transportation cycling

3

Vancouver’s cycling-friendly side streets seen as a key step forward for North American cities

For the past decade, Vancouver’s separated bike lanes have continued to generate headlines and heaps of public scorn from conservative Vancouver residents who see them as the most overt example of Big Government’s ongoing “war on the car.”

Urban-planning and transportation experts have long feted Vancouver’s extensive system of bike-friendly side streets as a cheap and uncontroversial way for bike-resistant North American cities to create the infrastructure that gets people out of their cars and onto two wheels.

“It’s very simple,” says Gordon Price, a six-term former city councillor and former director of Simon Fraser University’s City Program. “All you have to do is put in traffic signals where these side streets cross another arterial.”

Mr. Price says Vancouver’s place at the forefront of North American cycling infrastructure stems from activists in the early 1970s successfully stopping a freeway from carving through its downtown core. After that, he says, Vancouver’s politicians declared that the car would not be the dominant mode of transportation, which paved the way for the city’s first dedicated bike lanes to be created in the early 1990s, with little backlash.

These lanes – which force cars to obey lower speed limits in order to give cyclists preferential treatment on an open residential street – soon began to reshape the “mental map” residents use for getting around the city, he said.

Mr. Price was a councillor from 1986 to 2002, after which he says his Non-Partisan Association party committed to fomenting a “bikelash” among Vancouver’s more conservative residents to oppose any expansion to the city’s cycling infrastructure. This movement began to reach a fever pitch in the run-up to council reallocating a car lane of the Burrard Street Bridge in 2009 to create a separated path for cyclists riding in and out of downtown.

Networks of traffic-calmed streets can be an important – and politically feasible – middle step for a city to make cycling safer and easier for many, but, ultimately, separated lanes on busy streets are the key to getting more commuters peddling to work, according to Brent Toderian, Vancouver’s former director of planning.

Roughly 10 per cent of Vancouver commutes are now on bikes thanks to these separated lanes, making it one of North America’s top-three cycling cities, he says.

“By far the biggest safety benefits are in terms of huge declines in traffic injuries of children,” Mr. Pucher says of the side streets calmed for cyclists. “What resident of a neighbourhood is going to oppose this?”

A global transition is needed to shift linear economic models typified by carbon intensive energy consumption and significant environmental impacts, where we ‘take, make and dispose’ natural resources- to circular models with reduced energy requirements from low carbon renewable sources, with minimal environmental impacts, and where natural resources are recycled and reused, and products are maintained and re-manufactured. 

Investing in projects and schemes, and across a range of sectors and scales, that align with this transition can have significant environmental benefits, as well as other positive sustainability related outcomes. Consider, as examples, the range of environmental, social and economic benefits that can be achieved at both a regional/national, and global, level of investing in cycling as a mode of urban transport- or by designing and engineering natural infrastructure that works in harmony with existing natural systems.

anonymous asked:

Do you have any advice for someone with driving anxiety? I've had my license for like 3 or 4 years now, but I can't make myself drive alone without getting really panicky. I'm ok until I get to turns, then I start freaking out and blanking out on what I'm supposed to do or who turns first

I personally do not enjoy driving, and I do at times find it very stressful and upsetting (particular in rush hour traffic). I want to stress that driving is not for everyone and that many people go through their entire lives without owning or operating a vehicle. There are lots of other ways to get around, including public transportation and cycling, and you shouldn’t feel obligated to drive if you don’t want to.

That said, here are some tips to help you feel more comfortable behind the wheel…

1. Positive reinforcement. Start rewarding yourself anytime you go for a drive, even if everything didn’t go as smoothly as you wanted it to. What’s important is that you’re getting the experience, not how far you drive or how fast you go. Buy a bulk package of your favorite treats, and reward yourself for a job well done.

2. GPS. Don’t be afraid to use GPS, even if you already know where you’re going. Nobody is going to know you’re using GPS and most navigation apps will let you listen to music at the same time. I love Google Maps, especially because it lets you know a mile ahead of time if you’re going to need to make a turn. These specific directions will help focus you and make you feel more confident behind the wheel!

3. Beautiful Atmosphere. If you’re going to be spending a good amount of time traveling by car, you might as well keep your car as esthetically pleasing as possible. Buy yourself an air freshener, play relaxing music, take your car to the car wash on a regular basis to keep it vacuumed and clean. Adding some personal touches to your car will help you feel more at home on the road.

4. Go your speed. It’s true that most drivers will drive over the speed limit, but that doesn’t meant that you have to! If you’re on a two lane road, move over to the right lane to allow people to pass you (this lane is commonly referred to as the “slow” lane). If someone is driving on your butt and giving you anxiety, pull over to the side of the road to allow them to pass. I do this all the time. If you need to drive under the speed limit for any reason, use your hazard lights.

