toxoid

I is for Immunizations (9/26)

Fandom: Star Trek (AOS/TOS)
Pairing: 
 ReaderXBones
Prompt: Fic 9 of 26 in the CMO’s Log – A to Z series.  Click here for a listing of all the fics in this series!  I is for Immunizations.
Word Count: 
1007
Warnings:
A couple of needles and a little bit of an ambush.
Rating: All ages.
Author’s Note: This goes out to the anon who requested a little bit of Kirk love in one of these fics!

Originally posted by secretsocietyofwonderland

I is for Immunizations

I can do this, I can do this, I can do this.

“Who are you trying to convince, me or you?” Dr. McCoy’s voice breaks through your mental fog.

You open your eyes and realize that you have just spoken aloud.  Cursing inwardly, you crack a wry smile, studiously avoiding looking at the hypo in his hand.  You’ve never been good with shots, and so updating your immunizations makes today’s short list of things you’d rather avoid.  Still, you know it’s a necessary evil and so you sit still on the bio bed beneath you, gritting your teeth and waiting for the sting.

“Relax, darlin’,” Leonard says gently.  “It’ll be over in just a moment and then you’ve got nothing to worry about for a long time after.”

Keep reading

Types of vaccination

Today I thought I’d write about the different types of vaccination available and why you may choose to use each one.

Just to recap, vaccines work by deliberately exposing an animal to a safe version of a pathogen/ antigen in order to generate an immune response, causing them to produce antibodies and memory cells ready for if they encounter the pathogen again. Two words not to get mixed up in this post are antigen and antibody. An antigen is a protein on a pathogen that elicits an immune response whereas an antibody is a protein produced by the immune system to counteract the antigen/ pathogen’s effects. There are two main brackets of vaccination, passive and active.

Passive immunity is seen naturally when mothers pass on their antibodies to their young be that through the placenta as seen in humans, or through milk and colostrum as seen in most veterinary species. We can utilise passive immunity to treat certain diseases. Antibodies can be collected from an immune individual and transferred to a non-immune animal to provide immediate, short-lasting protection. This type of immunisation lasts a few months maximum and is used in situations where there’s a high risk of infection and insufficient time for the body to generate its own response. An example would be a horse, not vaccinated for tetanus, with a cut leg. Injecting the site with antibodies derived from an immunised horse’s blood serum means that the animal has antibodies at the site of infection ready to fight off tetanus specific pathogens. This technique is also used in animals suffering from snake bites.

Another veterinary use of passive immunisation is to exploit maternally derived antibodies. Here you vaccinate the mother against organisms likely to infect her offspring. She then generates an immune response and, once her offspring are born, the antibodies generated are passed on to them through her milk. In cows this is often done 3-12 weeks prior to their calving due date, protecting the calves from rotavirus, corona virus and certain pathogenic strains of E. coli.

Active immunisation is the one most commonly seen in practice. It provides immunisation that is more long term than the passive approach however has a delay in onset as the immune system formulates its response. I’m going to briefly talk about the 6 main types of active immunisation.

A killed vaccine is formed from a pathogen that has been treated (either by chemicals or radiation) to ensure that it can no longer replicate inside the host. This means that it still elicits a response, as the pathogen retains the same form and antigens as its live counterpart, however the immune response may be weaker as the pathogen isn’t multiplying. Killed vaccines often have to be administered at least twice (3-4 weeks apart) to generate immunity, and are often mixed with adjuvant. Adjuvants are chemicals or microbial components that aid the vaccine in generating a response. Oily substances can be added to ensure the antigen in the vaccine is slowly distributed to the lymph nodes, instead of in one big wave, leading to a greater response due to longer exposure of the node to the antigen. An example is the Nobivac Rabies vaccination.

