What do charters for guilds consist of? If all the alchemist guild has is wildfire, how to they sustain themselves? What does the Royal charter for the faith or citadel consist of?
Well, much like city charters, guild charters gave guilds legal recognition, rights, privileges, responsibilities, and limits.
So what kinds of “rights, privileges, responsibilities, and limits” did these charters include?
First, guild charters gave guilds a legal monopoly over a given trade or industry. If you wanted to work in a given industry in a given location, you had to be a member in good standing who had been given permission to work in that town or city. On the other side, employers and merchants who wanted to hire a smith or buy their goods also had to do so with a guild member, lest they be legally liable.
Next, guild charters gave guilds control of training, licensing, and locating of workers in their field. In order to become a member of the guild, you had to go through a guild apprenticeship where you would live with a master craftsman and labor for them for anywhere between seven and fourteen years. Apprentices were not paid save for food and lodging, but their masters were required to train them in the skills and trade secrets of their industry. When you had completed your education, you would be licensed as a journeyman, be given a set of tools that were now your property, and could now work for wages in your field. Journeymen were usually sent away from their home city for a period of at least three years (although that’s not where the name came from), for reasons that I’ll explain later. When you had completed that process and could afford to pay the application fee, you could apply to become a master craftsman, by submitting a masterpiece (that’s where the name comes from) to the guild masters for their approval - if your work was up to snuff and the guild masters let you in, you’d now be a full member of your field with the right to open your own business, hire journeymen, and train apprentices (indeed, you were required to train apprentices).
Third, guild charters gave guilds wide powers of regulation and self-regulation. In addition to the right to charge membership dues, guilds also had the right to fine members or even expel them for violating the regulations of the guild, and guilds established extensive regulations on prices, wages, working conditions, product quality, even standards of personal behavior. (Guild members could be fined or even expelled for drunkenness, for example, because it threatened the guild’s reputation for quality labor). At the same time, guilds also used their control over their members to essentially bargain collectively with governments, suppliers, merchants and employers, wielding the authority to blackball them from doing any business with guild members to get their way.
So how did the guilds use these powers?
First, they used them to control labor supply, labor demand, prices and wages - guilds carefully manipulated the intake of apprentices, the licensing of journeymen, and the qualification of masters, and used their powers to permit working or operating a shop in a given town/city/region, to ensure that there would be enough work/consumer demand for their members at the wages/prices necessary to support the living standards of guild members. If there wasn’t enough work to go around in a given location, journeymen would be refused entry to a given town and sent on their way, and masters would be refused the right to open a shop.
Second, they used them to control the quality of goods and services - if you sold shoddy goods or did shoddy work, the guild would fine or expel you, and if you tried to work in their industry without going through their training process, you’d be prosecuted.
And third, they used them to create mini-welfare states - financed by the various dues and fees they charged their members, guilds operated pensions for the elderly, the disabled, widows and orphans, a system of unemployment benefits for journeymen who couldn’t find work, and funeral benefits.
As for Westeros, the guilds we know about are the Alchemist Guild in King’s Landing, the Guild of Smiths in King’s Landing, and a series of unnamed guilds in Oldtown. The Faith isn’t a chartered institution - it’s a religious institution - but the Citadel might have a charter from King Urrigon Hightower, but we don’t have direct confirmation.
Douglas Robinson, The New York Times, 16 April 1967
Thousands of antiwar demonstrators marched through the Streets of Manhattan yesterday and then massed in front of the United Nations building to hear United States policy In Vietnam denounced.
The Police Department’s office of Community Relations said that police, off leers at the scene estimated the number of demonstrators outside the United Nations at “between 100,000 and 125,000.”
It was difficult to make any precise count because people were continually leaving and entering the rally area. It was also almost Impossible to distinguish the demonstrators from passersby and spectators.
On Friday the police had announced that they were preparing for a crowd of 100,000 to 400,000.
Leaders of Parade It was the largest peace demonstration staged in New York since the Vietnam war began. It took four hours for all the marchers to leave Central Park for the United Nations Plaza.
The parade was led by the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Dr. Benjamin Spock, the pediatrician, and Harry Belafonte, the singer, as well as several other civil rights and religious figures, all of whom linked arms as they moved out of the park at the head of the line.
The marchers—who had poured into New York on chartered buses, trains and cars from cities as far away as Pittsburgh, Cleveland and Chicago—included housewives from Westchester, students and poets from the Lower East Side, priests and nuns, doctors, businessmen and teachers.