5. Call someone. If you’re anxious about driving by yourself, put a friend or family member on speaker and talk to them while you drive. It’s important that you get used to driving by yourself (alone in the car), but this way someone will be able to talk to you and encourage you if you need it. Remember to be safe and either use an aux cord to connect your phone to your speaker system, or to leave the phone on speaker. Never drive around with your phone under your ear!

Take your time- people learn to drive at their own pace and there is no schedule you need to follow. Good luck babe!

Additional Resources

Car Care Tips

Car Insurance

How to Jump A Car

Self-Defense While Driving

Things To Keep in Your Car

What’s That Smell?

What To Do After A Car Accident

3

gif’d an animation of cellular respiration in preparation for my lesson on mitochondria. 

for complex things such as this process, i find that videos (even the better ones) are just to fast or arbitrarily sequential to use as a classroom teaching method. alternatively, static diagrams utterly fail to convey the process or end up getting super cluttered in an attempt to include everything. looped gifs seem to be an ideal medium in the absence of some sort of interactive, dynamic thing.

(sauce)

4

MBRN (Melbourne Bicycle Route Network) MAP - I thought this would be a bit of fun, creating a network of bike routes based on existing and proposed bike trails and dedicated bike lanes that intersect Melbourne.  The aim is to make navigation easier for cyclists and increase visibility of cycling as a mode of transport and as a byproduct increase visibility of cyclists to motorists.

theguardian.com
London's Bank junction closed to most traffic as part of new safety scheme
Cyclists hail experimental scheme – that sees the dangerous intersection closed to all but buses, cyclists and pedestrians – as a turning point
By Laura Laker

Bank junction, one of London’s most dangerous intersections, was closed this week to all but buses, and people on bikes and foot, from 7am to 7pm on weekdays, in an 18-month experimental scheme that could be as ground breaking as New York’s Times Square or Paris’s Left Bank.

In 2015 Ying Tao was hit from behind by a lorry (truck) and killed as she cycled across the six-armed crossroads. Cyclists make up to 50% of Bank traffic during peak times, and from 2010-14, 46 cyclists were injured at the junction, six seriously. There were also eight serious pedestrian casualties in that time.

people cycling through the junction before the introduction of the scheme. photo: chris ratcliffe/bloomberg/getty images

Iain Simmons, head of road safety, transport and traffic management at the City of London Corporation, has been trying to improve Bank for 25 years. A project in the early 90s was shelved after IRA bombings forced the reallocation of resources to what was known as the Ring of Steel, a new version of which was proposed in December.

Bank’s closure was first conceived in 2010. After years spent trying to get more traffic through the junction, traffic modelling revealed that by rerouting motor vehicles around it, journey times through the area would actually improve.

The junction is just too complex to be efficient, Simmons says. “There are six arms of traffic, and they all get a little bit of time, but that’s not enough.”

The main motivation though, is safety. Simmons said: “The danger comes for pedestrians because there just isn’t enough space or capacity for them, and the danger comes for cyclists because the space is so indeterminate – cyclists don’t know where to position themselves on the road in relation to the vehicles.”

There were more than 100 collisions at Bank from 2010-14, 75% of them between 7am and 7pm, with people on foot and bikes the main casualties. The most commonly injured were pedestrians.

That said, a lot of people did not want the scheme to happen and tempers have, inevitably, flared. Christopher Hayward is the chair of the City of London Corporation’s planning and transportation committee.

“It was a tough decision because nobody likes change, and clearly we have been lobbied hard by those who don’t believe the scheme will work. Our first priority is public safety, though. The option to do nothing is not an option.”

read more: guardian, 24.05.17.

the new traffic-free bank junction, london, 31.05.17. flickr/lumixpics

bank junction on the right side, where the two diagonal streets cross.

[AP Bio] TEST FOUR: Cellular Respiration

REGULAR HIGHLIGHTED VERSION CAN BE FOUND HERE

(*IMPORTANT: a lot of the format and diagrams got really messed up on here, I apologize)

cellular respiration = breakdown of fuel to generate ATP for work

3 Key Pathways: 1) glycolysis, 2) citric acid cycle, & 3) oxidative phosphorylation/electron transport chain (ETC)

characteristics: waste products = CO2 & H2O, catabolic pathway

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

AKA “redox” reactions

-the transfer of electrons
-> can be complete or partial (in cases of covalent bond sharing)

oxidation = the loss of electrons

reduction = the gaining of electrons

“oxidizing” agent = substance that accepts electrons from another

“reducing” agent = substance that gives up/“donates” electrons to another

*the transfer of electrons, as they are pulled down the energy gradient from a molecule of low EN -> molecule of high EN, is exergonic as this transfer causes the electrons to release potential energy

-> can be harvested for work! (INDIRECTLY)

-> cell resp. is all about understanding how the flow of electrons & protons controls the whole process!

