transmission (medicine)

The brain above illustrates the degenerative changes and atrophy caused by Creutzfeld-jakob Disease, a form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. When ‘mad cow disease’ is transmitted to humans it is classified as a varient of CJD. Typically CJD is transmitted through exposure to infected tissue usually through medical procedures, however there can be a other causes - such as hereditary CJD. A person is infected with a type of protein known as a ‘prion’, these occur normally within humans but the infectious form is folded in an abnormal way, which then alters normal, healthy prions in the cells of the host.  It is thought that the neuronal loss and damage is caused by a build up of these proteins in the brain.

CJD is marked by a quick onset of neurological symptoms and a rapidly progressing dementia and decline of neurological functioning. Initially, individuals experience problems with muscular coordination; personality changes, including impaired memory, judgment, and thinking; and impaired vision. People with the disease also may experience insomnia, depression, or unusual sensations. As the illness progresses, mental impairment becomes severe. Individuals often develop involuntary muscle jerks called myoclonus, and they may go blind. They eventually lose the ability to move and speak and enter a coma. CJD is fatal, and there are no treatments for the condition. 

anonymous asked:


Send me a number (or more than one!) and I will share a headcanon about my muse’s:

18. Immune System

    Her immune system is fairly average for a Galra, she seldom gets sick and even when she does she’d do her damnedest to hide it. Overall, the Galra are a very hardy species meant for survival, and being the most advanced in the galaxy certainly allows for some high-end medical care. 

    I’d imagine that every new recruit gets vaccinated for a wide range of ailments, so many differing subspecies would bring in new pathogens the other isn’t immunized against. After vaccinations, even in such a confined space such as a ship wouldn’t be much of a problem if the herd immunity is 99-100%. 

    Back to Nakul, she might have a small upper hand on those brought up in cold climates, her home planet was the equivalent of a tropical rain forest which definitely had it’s advantages. Living so long in such humid weather is like having an infinite humidifier, her lungs are strong, and it takes an awful lot to render her incapable. Even if she managed to get sick, she’d power through it and nothing would change, albeit a bit crankier than usual. I’m positive that advanced Galran medicine has some super-strength DayQuil on crack she could take.


The cochlea and the Organ of Corti.

The cochlea is the auditory portion of the inner ear. It is a spiral-shaped cavity in the bony labyrinth, in humans making 2.5 turns around its axis, the modiolus. A core component of the cochlea is the Organ of Corti, the sensory organ of hearing, which is distributed along the partition separating fluid chambers in the coiled tapered tube of the cochlea. It is found only in mammals and it is provided with hair cells or auditory sensory cells (the organ was named after the Italian anatomist Alfonso Giacomo Gaspare Corti (1822–1876), who conducted microscopic research of the mammalian auditory).

The cochlea is filled with a watery liquid, the perilymph, which moves in response to the vibrations coming from the middle ear via the oval window. As the fluid moves, the cochlear partition (basilar membrane and organ of Corti) moves; thousands of hair cells sense the motion via their stereocilia, and convert that motion to electrical signals that are communicated via neurotransmitters to many thousands of nerve cells. These primary auditory neurons transform the signals into electrochemical impulses known as action potentials, which travel along the auditory nerve to structures in the brainstem for further processing.

(Images source: Steve Gschmeissner. To read more details about sound’s transmission: here).