Chant From Youths As they began trooping out of Central Park toward Fifth Avenue, some of the younger demonstrators chanted: “Hell no, we won’t go,“ and “Hey, Hey, L. B. J., How Many Kids Did You Kill Today.”
Most of the demonstrators, however, marched silently as they passed equally silent crowds of onlookers. At several points—notably Central Park South from the—Avenue of the Americas to Fifth Avenue—the sidewalks were swarming with onlookers. Other blocks were almost deserted.
Some of the marchers were , hit with eggs and red paint. At 47th Street and Park Avenue, several demonstrators were struck by steel rods from a building under construction. Some plastic cups filled with sand barely missed another group. There were no serious injuries.
At least five persons were arrested for disorderly conduct. Three youths were taken into custody when they tried to rush a float that depicted the Statue of Liberty.
The demonstration here and a similar One in San Francisco were sponsored by the Spring Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, a loose confederation of leftwing, pacifist and moderate antiwar groups;
A few minutes before 11 AM, an hour before the parade started, about 70 young men gathered on an outcropping of rock in the southeast comer of the Sheep Meadow in Central Park to bum their draft cards. They were quickly joined by others, some of whom appeared to have decided to join in on the spot.
Hard to Check The demonstrators said that nearly 200 cards were burned, although in the chanting, milling throng it was impossible to get an accurate count or to tell whether all the papers burned were draft cards.
Surrounded by a human chain that kept out hundreds of onlookers, the demonstrators first clustered In small groups around cigarette lighters, then sat down and passed cards up to a youth holding a flaming coffee cam Cheers and chants of “Resist, Resist,” went up as small white cards—many of which were passed hand to hand from outside the circle—caught fire.
Many of the demonstrators carried or wore daffodils and chanted “Flower Power.”
It was the first large draft-card, burning in the protests against the war in Vietnam, although groups of up to a dozen had publicly burned their cards.
Among the group yesterday was a youth in the uniform, jump boots and green beret of the Army Special Forces, whose name tag said “Rader.” He identified himself as Gary Rader of Evanston, Ill., and said he had served a year and a half of active duty as a reservist.
Like the rest of the demonstrators, the card burners were a mixed group. Most were of college age, and Included bearded, button-wearing hippies, earnest students in tweed coats and ties, and youths who fitted in neither category.
There were a number of girls who burned half of their husband’s or boy friend’s draft cards while the men burned the other half. Among the burners were a sprinkling of older men, including several veterans and the Rev. Thomas Hayes of the Episcopal Peace Fellowship.
Last week the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit held unconstitutional a law passed in 1965 banning draft-card burning under pain of a maximum 5-year sentence and a $10,000; fine; Two convictions under the law, however, have been upheld by United States Courts of Appeals in the Second and Eighth Circuits.
Vietcong Flags Raised In his speech at the United Nations rally, Dr. King repeatedly called on the United States to “honor its word0 and “stop the bombing of North Vietnam.”
“I would like to urge students from colleges all over the nation to use this summer and coming summers educating and organizing communities across the nation against war,” Dr. King told the crowd.
Before making his speech, the minister and a five-man delegation presented a formal note to Dr. Ralph Bunche, Undersecretary for Special Political Affairs at the United Nations.
The note said: “We rally at the United Nations in order to affirm support of the principals of peace, universality, equal rights and self-determination of peoples embodied in the Charter and acclaimed by mankind, but violated by the United States.” The demonstrators began to assemble in Central Park’s Sheep Meadow early in the morning.
On one grassy knoll, a group calling itself the United States Committee to Aid the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam built a 40-foot high tower of black cardboard tubing. They then attached a number of Liberation Front (Vietcong) flags, of blue and red with a gold star in the center.
At 12:20 P.M., the parade stepped off from Central Park South and the Avenue of the Americas, with Dr. King and the other leaders in the vanguard. They were surrounded by a group of parade marshals who linked hands to shield them from possible violence. From the hundreds of people lining the route of march came expressions of anger or support.
“I think it’s terrible, ” said Carl Hoffman, an engineer from Hartford, who stood at the corner where the march began.
Nearby, 20-year-old Estelle Klein, an office manager from Queens, gazed at the students, nuns, businessmen, veterans and doctors marching by and said: “I’d be out there too, but I don’t know, I just don’t think it’ll do any good.”
As the demonstrators moved east on 59th Street, they encountered bands of youths carrying American flags and hoisting placards with such slogans as “Bomb Hanoi” and “Dr. Spock Smokes Bananas.”