Brief Overview of Cell Respiration

Fuel Reactant
Glucose Oxygen
Oxidized Reduced
Reducing Agent Oxidizing Agent
Goodbye electrons! :-c Hello electrons! c-:

oxidized (loses e’s)

C H 0 + 6O  -> 6CO  + 6H 0 + energy (ATP + heat)

reduced (gains e’s)

*typically carbs are used but lipids (fats) can also be used due to the large amount of H’s in the hydrocarbon tails, & actually generate a lot of energy

fun tidbit:
*the metabolic waste, C0 , is breathed out by the body and then taken in by plants, which use it to produce glucose -> thus the circle spins on & on

How Glucose is Broken Down

*energy cannot be efficiently harvested for work all at once, so rather it is broken down in a series of steps, called “stepwise energy harvesting”

1) Electrons taken from glucose (also, 1 proton) are given to Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucelotide (NAD+), a coenzyme
-> NAD+ is an oxidizing agent, and so therefore is able to accept electrons

2) NAD+ is an “empty taxi cab”. The enzyme dehydrogenase oxidizes food (such as glucose) to get the 2 e’s & 2 p’s (H+’s) so they can be given to NAD+.

3) NAD+ is reduced by accepting electrons, and becomes NADH. NADH is a “full taxi cab”, containing 2 e’s & 1 p (H+). The other H+ is released into the cytosol.
-> Each NADH represents potential energy that can be indirectly used to power the synthesis of ATP

4) NADH passes the e’s onto the electron transport chain (ETC). The ETC then passes the e’s on in a series of controlled steps to the oxygen molecules that pull them down the chain (b/c of its high EN). This process yields energy that can be used to re-generate ATP.

Stages of Cellular Respiration

1) Glycolysis- breakdown of glucose (“glyco” = glucose, “lysis” = breakdown)

2) Citric Acid Cycle- completes the breakdown into 2 molecules of pyruvate of glucose (AKA Krebs Cycle)

3) Electron Transport Chain (ETC)- accounts for most of ATP synthesis

 ————————————————————————————————-

(*the following diagram got really messed up on here, I apologize)

electrons carried via
NADH                                                                          electrons carried
                                                                                  via NADH & FADH2

Glycolysis                                                
1 glucose -> 2 pyruvate ——————-> citric acid                                                 (SPLIT)                                                    cycle                    electron transport
                                                                                               and chemiosmosis
                                            
                                                       (mitochondrion)
(cytosol)

                                                                                                         ATPs                                                                              ATP
   ATP

substrate-level                                  substrate-level                                             phosphorylation                                phosphorylation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              *oxidative
                                                                                                phosphorylation*

2 ATPs were invested,                                                       results in a LOT more
and 4 in total produced, so            results in 2 ATPs                       ATPs
NET = 2 ATPs                                    now: total 6
                                                             NET = 4                   produces NET = 32-                                                                                                        34 ATPs                                                                                                                

Glycolysis


-occurs in the cytosol

                        [high] G     outside/ECM

facilitated
diffusion             *Integral protein & cell membrane
(no energy)    
                         [low]  G      inside/cytosol

G-p <— phosphate is added (neg. charge “locks” glucose inside cell!)



-requires the energy investment of 2 ATPs



Energy Investment Phase

1- 2 ATPs invested

2- Enzymes take phosphates off ADPs

3- Series of steps where phosphates are taken off ATPs & then phosphorylated to molecules (TWICE) that are slightly changed each step

4- Eventually split into 2 3-carbon sugars (“G3Ps”)

Energy Yielding Phase


1- As the 2 G3Ps are oxidized, NAD+ is reduced to NADH -> this contributes to the ETC by carrying electrons (& protons)!

2- After, there is an “intermediate molecule” (ex: 1,3-biphosphoglycerate -> don’t need to know exact molecule) that has a phosphate. This phosphate is taken off and given to 2 ADPs to become 2 ATPs. This happens twice within the series of steps in this phase. Also, at one point, 2 H2Os are taken out.

3- Eventually transformed into 2 pyruvates

4- A total of 4 ATPs are made in this “payoff” phase. However, since 2 were invested originally, there is only a net of  2 ATPs.

