traditional economies

A fatal flaw in the “stages” theory of development and the convergence hypothesis, one that more or less invalidates it, is that the very processes that produced modern, developed, prosperous capitalism in Europe and North America also produced backwardness, underdevelopment, and poverty in the Global South. While workers were leaving nineteenth-century Europe in droves for the New World, rampant European imperialism resulted in the “forcible incorporation into the world market of the great subsistence peasantries of Asia and Africa,” entailing “the famine deaths of millions and the uprooting of tens of millions more from traditional tenures.”  The real parallel between the second half of the nineteenth century in Europe and the second half of the twentieth century in the Global South is therefore very different. To quote Mike Davis: “The brutal tectonics of neoliberal globalization since 1978 are analogous to the catastrophic processes that shaped a ‘Third World’ in the first place.”

The accelerated spread of capitalist social relations among Southern nations during the neoliberal era has been far more effective in dissolving traditional economies and ties to the land than in absorbing into wage labor those made destitute by this process. The rural exodus and growth of the urban workforce is analogous to what happened in Europe a century earlier, but there are important differences, the most far-reaching and significant of which is that the free movement of workers across borders and oceans that characterized the nineteenth century became subject to increasing restrictions.

—  John Smith, Imperialism in the Twenty-First Century

wishiwould  asked:

What are your thoughts on the way exchange of ideas with the audience is so much more free with Critical Rome's format (Laura once said "I saw a fan creation that have me the idea..." about where the blue feathers came from) vs print and other media? (Didn't Marion Zimmer Bradley or someone have to throw out an entire novel draft bc she read a fan fic with the same plot?) I LOVE the open exchange with CR community and wish more fandoms and media could be that way!

My thoughts are that it is super super great and cool :D But also my thoughts on this economy of ideas are supposed to fill, like….a chapter and a half of my thesis? So there’s a lot to say about this whole exchange of ideas. :’D I don’t wanna keep you here all day so uhhhhhhh here’s one way of thinking about it!

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Walmart is asking employees to deliver packages on their way home from work

Labor experts say the arrangement, a mash-up of sorts between an Uber-style gig economy and traditional employment arrangements, raises a number of questions related to employees having to shoulder much of the risk, cost and liability associated with deliveries.

“The practice seems ripe for abuse if the company does not compensate workers for the full cost of their journey, the expenses related to gas, car depreciation, and potential problems like accidents, tickets or parking expenses,” said Stephanie Luce, a labor professor at the City University of New York. “Like other ‘gig economy’ type jobs, there is a potential to benefit workers — but in reality, most of the benefits accrue to the employer, not the employee.”

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In a traditional state, the economy is subordinate to the political. Mussolini denied that homo oeconomicus existed. Evola does not agree. Unfortunately, in some people the economic dominates the political, ethical and religious. This psychological condition is a mental illness, la daimonia dell’economia (demonic possession by the economy). A healthy state is like a healthy human. Free men are unified and coherent individuals who are not dominated by the outside, physical world, but they are also differentiated, with a proper hierarchy of spirit, soul and body within. The state’s economic policy should aim at autarchy, supplying its own needs and healthy desires, without depending on free trade with other countries or finance capitalism. Just as a healthy human avoids excessive or unhealthy eating and drinking and exercises appropriately, so a healthy nation privileges independence, cooperation and an almost military morale over a purely economic prosperity and consumerism, on the one hand, or a totally controlled centralised economic planning, on the other. Fascism had these goals and aimed at producing this kind of human being when the war cut short its initiatives before they could reach fruition. The courage and resolution of the Italians who supported the Italian Social Republic in northern Italy after 25 July 1943, although its principles were deficient, showed that Fascism was working, but was not given enough time to succeed.
—  Fascism Viewed From the Right, Julius Evola, Introduction by E. Christian Kopff

Things I want from Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them: 

  • An American wizarding culture that is radically different from what we see in the HP books.  You think all those snooty European purebloods were the ones who made the trip overseas?  Nah.  I think the wizards who emigrated to America would be angry mudbloods off to make their own traditions.  
  • A wizarding economy that relies on magi tech mechanisms rather than house elf slave labour, because the original immigrants couldn’t afford to bring over house elves and now crazy magic Rube Goldberg machines have become a point of pride. 
  • Shaky relations with the First Nations magic-using community, which is likely not down with the imposition of the Statute of Secrecy… not to mention attempts to compel their children into schools that teach Western wizardry.

What I am likely to get from Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them: 

  • Eddie Redmayne in attractive jackets. 

What happens in a world, or at least a nation, where most of the population lives semi-comfortably (by historical standards) off a basic income, supplemented by occasional temporary gigs, thanks to the economic output of tomorrow’s technology; a small middle class works at the diminishing number of jobs which can’t be handled by technology; and a smaller-yet minority of the ultra-rich actually design the tech, and/or live off their inheritances a la Piketty? Call it a “low-scarcity” future, as opposed to the full-on Singularitarian “post-scarcity” future.

It seems to me that such a world would be extremely fertile ground for the rise of — you guessed it — a reputation economy. The key is that it wouldn’t outright replace a traditional monetary economy, at least not for some quite considerable time; rather, it would begin to thrive parallel to, and independent of, its capitalistic counterpart. Eventually, though, as I’ve argued before, since we are fundamentally social creatures, in the long run, “at some point it will be better to be awesome than to be rich.”

anonymous asked:

Friendly reminder that Africans sold their children into slavery, and the African slave trade is as much their fault as it is Europeans and Americans.

What do they teach you in those schools..?

“The terrible impact that slavery has had on the continent of Africa cannot be calculated: the destruction of magnificent civilizations, the break-up of family and kinship circles, the massive depopulation, forced impoverishment, famine and starvation, the ravishing of an environment which had been so conducive to human civilization for millennia. From open, educated, prosperous and democratic societies, African people now lived in sheer terror, never knowing when their village or town would be raided for human loot by these white invaders.