The bands of youths ran along the sidewalks paralleling the line of march, calling insults at the demonstrators.
Along one stretch of high-rise apartment houses on Lexington Avenue, eggs were dumped from a number of windows and many marchers had their clothes stained with red paint tossed by persons behind police barricades.
Guests Peer Out From the windows of the Barbizon-Plaza Hotel the Plaza and the St. Moritz, guests—a few still in pajamas—peered from their rooms at the throng moving out of the park. Most of these watchers neither applauded nor heckled.
Although the demonstrators were supposed to follow a line of march set up by the police, several thousand members of the Harlem contingent broke away and marched down Seventh Avenue through Times Square.
Several fistfights broke out in Times Square between angry motorists caught in a huge traffic jam and the paraders.
At 42d Street and Second Avenue, a fight broke out between several spectators and 19-year-old Edward Katz of Manhattan. Mr. Katz said later that he was trying to get to his car with his wife and baby when “a group of anti-peace people started knocking over the baby carriage.”
By 4 P.M., the last of the marchers had moved out of Central Park, leaving it looking like at disaster area. The paths and roadways were covered with litter.
There were several floats in the parade, including one on which Pete Seeger, the folk singer, rode with a number :of children. They sang folk songs like “This Land Is Your Land” as they rolled along the line of march.
Most of the marchers carried signs that had been authorized and printed by the Spring Mobilization Committee. Among the slogans were “Stop the Bombing,0 “No Vietnamese Ever Called Me Nigger’! and, “Children Are Not Born to Burn.”
There were many unauthorized banners and placards, however. One, a bed sheet carried by three young men, bore in large black letters the words, “Ho Chi Minh is a Virgin.”
A minor scuffle between the police and the peace marchers broke out at 3 P.M. on the south side of 42d Street just west of First Avenue when some marchers tried to turn north.
Patrolmen, on foot moved into the crowd, trying to push them into line. Other policemen on horseback charged into the throng and helped turn the marchers back. Nearby, counter-demonstrators screamed: “Kill them, kill them.”
The speeches at the United Nations did not, start until after 2 P.M. While the demonstrators waited, filling the plaza from 47th to 42d Streets, they were entertained by folk singers.
An overflow crowd filled the side-streets west of First Avenue. More than 2,000 policemen were on hand at the United Nations to keep order, and to separate demonstrators from counter-demonstrators.
‘Be-in’ at the Park A “be-in” of several thousand young men and women preceded the start of the parade. They gathered on a rock but-cropping in the southeast corner of the Sheep Meadow, dancing and singing to the music of guitars, flutes and drums.
Many of the young people had painted their faces and legs with poster paint. The sweet smell of cooking bananas hung over the group.
Unidentified demonstrators set fire to an American flag held up on a flagstaff in the park before the march began, the police said. No arrests were made in connection with the incident.
After leaving Dr. Bundle’s office at the United Nations, Dr. King told newsmen that the “demonstration was “just a beginning of a massive outpouring of concern and protest activity against this illegal and unjust war.”
The speeches ended soon after 5 P.M. when a downpour drenched the plaza, converting it into a field of soggy clothing, peeling placards and deep puddles.
The rally area was almost completely deserted by 6:30, except for crews from the Sanitation Department who were cleaning up a mountain; of debris.
Speakers at the rally, in addition to Dr. King, included Floyd McKissick, national secretary of the Congress of Racial Equality, and Stokely Carmichael, leader of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.
Mr. Carmichael, who spoke against background shouts of “black power,” described the United States’ presence in Vietnam as “brutal and racist,” and declared that he was against “drafting young men, particularly young black Americans.”
Mr. McKissick called for the immediate withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam and predicted that the turnout of marchers would bring “some positive, action” from Washington.
The Rev. James Bevel, who was national director of Spring Mobilization, said he would give President Johnson “one month to stop murdering those folks in Vietnam.”
“That’s all we’ll give him, one month to pull those guns^out,” Mr. Bevel said with his fists upraised. “If he doesn’t, we’ll close down New York City.” He did not elaborate.
Before leaving Central Park, Mr. Belafonte told newsmen that he was participating in the demonstration because “the war in Vietnam—like all wars—is immoral.”