                                      C3H3O3
C6H1206                    -pyruvates-
                                      C3H3O3

(*this diagram got really messed up on here too)

Energy Investment Phase



Glucose



2 ADP + 2 p <—————— 2 ATP used



Energy Payoff


Phase      4 ADP +


                    4 p          ———————->   4 ATP    formed



2 NAD+ + 4 e


+ 4 H+                   —————————>   2 NADH + 2 H+



                 


                                                    ————–> 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O




Net                     Glucose ————> 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O



4 ATP formed - 2 ATP used ——-> 2 ATP



2 NAD+ + 4 e + H + ———-> 2 NADH + 2 H+




Substrate-Level Phosphorylation

-not as efficient in producing ATP as oxidative phosphorylation

-used in both glycolysis & krebs/citric acid cycle

Citric Acid Cycle

-AKA “Krebs” Cycle

-COMPLETES energy-yielding oxidation of the organic molecules (ex: glucose)

-BEFORE the cycle can begin, the 2 Pyruvates must be converted to Acetyl CoA -> this links the cycle to glycolysis!

1) The 2 Pyruvates are oxidized and enter the Mitochondrion via a Transport Protein

2) CO2 is released (lungs -> exhale)

3) NAD+ is reduced to NADH & the e’s & p’s (H+’s) are stripped

4) A Coenzyme helps with the conversion to Acetyl CoA

-CAC uses BOTH molecules of pyruvate
*cycle goes around TWICE!

*CITRIC ACID CYCLE SUMMARY*

2 CO2 X 2 = 4 (released)

3 NADH X 2 = 6 (reduced)

1 FADH X 2 = 2 (reduced)

1 ATP X 2 = 2 (produced)

*appreciate the many redox Rx’s going on to keep the cycle going, changing Acetyl CoA all the way to Oxaloacetate!

Ex: R = NAD+ -> NADH
     O = any previous molecule!

ETC - Chemiosmosis - Oxidative Phosphorylation

-located at the inner mitochondrial membrane (like the plasma membrane, but different proteins!)                                                                              

*proteins are special ones made from the mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA)

*2 membranes! (DOUBLE)

PROTON MOTIVE FORCE

-facilitated diffusion

-a lot of energy & collisions b/c of flow of e’s

-*H’s come from glucose/pyruvate!

1) H+’s pumped out
2) O’s take H+’s to create H2O
3) Take protons in -> [low] guaranteed

-energy to power movement of H+ out!
(POTENTIAL ENERGY -> from redox Rx’s!)

-if O2 NOT present, H+’s cannot be moved/slid out -> b/c O2 is the final e acceptor w/ a high EN & the e’s release potential energy when moving down the gradient to O which powers the proton motive force

-keeps getting more EN as e’s pulled down/along chain

-H+’s move into ATP Synthase (important and moves protons BACK into matrix) protein -> active transport -> change of shape -> ATPs

fun tidbit:
-cyanide affects the enzyme that works w/ cytochrome oxidase, as it is an irreversible inhibitor that is tetravalent and desperate for a fourth bond, and therefore highly reactive (can shut down body systems and kill you within a matter of hours, and this is all due to bonding!)

ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

-oxidative phosphorylation & chemiosmosis couples the ETC to ATP synthesis

-located in cristae of mitochondrion

Pathway:

1) The components are proteins that exist in multiprotein complexes and are unique to the mitochondrion. These protein complexes alternate between reduced and oxidized states as they accept and donate electrons

2) Electrons drop in free energy as they go down the chain & are finally passed to O2 -> form H2O

3) NO ATP generated!!!!!

*THE FUNCTION OF THE ETC is to break the large free-energy drops from food to O2 into smaller steps that release energy in manageable amounts.

*the more redox Rx’s, the more energy is available.



CHEMIOSMOSIS

*the energy-coupling mechanism

1) Redox Rx’s in the ETC -> provide energy for the transport proteins to pump H+ from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space.

NEXT STEP IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWS

2) Proton Motive Force  develops as [H+] INC., w/i intermembrane space. Then, moves back across membrane & passes through channels in ATP Synthase.

3) ATP Synthase transports H+ BACK into matrix.

4) ATP Synthase uses exergonic flow of H+ to drive the phosphorylation of ADP -> ATP    (endergonic).

*chemiosmosis = use of energy in H+ chemical gradient to drive ADP phosphorylation

Fermentation

*enables some cells to produce ATP w/o the use of oxygen!

How can food be oxidized w/o oxygen?

