trade women


Lesbian History:

First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt (1884 - 1962)

  • the longest-serving First Lady of the United States from 1933-1945
  • the first First Lady to speak at a National Party Convention
  • was actively involved in raising money for and accomplishing the goals of Women’s Trade Union League and League of Women Voters
  • is pretty much credited with the current definition of First Lady because before her it was just synonymous with domesticity
  • was a passionate supporter of African American rights and the Civil Rights movement
  • after her husband FDR died Harry Truman appointed her a delagate to the UN and she was the FIRST chairperson of the preliminary UN commission on human rights
  • had a passionate affair with Lorena Hickok and wrote 10-15 page letters to her daily with all kinds of romantic loveliness included
  • to quote @lesbianempath:
    • “imagine being a lesbian in 1900 and being like “well if i’ve gotta have a beard might as well make it count” and then going down in history as literally the most active First Lady" (irl lol)
  • check out the books Empty Without You by Roger Streitmatter, and Eleanor and Hick: The Love Affair That Shaped a First Lady by Susan Quinn
Indigenous Women and the Fur Trade

Indigenous women in the fur trade have often played a very silent role in terms of the historic narrative. They often go nameless, with their main contributions being said to essentially be:
-Marrying fur traders and granting them access to kinship networks.
-Being the mothers and grandmothers to the Metis peoples. 
But this is not a good view of their important role in the fur trade, because it completely neglects a very distinct and important part of it: Agency. 
Indigenous women in the fur trade displayed in multiple ways their agency, which can be seen through the primary and secondary documents about this fur trade history.

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…“But if that’s true, they should be extra double going to yoga classes. Why is the less violent gender the one learning all the emotional self regulation?
Because women are expected to regulate the emotions of men as well as themselves. They have to sharpen their emotional regulation skillz because they’ll be regulating for two even when they’re not pregnant. This has been a thing that’s starting to get noticed in feminist circles; the concept of unpaid emotional labor that women are expected to supply. This takes many forms (and I’ve written about this before) and at its most benign looks like listening, support and empathy. However, as it becomes more noxious, women are expected to read the emotions men and proactively protect them from their own negative emotions.
In my personal life, I remember a man telling me that women should reject men’s sexual advances in a way that won’t hurt the man’s feelings. And, that sounds reasonable on first glance. However, unfortunately, honest communication of the feelings “I am not sexually attracted to you” is considered hurtful to most men. So, women are forced to not communicate their honest feelings in order to protect the man from feeling anything bad.
For me, this need to protect men from the truth of my reality if it will hurt them has extended so deeply that I have laughed off sexual assault so that I would not hurt the feelings of the man who assaulted me. At great personal cost, I should add. A few years after that, I asked someone out, and was rejected by them and that experience split me wide open. Yes, being rejected was painful, but it was nothing — nothing — compared to the pain I absorbed trying to save men from the pain of rejection. Being rejected by someone I had a crush on led to my being sad for a few months. My absorbing sexual harassment from men so they wouldn’t have to face rejection led to years of flashbacks, depression, and an inability to work in my chosen profession.

Instead of learning how to take a rejection gracefully, men will claim women should “let them down easy.” It comes right down to that Margaret Atwood quote “Men are afraid that women will laugh at them. Women are afraid that men will kill them.” Men are so terrified of being laughed at, rejected or absorbing indignity in any way that they demand women risk physical violence so they don’t have to face the pain of rejection.
This is an unfair trade, and one that women only make because historically men have had power over us. If you need to rely on a male income for your livelihood, you have to make sure your presence improves the lived experience of your husband. Otherwise, he might kick you to the curb and you’d be fucked. Even now, with a continued disparity in earning potential, women will often manage male emotions so that a woman can be assured of material support by providing emotional value to her partner. Often, this goes beyond the conscious recognition of the men who receive it.
I remember one of my male friends was a complete wreck during his divorce. He relied on me so much emotionally after he lost the support of his wife (wanting to talk with me, wanting to cuddle with me, etc.) that I completely started to break down. I had to set some hard limits (like, not seeing him for a week) that didn’t go over very well. Our friendship was severely strained until he started seeing a dominatrix whose demands included health conscious things like getting him to quit smoking and going gluten free. What I see now, in retrospect, is that this dominatrix did a bunch of the emotional management he had received from his wife, and that I was not willing to provide. Ultimately, my friend got a new girlfriend (who he’s now married to) and stopped seeing his dom.”

