trade guidelines

In 1997 the South African government passed a law setting up, among other things, a marketplace for medicines based on affordable prices. Clause 15c relied on two practices agreed under the World Trade Organisation’s guidelines.

One, compulsory licensing, allows businesses in a country in a state of emergency to manufacture generic products paying only a royalty to the patent owner. The second, parallel importing, lets a nation import drugs made more cheaply in one country than in another.

Patent rights for the HIV cocktail would cost the South African health service an inconceivable $10,000 per Aids patient. Using the mechanisms under Clause 15c would reduce the costs by between 50 and 90 percent.

But the legislation was labelled ‘piracy’ by Pharma - the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America. This is a formidable alliance of the nation’s 100 biggest drugs companies. They claimed the South African law would violate patents and undermine profits on which research depended.

For a battle against a government led by the world’s most popular leader, Pharma needed political clout, and chose a consultancy called Podesta .Com.

It chose well. What was formerly Podesta Associates was founded by two brothers from Chicago, John and Anthony, and rated by Washingtonian magazine among the top 20 lobbying groups in the capital.

Both men were heavy-hitting Democrats, both had the President’s ear and were especially close to Gore. Both were members of President Clinton’s transition team when he took office in 1992. John remained at the White House, later becoming Chief of Staff, while Tony streamlined the company. ‘We Help You Change Outcomes’ was his slogan.

The Clinton administration, with John Podesta as Chief of Staff, went to war over South Africa’s anti-Aids drive. Trade Representative Charlene Barshevsky denied South Africa tariff breaks on its exports to the US. Gore told Nelson Mandela to his face that the US would not tolerate the legislation.

South Africa refused to back down, and the pharmaceutical companies intervened directly. They sued: led by Pharma, the massive Bristol Myers Squibb from the US, Britain’s SmithKline Beecham and Glaxo (through its South African subsiduary), Germany’s Bayer, Roche of Switzerland, France’s Rhne-Poulenc and a host of others.

Dunyasha has a tendency to talk dramatically while fighting with Inej, right?

I raise you: both of them in the present day, trying to take the other down in a public debate. 

Topics include slave trade, whether the Dime Lions or the Dregs have better ethical guidelines in trade and transactions, and regulations of the merchant ships in the harbors of Ketterdam. 

Wylan is the judge. Kaz and Jesper exchange popcorn in the audience. Nina and Matthias are moderators. Jan Van Eck is that one guy in the crowd that coughs and snorts as loudly as possible to try and distract Inej.

theguardian.com
How drug giants let millions die of Aids
Revealed: Ed Vulliamy reports from Washington on how the pursuit of profit by Western companies - and their political allies - stalled South Africa's fight against HIV, and sees the tragic cost in the townships.


In 1997 the South African government passed a law setting up, among other things, a marketplace for medicines based on affordable prices. Clause 15c relied on two practices agreed under the World Trade Organisation’s guidelines.

One, compulsory licensing, allows businesses in a country in a state of emergency to manufacture generic products paying only a royalty to the patent owner. The second, parallel importing, lets a nation import drugs made more cheaply in one country than in another.

Patent rights for the HIV cocktail would cost the South African health service an inconceivable $10,000 per Aids patient. Using the mechanisms under Clause 15c would reduce the costs by between 50 and 90 percent.

But the legislation was labelled ‘piracy’ by Pharma - the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America. This is a formidable alliance of the nation’s 100 biggest drugs companies. They claimed the South African law would violate patents and undermine profits on which research depended.

For a battle against a government led by the world’s most popular leader, Pharma needed political clout, and chose a consultancy called Podesta .Com.

It chose well. What was formerly Podesta Associates was founded by two brothers from Chicago, John and Anthony, and rated by Washingtonian magazine among the top 20 lobbying groups in the capital.

Both men were heavy-hitting Democrats, both had the President’s ear and were especially close to Gore. Both were members of President Clinton’s transition team when he took office in 1992. John remained at the White House, later becoming Chief of Staff, while Tony streamlined the company. ‘We Help You Change Outcomes’ was his slogan.

The Clinton administration, with John Podesta as Chief of Staff, went to war over South Africa’s anti-Aids drive. Trade Representative Charlene Barshevsky denied South Africa tariff breaks on its exports to the US. Gore told Nelson Mandela to his face that the US would not tolerate the legislation.

South Africa refused to back down, and the pharmaceutical companies intervened directly. They sued: led by Pharma, the massive Bristol Myers Squibb from the US, Britain’s SmithKline Beecham and Glaxo (through its South African subsiduary), Germany’s Bayer, Roche of Switzerland, France’s Rhne-Poulenc and a host of others.

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anonymous asked:

What are the DOs and DONTs of kandi trading?

There’s no guidelines, just use common courtesy.

  • Don’t demand, ask politely to trade.
  • If you don’t have any kandi, asking politely will usually get you a positive response and someone would probably be glad to give you a piece and teach you the ways
  • Never trade away kandi that has been given to you or salvage beads from something someones given you to make something else
  • Smile, give hugs and create memories