t want to continue a war that could not be won 
  • there were heavy payments but he wanted out 
  • it was repealed following Germany’s defeat

The Locarno Pact (1925)

  • France and Germany acknowledge and reinforce the borders set by the Treaty of Versailles 

Kellogg-Briand Pact (1925)

  • war is no longer a means of national policy 
  • violated during the 1930s 

Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (1939)

  • Stalin and Hitler agreed on a 10 year nonaggression pact 
  • also secretly decided to divide Eastern Europe between them 

North Atlantic Pact (1949)

  • established NATO 
  • implemented Truman’s policy of containment 

Treaty of Rome (1957)

  • created the European Economic Community (EEC) 

Helsinki Accords (1975) 

  • ratified territorial boundaries after WWII 

Maastricht Treaty (1991) 

  • created the European Union (EU) or the Common Market 
  • established the Euro in 1999

Good Luck!


Union and the Gaels

Good news everyone! I got second place in the Trinity College, Cambridge essay competition. =] I wrote an essay arguing that post-1707, the effective northern border of the United Kingdom was the Highland Line. Because of the trouble and disorder caused by this lack of control over half of Scotland, Scotland did not benefit economically or socially from union in the first 40 years. Only after 1745, when the union government consolidated control over the highlands, could Scotland truly benefit, look to the colonies, and enter her Age of Improvement. Thus came the Enlightenment and the birth of modernity and industry. But this came at a price: the destruction of the Gaels’ social structure, way of life, language and culture, in order to keep order and prevent any more attacks on the Hannoverian status quo. My argument then was that in order for Scotland and Britain itself to become the dominant economic and military power on the face of the earth, Gaidhlig had to be destroyed and Gaeldom as an entity distinct from Protestant Britain had to be eliminated. For imperialism to appear, first the government had to secure Britain as an island. We can thus see that the British Empire (which historians agree was an endeavour dominated by lowland Scots and educated Englishment) was born in the murder of the first aboriginal people - the Gaels of north-West Scotland…

One day the British would do away with every indigenous Tasmanian - they got plenty of practice with the slaughter and clearance of the glens.

[I may well post this essay but its very long and far less overtly-political - I had to tone it down and focus on the economics cos, well, its Cambridge…]