Dangerous amusements

This 1911 book, Fighting the Traffic in Young Girls: Or, War on the White Slave Trade, issues dire warnings about the ways young women are entrapped and enslaved in vice. As seen in the illustrations below, these dangers include “the lure of the stage - answering a want ad,” ice cream parlors and fruit stores (“largely run by foreigners”), and dance halls (“the brilliant entrance to hell itself”).

At a time when more and more young women were finding independence and exploring careers, especially in cities, books like these no doubt alarmed parents into keeping their daughters under lock and key at home.

theloveofyou  asked:

Is this not all the same if a black african girl were to be dating someone from the Middle East? It's all the same stuff, isn't it?

I think this is a really interesting question actually, because it implicitly tries to compare and contrast the effects of the Arab slave trade with the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Are the power dynamics of a black African woman dating an Arab guy in the Middle East similar to that of a white guy in the US or Europe dating a black woman from their country?

(Image description: Egyptian slavemaster and Waswahili slave)

What we do know is that the Arab slave trade predated the European trans-Atlantic slave trade by several hundred years. We also know that there is a very long history of a complete denigration and dehumanization of black people in Arab countries. In Islam, it was illegal to enslave a member of faith. But black skin was so associated with slavery in the Arab world that these rules were regularly bypassed to enslave Muslim Africans anyway. Also, most of those enslaved were African women who were sold into sex slavery for Arab men.

The poetry and writings of Antarah ibn Shaddah, a black pre-Islamic folk hero confirm that antiblackness in some form or other in the Arab world is entrenched and goes back far more than a millenium. Born in 525 AD to a noble Arab tribesman and an Ethiopian slave woman, Antarah was subjected to regular humiliation, including the betrayal of his father who denied his paternity and considered him to be another slave living in his household. It was only much later in his adult life that his father acknowledged his paternity and liberated him from slavery. And the legacy of this dehumanizing antiblackness continues to this day in the Arab world. More than 200,000 South Sudanese were enslaved during the Second Sudanese war alone. 150,000 Ethiopians were just deported on a whim by the Saudi Arabian government. And black Africans are regularly subjected to dehumanizing treatment and brutality across the Arab world

(Image description: Arab captors with black Zanzibar workers)

In all it is estimated that at least 8 million Africans were subjected to the Arab slave trade. Other estimates range north of 20 million. These numbers are comparable to those of the trans-Atlantic slave trade depending on the scholars you read. There are large black communities in the Arab world today as a legacy of this slave trade and recent migration. Numbers of descendants from original slaves were limited by an incredibly high death rate and the fact that black African male slaves were regularly castrated and made into eunuchs for their Arab masters. Black people in the Arab world include former Egyptian president Anwar Sadat, who was of Egyptian and Sudanese Nubian ancestry

(Image description: Portrait of Egyptian president Anwar Sadat)

Sadat was regularly ridiculed as being “Nasser’s black poodle” and people insisted that he “did not look Egyptian enough.” All despite the fact that Arabs didn’t colonize Egypt until the 600s AD and so could be identity checked themselves by black Egyptians. 

If you would like to see more examples of the rampant antiblackness in the Arab world, see these tweets.

Within the Arab world today Arab supremacy is a basic fact of life with incredibly dehumanizing effects on black Africans and indigenous Amazigh peoples in particular. And especially when we consider the fact that the Arab slave trade targeted black African women especially for sex slavery, the parallels in the power dynamics between a black woman and white man in the West and a black African woman and an Arab man within the Arab world today are likely a lot more similar than one might realize at first glance.

International Working Women’s Day

The history of the working-class is in reality the history of working women. Under the dual koshes of class oppression and patriarchal discrimination, women have been consistently the motor of revolutions: in 1789, they marched on Versailles and brought King Louis back to Paris; their demonstration in Petrograd on this day in 1917 sparked the entrance of the masses into the Russian Revolution; in 1936 they formed the backbone of the Spanish democratic peasant economy; in 2016 they spearhead the columns protecting Rojava and Kobane’s fledgling republic from ISIS.

In many countries, women make up the majority of trade union members, and the majority of strike days are taken by women. They glue society together with one hand, and fight for a bright new dawn with the other.

Here’s to the women - truly kicking ass for the working-class.

anonymous asked:

@your response about married people who don't want kids: the purpose of marriage is to create a family. I do not want to sound condescending or rude, but I urge you to please attend a church ceremony or something to that effect. I think involvement in a religious community could help you to see the true meaning of family the way Jesus wants it to be, and hopefully help to shift your views on this topic.

I’m actually thrilled to get this message, because as someone who is 2 months away from my sociology degree who has taken sociology of the family, anthropology and history courses, I’m really the wrong person to tell this to.