Modified live (attenuated) vaccines are live strains of the pathogen mutated to have very low virulence. This means they can infect and replicate within the host without causing disease. These strains can be derived from culturing the pathogen in unfavourable environments and using the strains that mutate to suit this environment in the vaccine. An example could be growing a virus in an environment that is 35 degrees instead of 37. Those that mutate and evolve to thrive at this temperature can then be used inside the body where they are no longer fully adapted to live at 37 degrees. As technology has advanced we can now directly change the pathogen’s genome to ensure they are less pathogenic. This technique is being used to create live bacterial vaccines, as most of the current available live vaccines are against viruses. The Nobivac Parvo-C vaccine uses a live, attenuated form of canine parvovirus. These vaccines usually don’t contain an adjuvant and can be given as a single dose once the animal is over 12 weeks old.

Subunit vaccines use specific antigens selected from the pathogen. This requires isolating and purifying the protein required. This can be done by growing the microbe in a laboratory then using a chemical to break away the antigen. Another approach is to use recombinant DNA technology, creating bacteria that express the protein as one of its genes. This protein can then be collected and purified. The immune responses created to this vaccine are very specific which can lead to less side effects. Downsides are again that the responses aren’t as strong as a live vaccine so the vaccines commonly need to be re-administered 3-4 weeks later.

A toxoid vaccine is aimed at bacterial infections where the bacteria produce harmful endotoxins causing their pathogenic effects. Toxoids are an inactivate form of this toxin retaining the same structure. This means that when injected, the body creates antibodies that neutralise the effects of the toxin, educating the immune system to its structure ready for if the animal becomes infected.

The next two vaccines are very clever. They use a technique in which the DNA of the pathogen that encodes for antigens is inserted in to the cells of the animal. The cells read the DNA and generate the proteins that the DNA codes for. Once this protein is produced the cells recognise it as foreign and present it on their surfaces for the immune system to see, eliciting a response and forming antibodies. This can be via a DNA vaccine where the DNA alone or in a bacterial plasmid vector is inserted in the body to be taken up by cells, or through a recombinant viral vaccine where the genes are cloned in to a viral vector which enters the cells as a normal virus does, causing the DNA to be replicated. There is a vaccine called ONCEPT canine melanoma, the website is linked here, which uses this DNA technology to target malignant melanoma tumours. The DNA is derived from humans and transcribes the human version of the deficient protein. This is ‘foreign’ enough for the canine body to elicit an immune response, however similar enough for the antibodies to also attack the canine version of the protein, expressed in the cancer causing cells. Interesting stuff! The vaccine is administered trans-dermally (through the skin) using a device that fires the DNA vaccine particles at high pressure through the skin of the thigh!

There’s so much more I could say about vaccines but it’ll have to wait for another day as this post has already got quite long!

@grcysonv

                          cubeb tobacco droop between slender fingertips, perched perilously between CARMINE coloured lips. tendrils of smoke dissipate into thin air, close to transparent in pigment before she inhales for the first time her entire life, filling the fresh air in her lungs with a toxoid she’d only come to regret some time down the line. it’s unbearable and she knows exactly why she can’t possibly abode a habit within a click of a finger although, isn’t that exactly what she had to do when she joined adriana ? her mind is beginning to wonder whether the life that was so generously reprieved, ended up to be less of a blessing and more like an unending c u r s e. ❝ fuck ❞ she grumbles under her breath following a cough that departs from the air that feels trapped in her own lungs, knowing to well that she was a contradiction of herself. the brunette brings the cigarette stick away from her lips, holding it with her fingers as though she didn’t know what to do with it. tan irises flicker away from the foreign object, looking out and the prodigious setting around her. she’s sitting in the doorstep of a mansion in the midst of NEW YORK just moments away from sunrise. yet she feels empty. she hears footsteps behind her, towing her away from her thoughts and violently plucking her into reality. a forces smile grows across the side of her lip, forcing a false sense if bliss before turning back at the scenery. she doesn’t know what to say. ❝ hey. ❞

anonymous asked:

Given all your fabulous research, what, in your opinion, should a fandom nerd get printed (regardless of movie) if they wanted to get the most accurate Steve and Bucky ww2 dog tags possible? What info should be on each line for each of them?