Steam Serene…tank engine crosses the River Severn by Keith Wilkinson Via Flickr: In glorious morning sunshine, tank engine 1450 crosses the River Severn on Victoria Bridge with a chartered train of two brake vans. This was the 9.00 a.m. departure from Bewdley to Bridgnorth on the Severn Valley Railway on Saturday August 6th 2016. The former Great Western Railway steam locomotive was carrying the head board: SLS Special.
Hii. So theory that Stiles is bi is now kind of a main topic so i'm wondering what do you think of it. Do you think he is bi??
I absolutely think he’s bi. In fact I’m pretty much of the opinion that it can be considered a “canonical fact” at this point. I realize many might not agree with me since he haven’t shouted out from the roof top at the hospital or told someone explicitly, but it’s a topic that’s been hinted at since the beginning of the show.
Stiles has never defined his sexuality. Scott has, when coach asked him if he found Danny attractive, responded that yes he thought Danny was an attractive guy, but he liked girls. Danny and Mason are openly gay characters. Caitlin was openly bisexual and it could be argued that Brett is as well, even if it’s not explicitly stated. Other than that none of the characters have stated their sexuality. We only know their dating history, or to be fair part of their dating history.
We can assume that a character like for instance Lydia is straight because we’ve only seen her with boys, but that doesn’t mean she is. Stiles has so far only been linked with girls romantically, but with just one them has he been in a relationship with - Malia. Heather and Caitlin came on to him and kissed him first. And Lydia is someone he’s crushed on for a while, but that never came to anything.
What little information we have about Stiles’ love life before TW starts is comprised of him being obsessed with Lydia since the third grade.
Stiles: Fine, yes, from Lydia to me. Look, I need to know if I have a chance with this girl, okay? I’ve been obsessing over her since the third freakin’ grade.
That doesn’t mean he couldn’t have obsessed over boys during this period. That might just be something he hadn’t shared with anyone. And as the series goes forward we do get a lot of hints that he might swing both ways.
Let me count the ways….. click the link for more :)
IKMY season 4 - subtitled episodes and descriptions
The first four are complete episodes translated by lundsdotter. The rest of the episodes were partially translated by TVNorge and Ylvis Facebookies. The links are playlists of clips from each episode. Almost everything has been translated. Enjoy! And don’t forget to send our translators some appreciation!
16 September - guest Erna Solberg, automatic customer service, medieval bards, Calle’s Minute (putting pants on without hands), song for Swedish viewers, Calle interviews Jenny Jensen on amusement park ride, Golden Chance (crowd surfing), Trucker’s Hitch, Bård’s R&B dance/shock collar punishment
23 September - guest Morten Ramm, Billy Elliot desk button, Det kan du vel (hedge trimming), Calle’s Minute (Rubik’s cube), Magnus’ record project, Magnus’ Beaver Ax, pranking Charter-Svein (train horn), Slapstick Battle, Golden Chance (Bom Bom Bom Bom Bombadilla Life), Vegard’s spanking punishment
30 September - guest Marion Ravn, revenge of the flies, Calle’s Minute (decorating with flowers), Magnus’ record project, pranking Charter Svein (ball room), Golden Chance (handball), Mr. Toot, Calle’s punishment singing for Elvis Costello
7 October - guest Jakob Oftebro, Only You on helium, Det kan du vel (making beer), Calle’s Minute (shadow puppet theater), automatic customer service, forced satire song, Magnus’ record project, pranking Charter-Svein (toilet), Golden Chance (celebrity with silly voice, Ravi), stage diving
14 October - guest Ingrid Gjessing, Magnus’ record park, Calle’s Minute (tango), cell phone crashing prank, Calle interviews Jørgen Foss in a rally car, pranking Charter-Svein (cake in face), Golden Chance (bubble bowling), I Will Never Be a Star, Vegard’s punishment with Mentos and cola
21 October - guest Fredrik Skavlan, Det kan du vel (changing lightbulb and pole dancing), Calle’s Minute (table clearing), Skavlan in remote controlled sports car, smoothie competition, Parodies in the Tower, impro songs at a sports bar, pranking Charter-Svein (plane), wedding photos
28 October - guest Erik Thorstvedt, jazz trio opening, Calle interviews Erlend Elias in a tube behind a boat, Calle’s Minute (Maggie Smith), Charter-Svein gets his magnet bed, Calle learns Eastern Norwegian, Golden Chance (imitating sounds), Yoghurt, Bård’s math/shock collar punishment
4 November - Nose Special, guest Steinar Sagen, Det kan du vel (changing bike tire), Calle’s Minute (I’m on Fire), stealing food prank, forced satire song, Bård’s dance, Magnus’ knekkeknask, Golden Chance (bubble bowling), house styling
11 November - guest Einar Tørnquist, revenge of the fish, Calle’s Minute (big budget), Parodies in the Tower, race to get fur coats, basketball, Golden Chance (Where’s Waldo/Willy?), Ytterst På Tissen, backpacking with Calle
18 November - guest Thomas & Harald and Kygo, Charter-Svein gets revenge, Calle’s Minute (life’s mysteries), beard pulling contest, anti-internet song, Det kan du vel (eggs), final Golden Chance (weight lifting) Intolerant
25 November - UNICEF special, guest Bernt Apeland, Magnus Jr. from the future, Miser #1 Million, Calle’s Square in Averøya, automatic customer service, fishes help UNICEF, Bård’s monk haircut
Other season 4 things:
behind the scenes, interviews, pictures of the songs here
I’ll probably make another master post of more specific season 4 tags (Calle’s Minute, Golden Chance, automatic customer service, etc.) so keep an eye out for that.