The purpose of marriage historically and culturally has been changing since the concept was created; however, it often served a purpose of creating a method to distribute property or secure alliances or power. [x] As stated in this BBC article, “"You established peaceful relationships, trading relationships, mutual obligations with others by marrying them.”

Throughout history, marriage has mostly been influenced by whatever economic roles it needs to fulfill. One family scholar defines family as this:

“[The family] consists of husband, wife, and children born in their wedlock,
though other relatives may find their place close to this nuclear group; and the
group is united by moral, legal, economic, religious, and social rights and
obligations (including sexual rights and prohibitions as well as such socially
patterned feelings as love, attraction, piety, and awe). (Coser [1964] 2004:13)
But even seemingly broad definitions of the family such as this are contested
by scholars who point out that families are not always based on heterosexuality
and marriage and do not always include children, nuclear households,
romantic love, or consensual sexual relations
(Gittins 1993).”

Also from the above paper:
“Empirical evidence on the origins of marriage is scant, as it evolved crossculturally at different times and has been defined in various ways. There is considerable agreement that as an institution, marriage is not as old as


“Across cultures, the most universal feature of marriage has been gender division of labor between men and women.”


“The property-like status of women was evident in Western societies like Rome and Greece, where wives were taken solely for the purpose of bearing legitimate children and, in most cases, were treated like dependents and 8——Families: A Social Class Perspective confined to activities such as caring for children, cooking, and keeping house (Ingoldsby 2006).”

Why is this all relevant? Because marriage is a social institution and constantly evolves and changes depending on what the society’s needs are. Obviously what you consider to be marriage now isn’t what it was like in ancient Greek or Roman times where marriage was used to trade women like property, or like how it was with ancient Anglo-Saxons where you married someone to create an alliance. Even in good ol’ Jesus’s time, if you even look at the bible, there are many parts of marriage written in it that are not there anymore (no one’s going to stone any adulterers or not touch any women on their periods anymore).

I highly suggest you read the “Evolution of Families and Marriages” paper, it summarizes the history of families and marriage very efficiently, and this paper as well.

All of this applies to the current world as well; not everyone abides by your church’s rules about marriage. You can look at the Nandi people of western Kenya as a great example. from this article:

“[…]women who are older (beyond child-bearing age), never married and have no children are prime candidates to become female husbands. This is because they will want an heir to inherit their name, wealth and property. A woman in this situation will find a younger woman to marry and bear her children. She will become a female husband by giving bride-wealth and observing all the other the rituals asked of a suitor by the bride’s family. The wife may have children with any man she wishes, or a man chosen by the female husband, but the legal and social ‘father’ of the children will be the female husband. The giving and receiving of bride-wealth accords the female husband the same rights over the children as any other husband (Sacks, 1982). As the social and legal father of the children, the female husband will support the children as would any other father, regardless of who the biological father may be.”

Essentially, for families that have no male heir to marry off, a woman from the family will take the ‘role’ of a man and marry women. they are fully considered ‘male’ in their society.

And my favorite more modern-day example is that of Nepal, where one woman will often marry two brothers. This is to ensure the survival of the family if one of the husbands dies off, and also avoids the splitting up to property as there is not much farmland to go around.

This isn’t even CONSIDERING that if you want to focus on marriage as an institution in the U.S right now, there are legal privileges that come with being married such as tax benefits of having visiting rights if your spouse is in the hospital. 

So, anon. the point of this all was that yes, you sound extremely condescending, and no, I’m not going to put up with it because you’re wrong in every sense of the way. I *have* been to church ceremonies, I was raised Roman Catholic, but I have been lucky enough to have been able to access an education that has expanded my worldview. 

The history of marriage has always been changing, and to say that your religion’s rather recent rules and regulations about what they believe marriage *should* be doesn’t make it correct. I urge you to look outside your poor little bubble of misinformation and actually read some of the articles I linked, and think twice before sending asinine messages like this again.

Fairy Godmother

Chapter 7 of “Wherever I go” for Reaper76week

Read on AO3

Summary: Day 7 - “Cover me” - Comfort/Fluff
Gabriel has a bad habit of sleeping on the fly. Lucky for him, he has a “magical” blanket-fairy that looks after him.

Notes: I’m so sorry about the late upload >_<
I actually wrote another piece but I didn’t think it fit the prompt so I rewrote it…
And then I got busy… And then it’s CNY right now… I’m so sorry >_<

Gabriel has a habit of falling asleep on the fly. He tells himself it’s not as bad as some of his squadmates make it seem to be. They’re soldiers fighting in the middle of a war, he will take his rest where he can, when he can. But it’s not the ability to fall asleep anytime anyplace that makes him reconsider his habits. It’s the fact that someone has been taking care of him while he sleeps that has him feeling all sorts of awkward.