Here’s the breakdown for standard WWII dog tags (h/t to lywinis):

  1. First Name, Initial, Surname
  2. Serial #, tetanus, toxoid, blood type
  3. Next of Kin
  4. Address for next of kin
  5. Address, Religion

So if you’re doing Steve’s tags, they would probably look something like this:

STEVEN G ROGERS

[98765430/0-462362/make up your own serial #] T[YY] [YY] [pick a blood type–the tags from the films say O]

JAMES BARNES [or whoever you want, otherwise leave blank]

[XXX STREET NAME] BKLYN

NEW YORK     C

Bucky’s would be similar, though would possibly list Rebecca Barnes (his sister in the comics) as next of kin. His serial # is 32-557038.

Semua Kehamilan Berisiko

Notulensi talkshow dalam rangka Eclampsia Awareness Day 2015 di Grand City Mall Surabaya, tanggal 6 November 2015. Disampaikan oleh dr. Muhammad Ardian, Sp.OG (K), M.Kes. (dokter konsultan senior di RSUD Dr. Soetomo), dan ibu Netti Herlina, Amd. Keb, S.Pd., M.Kes (Ketua IBI Provinsi Jawa Timur). Semoga bermanfaat.


Kehamilan merupakan hal yang alami bagi setiap perempuan dalam masa usia reproduksinya, namun, sewaktu-waktu kehamilan dapat berubah menjadi tidak normal, apabila tidak ditangani dengan cepat dan tepat akan mengakibatkan kematian. Terbukti dari tingginya angka kematian ibu (AKI) di Indonesia menurut Survey Demografi Kesehatan Indonesia tahun 2013 sebesar 369/100.000. Penyebab kematian ibu di Indonesia salah satunya adalah eklampsia.

Eklampsia merupakan komplikasi yang dapat terjadi pada masa kehamilan dan persalinan, yang penyebab utamanya dan sampai saat ini belum diketahui. Eklampsia sering dikenal dengan keracunan kehamilan. Eklampsia harus diwaspadai oleh semua ibu hamil, sebab semua kehamilan berisiko terjadi preeklampsia/eklampsia. Tanda dan gejala dari eklampsia adalah sebagai berikut:

1.       Tekanan darah lebih dari 140/90 mmHg

2.       Pandangan mata kabur

3.       Bengkak pada muka, tangan, dan kaki.

4.       Nyeri kepala hebat, serta nyeri ulu hati


Faktor risiko eklampsia antara lain sebagai berikut:

1.       Ibu yang hamil anak pertama

2.       Kehamilan pertama dari suami kedua, ketiga, keempat, dan seterusnya, yang disebabkan oleh respon imun yang menolak adanya hasil konsepsi.

3.       Ibu hamil yang memiliki saudara perempuan, ibu, atau nenek yang pernah mengalami eklampsia.

4.       Kehamilan kembar

5.       Ibu hamil dengan diabetes melitus

Eklampsia dalam kehamilan dapat dicegah sedini mungkin, apabila ibu hamil rajin memeriksakan diri ke bidan atau dokter. Pemeriksaan kehamilan dilakukan minimal empat kali, yaitu satu kali pada trimester pertama kehamilan, satu kali pada trimester kedua kehamilan, dan 2 kali pada trimester ketiga kehamilan. Idealnya, pemeriksaan kehamilan dilakukan setiap bulan pada bulan pertama hingga bulan ke tujuh kehamilan, setiap dua minggu saat kehamilan menginjak usia bulan ke 7 sampai ke delapan, dan setiap minggu saat kehamilan menginjak usia bulan kesembilan .

Pemeriksaan yang dilakukan sebagai skrining eklampsia antara lain sebagai berikut:

1.       Pemeriksaan berat badan, untuk mengetahui asupan gizi ibu hamil. Kenaikan berat badan yang ideal pada ibu hamil adalah 0,5 kg setiap minggu, atau 2 kg setiap bulannya.