Some North American people cynically place the blame for the enslavement of African people on the shoulders of African collaborators who participated in the kidnapping of their own people. Impacted by the social destruction wreaked by invading Europeans, a tiny minority of the conquered people did find their own survival by participating in this treachery.

The setting up of collaborators among the colonized population has been a successful tool of domination in every instance of European colonialism around the world. Africa is no exception. Europeans attack societies in Africa, Asia, or the Americas, destroying their traditional economies and long-standing social relationships. A unilateral colonial economy, which starves the people and creates the dependency on the colonial power, is militarily enforced.

The European invader gets richer and richer through his bloodsucking relationship, and offers resources, guns and special status to a minority sector of the oppressed population. The selected “elite” or the colony can themselves become enslaved or carry out the will of white power. If they take any stand independent of the colonizer as have, say, Panama’s Noriega or Iraq’s Saddam Hussein in today’s world, white power spares them none of its wrath.

This plan has worked well over the centuries. A few people in every colony have participated in the devious imperialist schemes of slavery, genocide, torture and exploitation of their own people, a collaboration which benefits no one more than the European or North American “mother” country.

The statement that “Africans enslaved their own people” separates out African people from other colonial subjects, all of whom have had their share of betrayal among their ranks. It is a statement of imperialism’s historic need to mobilize public opinion against African people.

Like the general white attitude toward the government-imposed drugs and dependent drug economy in today’s African communities, this statement lets the parasitic colonial economic system off the hook. It is an anti-black expression of unity with the oppression of African people, saying, “They did it to themselves.” Meanwhile all white people everywhere still benefit from the parasitic economic system which has as its foundation the enslavement and continued exploitation of African people.

Most Africans resisted enslavement with all of their energy. Rebellions on slave ships were common. According to one source, “Many deaths on slave journeys across the Atlantic derived from violence, brawls, and above all, rebellions. There was probably at least one insurrection every eight to ten journeys.”

For example, Africans successfully rebelled in 1532 aboard the Portueguese slave ship the Misericordia. The 109 Africans on board “rose and murdered all the crew except for the pilot and two seaman. Those survivors escaped in a longboat. But the Misericordia was never heard of again.”

– Overturning the Culture of Violence


Greenland is so crazy beautiful!

I traveled about 25 miles by dogsled with my local fixer, Julius, to visit this small settlement.

It’s called Tiniteqilaaq, a shrinking community of about 70 people. Here, hunting is still a way of life, although it’s unclear how long that will last. Jobs and education in the larger town of Tasiilaq have pulled most of the young people away. Those who stay have few options. Suicide is disturbingly commonplace.

But the fish and seals and polar bears are still here, and the ice cap is visible in the distance. Many here hope Tiniteqilaaq will have a second life as a destination for adventure tourists and expeditions onto the ice cap.

A Coastal Defense Against Storms And Rising Seas That Bruce Lee Would Like

by Michael Keller

The way to protect shoreline communities from monster storms and climate change’s rising seas might not be to erect huge walls to fight the water, but to use its own energy to control it. 

That’s the idea behind a comprehensive coastal resiliency project called Living Breakwaters, which in late October won the 2014 Buckminster Fuller Institute Challenge for socially responsible design. The system, created by SCAPE/LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE PLLC, looks to reduce risks by rebuilding tidal habitats like oyster reefs that once protected shorelines along with smarter coastal planning and development.

At its heart, the winning idea is to construct rocky mounds and sloped walls within the water column that armor the coastline and diffuse wave energy. Those in front of undeveloped onshore lands like parks and refuges would be fully submerged tidal breakwaters while those in front of developed communities would protrude above the waterline as exposed islands. Both versions also act as artificial reefs that rebuild ecosystems and become homes for fish and shellfish. These are meant to serve as buffers between populated land and open water that absorb wave energy to diminish erosion and flooding. 

Read more and see images and videos below.

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Those Asians.

I’m at Starbucks listening to an older man and woman talk about Asians.  They’re apparently “experts” in the Eastern culture and economy and traditions.  What’s interesting is how they’re attributing certain behaviors to Asians just because “they’re Asian."  Saying things like, "She’s got a brick wall around her because she’s Asian.  They work hard because they’re Chinese.  He’s sort of lazy for an Asian.”  

I sort of want to tell them that maybe Asians are human beings too, and we come in all shapes and sizes, and our “Asian-ness” doesn’t make us easier to define into categorical pigeonholes, and that their conversation is contributing to the problem and not the solution.  I would like to speak up, except then I would probably be “too loud for an Asian."  And you know, I can’t expect to change subconscious racism and ingrained ignorance in a single sit-down.  So I’ll just stare at them.

– J

Pick Me Up (Narry)

Summary: Harry likes using pickup lines and Niall is not impressed.

A/N: Based off of a prompt from Irishbumcraic. It’s short but thanks to Kaylee (leprechauncupcakes) for talking to me and encouraging me while I wrote this


There’s a test scheduled tomorrow covering command, Traditional, and Market economies and an essay due midnight the following day over voting patterns in an office election, but here Niall is leaning against the wall next to a potted plant at a party. He feels awkward and out of place to say the least.

It’s not like he wanted to show but Zayn made a bet with him -if he got a higher mark on his contemporary piece than Niall did on his critical thinking thesis then Niall would show and Zayn managed to do it, by one fucking percent.

Zayn disappeared within the throng of people a quarter after they arrived leaving Niall alone in the middle of the kitchen and okay, he’s not socially inept but he doesn’t really like interacting with others, especially idiots in his age group (not including Zayn -except for right now when he left him- so fuck Zayn).

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