It starts as a coat on his shoulder.

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The Whitney Plantation near Wallace, Louisiana, is the first and only U.S. museum and memorial to slavery. While other museums may include slavery in their exhibits, the Whitney Plantation is the first of its kind to focus primarily on the institution. John Cummings, a 78-year-old white southerner, has spent 16 years and more than $8 million of his own fortune to build the project, which opened in December of last year.

Cummings, a successful trial attorney, developed the museum with the help of his full-time director of research, Ibrahima Seck. The duo hope to educate people on the realities of slavery in its time and its impact in the United States today. “The history of this country is rooted in slavery,“ says Seck. “If you don’t understand the source of the problem, how can you solve it?”

Polaris Base Set Trading Cards

  1. 1993 Marvel Masterpieces by skybox
  2. 1994 Flleer Ultra X-Men by fleer
  3. 1995 Fleer Ultra X-Men 108 A by Fleer
  4. 1997 X-Men Timelines 37 by Fleer/Skybox
  5. 2006 Marvel Heroes Figure Factory Series 2 by Marvel
  6. 1992 Marvel Universe Series 3 by Impel
  7. 1992 X-Men Series 1 by Impel
  8. 2011 Marvel Beginnings Series 1 by Upper Deck
  9. 1993 X-Men Series 2 by Skybox
  10. 2006 Women of Marvel 49 by Marvel
  11. 1994 Marvel Universe Series 5 by Fleer
  12. 1995 Marvel Annual Flair by Fleer
On This Day: June 24
  • 1755: Anacharsis Cloots born in Kleve, Germany. He was known as “orator of the human race” and was an important figure in the French Revolution.
  • 1848: Albert Parsons was born in Montgomery, Alabama. He was a pioneer American socialist and later anarchist newspaper editor, orator, and labor activist.
  • 1880: Agnes Nestor born in Grand Rapids, Michigan. She was a leader in the International Glove Workers’ Union & Women’s Trade Union League. She agitated for suffrage & workers rights.
  • 1894: In Lyon, France, the Italian anarchist Sante Geronimo Caserio stabs French president Marie François Sadi Carnot to avenge the execution of Auguste Vaillant.
  • 1904: Police arrest twenty-two workers in Telluride, Colorado. They were accused of being strike leaders, and then deported out of the district.
  • 1912: Emma Goldman lectures in Butte, Montana.
  • 1915: Anarcho-syndicalist Charles Gogumus dies in France. He was an active member of the CGT and Fédération Anarchiste Révolutionnaire (FAR).
  • 1917: Jean-Louis Pindy dies in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. He was a French Communist and a member of the International Labor Association.
  • 1919: Following an attack on the house of Attorney General Palmer on June 2, 1919, the Italian anarchist Luigi Galleani and collaborators on the newspaper Cronaca Sovversiva are expelled from the United States.
  • 1924: Anarchist historian Michel Ragon born in Marseille, France.
  • 1932: A bloodless revolution instigated by the People’s Party ends the absolute power of King Prajadhipok of Siam.
  • 1935: Italian anarchist, writer, agitator and propagandist Luigi Fabbri dies in Montevideo, Uruguay.
  • 1943: German Marxist Otto Rühle dies in Mexico. He was a founder of the German Left communists and member of the Spartacist League & the “Internationale”.
  • 1957: František Kupka dies in Puteaux, France. He was a pioneer and co-founder of the early phases of the abstract art movement and Orphic Cubism.
  • 1968: Remnants of “Resurrection City”, with only about 300 protesters still remaining, razed by riot police.
  • 1969: Police kill black teenager Vivian Strong in Omaha, Nebraska. It sparks two days of riots.
  • 1973: UpStairs Lounge arson attack. Thirty-two people die in a homophobic arson attack on the Upstairs Lounge gay bar in New Orleans.
  • 1984: The 12th annual San Francisco Lesbian/Gay Parade draws an estimated 300,000 people.
  • 1995: Anarchist poet André Laude dies in Paris.
  • 2002: The Confederación General del Trabajo holds massive demonstrations nationwide, in Madrid, Sevilla, etc.
  • 2002: During the World Bank Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics in Oslo, Norway, large globalization-critical protests were held. A coalition of many organizations organized an alternative conference and a demonstration with more than 10 000 participants, thus making it the largest mass mobilisation in Norway in recent history.
  • 2006: In East Timor thousands of protesters demand the sacking of PM Mari Alkatiri, blaming him for political crisis.
  • 2012: Gad Beck dies in Berlin. He was the last gay Holocaust survivor.