2.       Pengukuran tinggi badan, untuk mengetahui apakah ibu dicurigai memiliki panggul sempit.

3.       Pemeriksaan tekanan darah, menggunakan metode Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) dan Roll OverTest (ROT), untuk menilai ambang batas nilai tekanan darah, sebab tekanan darah lebih dari 140/90 mmHg berisiko terjadinya eklampsia.

4.       Pemeriksaan tinggi perut ibu, untuk menilai usia kehamilan dan taksiran berat janin.

5.       Pemberian tablet besi (Fe), untuk memenuhi asupan zat besi pada ibu selama kehamilan

6.       Pemberian imunisasi tetanus toxoid, pada trimester kedua kehamilan, untuk mencegah ibu dan bayi terpapar infeksi tetanus akibat dari luka saat persalinan atau akibat dari paparan alat yang tidak steril.

7.       Pemeriksaan kadar haemoglobin (Hb). Bila kadar haemoglobin ibu hamil < 11 gr%, ibu dinyatakan menderita anemia.

8.       Pemeriksaan kadar protein dalam urine. Protein dalam urine merupakan tanda bahwa ibu berisiko terjadi eklampsia.

9.       Komunikasi dan konseling terhadap ibu dan keluarga oleh tenaga kesehatan tentang kehamilan, persalinan dan komplikasinya

Selain pemeriksaan kehamilan yang rutin oleh tenaga kesehatan, pendidikan keluarga dalam menghadapi kehamilan dan persalinan juga penting untuk diketahui, tak hanya oleh ibu namun juga penting untuk diketahui oleh suami dan keluarga. Peran suami dan keluarga sangat penting, selain untuk meberikan dukungan pada ibu dalam menghadapi kehamilan dan persalinannya, juga agar dapat mengambil keputusan yang cepat dan tepat untuk meminimalkan risiko komplikasi dan risiko kematian ibu hamil. Peran masyarakat juga penting, oleh sebab itu dibentuk kader kesehatan dalam tatanan dasawarsa PKK di masyarakat, untuk membantu memfasilitasi ibu hamil di masyarakat memperoleh fasilitas kesehatan oleh tenaga medis (baik di puskesmas, bidan praktek mandiri, dokter praktek mandiri, maupun rumah sakit), sehingga ibu hamil mendapatkan penanganan yang cepat dan tepat.

Semua ibu hamil berisiko, sebab itu dibutuhkan sinergi yang baik dari ibu, suami, keluarga, dan masyarakat, untuk mencegah terjadinya komplikasi pada setiap kehamilan dan meminimalkan keterlambatan penanganan di fasilitas kesehatan. Because women shouldn’t die when giving life.

2

The ROZZ-TOX Manifesto

(a 1980 artifact with end of the millenium resonances)

Gary Panter

Item 1:

The avant-garde is no corpus. It merely lies in shock after an unfortunate bout with its own petard. It feigns sleep but one eye glitters and an involuntary twitch in the corner of the mouth belies a suppressed snicker. The giggle of coming awake at one’s own funeral dressed in atomic TV beatnik furniture. A mutant with a mission.

Item 2:

There are twenty years left in the twentieth century. Twenty years to reap the rewards and calamities that have been put in motion in this period. At this time a current of aesthetic function is emerging: the inevitable culmination of concepts and experiments pioneered and conducted in this century. We declare society an amusement park and one to be dead reckoned with.

Item 3:

A deadly texture and tone have taken the cereal Nirvana: a misanthrope born of capitol realities, tendencies, and inter-office memos. Sightless businessmen-posed-entertainers shovel up tons of soulless Saturday morning animation. Would that you could make cost effective the rubbery genius that was the Saturday morning of our youth.