-NAD+ is actually the oxidizing agent of glucose. A net of 2 ATPs are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation. Then, if there IS oxygen, more (a lot of) ATP can be produced when NADH passes the removed e’s from glucose to the ETC & oxidative phosphorylation occurs.

*glycolysis STILL produces 2 ATP whether O is present of not, though!

(either aerobic or anaerobic)


-fermentation is the anaerobic catabolism of nutrients

-fermentation = the extension of glycolysis that can generate ATP solely by substrate-level phosphorylation
-> *as long as there is a sufficient supply of NAD+ to accept e’s during the oxidation step of glycolysis

-NAD+ needs to be recycled from NADH

Aerobic Anaerobic
Recycled by the transfer Recycled by the transfer of electrons from NADH to Pyruvate (end product of glycolysis!)
of electrons to the ETC

TYPES OF FERMENTATION

fermentation = glycolysis + Rx’s that regenerate NAD+ (transfer of electrons from NADH -> Pyruvate)

Alcohol Fermentation = Pyruvate converted to Ethanol

1) RELEASES CO2 from Pyruvate
-> converted to 2-carbon compound “acetaldehyde”

2) Acetaldehyde is reduced by NADH to Ethanol

-regenerate supply of NAD+ needed

*many bacteria carry out alcohol fermentation under anaerobic conditions, also fungi (ex: yeast)

fun tidbit:

yeast -> used for 1,000’s of years by humans for brewing, wine-making, baking (bread, gases released create bubbles that allow it to rise), etc.

Lactic Acid Fermentation = Pyruvate reduced DIRECTLY by NADH - > forms Lactate (ionized form of lactic acid) as end product -> NO release of CO2

*certain fungi & bacteria used to make cheese & yogurt

*other microbial fermentation used to make acetone & methanol (methyl alcohol)

1) When O is scarce, human muscle cells can still make ATP by using lactic acid fermentation.

2) Strenuous exercise -> sugar catabolism for ATP production outpaces muscle’s supply of O from blood

3) Cells switch from aerobic respiration to fermentation -> creates lactate -> buildup of lactate can cause muscle fatigue and pain!

4) Lactate is gradually carried away by the blood to the liver -> converted back to pyruvate by liver cells

*facultative anaerobes = make enough ATP to survive using either fermentation or respiration (ex: our muscle cells!)
-> consume sugar at faster rate when fermenting to make the same amount

*Pyruvate is a “FORK IN THE ROAD”

4

On September 22, 2014 some Latvians celebrated World Car-Free Day by building car-size cages around their bikes to make the point that cars take up lots more room on the roads, and that each cyclist helps reduce traffic by exactly that much. Space is more of an issue in Europe, and these caged bikes at the first sight looks like a “protection.” It takes several cognitive steps to connect bike+cage=car/replace car with bike = fewer traffic jams. Overall it was a powerful statement about the vulnerability of cyclists on roads, and a statement that bikes are vehicles too.

anonymous asked:

You have anorexia athletica. You also use steroids because your ultra low-fat diet has given you hormonal issues. You also lie about being unable to gain weight. You are just obsessed with being skinny. You are happy your girlfriend is rail thin, even though she is an unrecovered anorexic with a speech pathology. You are a monster.

1. Follow me on Strava and I can find about 40 vegans who are noobs compared to me with riding BUT they have ridden more than me this year or pretty close to it. Im just fit and enjoy sport mate. Just because you are a slack fuck doesnt mean others cant enjoy moving their bodies for transport aka cycling. Put down the car/moto keys and STOP creating so much pollution!

2. I use steroids? Where is my big muscles then? Where is my pro cycling contract? How come so many vegan guys who follow my advice are pretty close or even faster than me up the climbs? You dont even now how steroids work you muffin top! They make you GAIN weight. Using steroids to recover from riding 200km a week is like saying you need to hire a gun carrying bodyguard because some kids teased you as you walked past the bus stop. LOL! 

3. So does that mean FL is on steroids too because she did the same low fat, high sugar fruit diet and lifestyle that got her lean and fit? Is Bonny on steroids? How about Tim? He eats lower fat than me apparently and has acne. Is that from taking steroids? Hint: When you get OFF steroids you get acne, not during. Same with the pill. Get with the times brah.

4. I thought you said yesterday that sugar makes you fat BUT I eat too much sugar and Im too lean so I have to have Rich Piana as my steroid coach so I can ride my bike with my gf who is ‘too thin’ yet she also eats high sugar diet that apparently makes you fat? 

5. You can call us anorexic OR sugar makes you fat but NOT both mate cos it makes you look like an undercarbed nob knocker mate. 

6. You dont have to agree with me but you are STILL WRONG.

7. Namaste.