A rare photo of George Harrison, Paul McCartney and Ringo Starr with others on the train in Mulheim-Styrum, Germany, 25 June 1966, submitted to the German newspaper WAZ by Juliane Grote. Photo 1 courtesy of Juliane Grote, 2012; photo 2 courtesy of DB Museum, 2016.
The following memory, by fan Juliane, is translated from WAZ’s 25 June 2012 issue:
“In 1963, The Beatles sang their way into my young girl’s heart with ‘She Loves You.’ When The Beatles were due to come to Essen during a Blitzournee, it all came down to one question for me: how do I get there? My parents categorically declined it. My father, an officer with the railway police, spoke of ‘layabouts’ and ‘long-haired men’ and remained steadfast. Only to then surprise me with confidential information. After making me promise not to breathe a word to anyone, he told me that he was one of the officers on duty at the trainstation where The Beatles would arrive and said I may be able to experience the arrival of the train.
The day before, we found out that my school friend Rita could also come along; the destination of our dreams: Mühlheim-Styrum. My God, I was excited when we arrived there on 25 June 1966. There was nothing going on, there were barely any barriers set up. Were we to have The Beatles to ourselves?
When the chartered train arrived, I felt queasy. I’m not about to faint, I thought to myself. My father gave me the signal we had agreed upon, telling me what compartment The Beatles were in. I climbed aboard - and stood in front of The Beatles. My heart was racing and I couldn’t get a word out. All I could do was hold out my autograph book and a pen and silently ask them for their autographs. What a moment!
The moment ended abruptly when a police officer manouevered me out of the train. When John, Paul, George and Ringo departed the train, the only people on the track were photographers and the two of us girls. Right in front of the stairs the line of policemen ended. Our chance. No one stopped us as we lined up with The Beatles. We walked, no, floated, down the stairs next to them.
The concert at the Gruga [Hall] wasn’t important any longer, we couldn’t get closer to The Beatles than that.” - Juliane Grote, WAZ, 25 June 2012
I wonder if it would work if a necromancer—possibly one who wished to be/help the Abhorsen but wasn’t of the blood and had no chance of ever being Abhorsen-In-Training—got Charter Mark tattoos on their fingers and hands and wrists to counteract/contain/balance the Free Magic of their bells (or pipes) better?
Or if it would only delay the enevitable corrosion from Free Magic? Would it help them actually bind Dead better as the Abhorsen does? Would it actually work?
George Harrison signing an autograph for Elke, a Beatlemaniac from the Hamburg area, at the train station in Ahrensburg, sometime after The Beatles’ arrival at 5:25 a.m. on 26 June 1966. These images are screen captures from footage of the band in Germany. According to Hamburger Morgenpost (27 June 1966), Elke and her friend Sonja (both 15 years old at the time) were the only two out of at least 200 fans at the train station who somehow managed to get through to the platform and rush after The Beatles into the underpass.
“Train station Ahrensburg, 26 June 1966, 5:30 in the morning. Ear-splitting screams drown out the squeaking brakes of the chartered train with The Beatles on board. The by then world-famous lads from Liverpool are arriving in the small town near Hamburg in order to avoid the extensive hype surrounding their Hamburg concerts. Still, cheering and no doubt wide awake fans are awaiting them. The girls ‘effortlessly rival factory whistles,’ the Ahrensburger Zeitung writes.” - NDR, article by Maya Ueckert, June 2016