Item 4:

We say enough to the instigators of game show design for we are sick and dizzy. Show us the backs of these monstrous facades, for even bare plywood is a healthier texture. Oh you seekers of the new who run terrified from history into the clutches of an eternal life where no electric shaver can be built to last.

Item 5:

Close the bars! We require well lit media centers that serve soft drinks and milk. We require that top-40 radio stop it. And this for extant executive entertainers: We know when to laugh. Machines don’t, and it is irritation to hear them laugh at the wrong time. They laugh at nothing and nothing isn’t funny.

Item 6:

Find the evil doers, the merchant peddlers of Pavlovia who use our unmentionable parts against us. Will you hide behind a scrim of two-dimensional phosphorescence when Biology exacts its reward?

Item 7:

Profound faith in glamour is a surefire way to not see that you kill what you eat. We believe and worship a two-dimensional world. No god printers save us when we stand naked and brainless before an uncompromising and impartial physicality. We are sick now/get wise to the media. Join the art police. We call for posting of cow pictures in every fast food franchise. And for vegetarians, recordings of screaming vegetables at every salad bar.

Item 8:

Beautiful and effective communicative marketing and aesthetic media are not innately evil; merely seductive. However, seductive aesthetics and media are prone to undermine common sense and vision in a capitalistic culture. Our own creations have shamed us. Teaching us that the hand and opinion of the individual are not as legitimate as that of opinion transmuted and inflated by broadcast … especially when that opinion is on 80-pound coated stock, in full color … or when that opinion steals invisibly and incomprehensibly into a box in our homes. Would that society reveled in certain varieties of vandalism and disarray. May we mow our lawns and remain civilized.

Item 9:

It is unfortunate and unacceptable what vile and lazy do-nothings are given unwarranted credence for mouthing such foul and mean clichis as “rip-off” and “sell-out.” They have no understanding of our economy and the time it takes society to go. Confess and shut up! Capitalism good or ill is the river in which we sink or swim. Inspiration has always been born of recombination.

Item 10:

In a capitalistic society such as the in which we live, aesthetics as an endeavor flows thorough a body which is built of free enterprise and various illnesses. In boom times art may be supported by wildcat speculation or my excess funds in form of grants from the state or patronship as a tax write-off. Currently we are suffering from a lean economy. By necessity we must infiltrate popular mediums. We are building a business-based art movement. This is not new. Admitting it is.

Item 11:

Business 1. To create a pseudo-avant-garde that is cost effective. 2. To create merchandising platforms on popular communications and entertainment media. 3. To extensively mine our recent and ancient past for icons worth remembering and permutating: recombo archaeology.

Item 12:

Waiting for art talent scouts? There are no art talent scouts. Face it, no one will seek you out. No one gives a shit.

Item 13:

Market saturation was reached in sixties - everyone knows that. Fine Elitist Art is of diminishing utility. There is not more reward for maintaining or joining an elite and sterile crew.

Item 14:

Elitist art cannot help the emergent complex through its painful and potentially stupidly dangerous adolescence. Start or support primitive industry, propaganda to no dogma, and environmental jarrs.

Item 15:

Law: If you want better media, go make it.

Item 16:

We are born capitalists and manufacturers of alternative goods and services. We are made propagandists and propose an antimedia to no dogma. We call for popular environmental manipulators, primitive industry, an avant-garde placed squarely in the entertainment field, for archaeologists and synthesizers.

Item 17:

A call for mutant intuition and wrestling is real. A current that synthesizes ideas and entertainment .. an antimedia that creates, participates, and services and broader-based lunatic fringe and one that is capable of finishing the century outright. An avant-garde that has no mean diversion and stocks the supermarket.

Item 18:

Our lack of popularity in high school was led us to think and thinking has lead us to this. No war is waged here; only a strain, a virus, a toxoid, a Rozz-Toxoid. The emergent complex asks for just twenty years of your time. Now, stand and sing …

Final Note:

Capitalism for good or ill is the river in which we sink or swim, and stocks the supermarket.