toxicity testing

Founding the Antibiotic Era

The antibiotic era as we know it today started with syphilis. Yes, the face-ravaging, sanity-altering sexually transmitted infection. At the turn of the 19th century, syphilis was endemic and almost incurable. Caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidium, syphilis was usually treated with inorganic mercury salts. But mercury salts treatment had extremely severe and unpleasant side effects and did not usually work very well. Paul Erlich thought there might be a better way. His idea of a “magic bullet” that selectively targets only disease-causing microbes, and not the human housing those microbes, was based on scientists noticing that aniline and other synthetic dyes, which first were produced in the late 1800s, could stain some specific microbes but not others. Paul Ehrlich argued that special chemical compounds could be created which would “be able to exert their full action exclusively on the parasite harbored within the organism.“  This idea of Erlich’s led him to begin a large-scale and systematic screening program (as we would call it today) in 1904 to find a drug against syphilis.

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Hatshepsut

Queen (c. 1508 BCE–c. 1458 BCE)

Hatshepsut was the longest reigning female pharaoh in Egypt, ruling for 20 years in the 15th century B.C. She is considered one of Egypt’s most successful pharaohs.

The only child born to the Egyptian king Thutmose I by his principal wife and queen, Ahmose, Hatshepsut was expected to be queen. After the death of her father at age 12, Hatsheput married her half-brother Thutmose II, whose mother was a lesser wife — a common practice meant to ensure the purity of the royal bloodline. During the reign of Thutmose II, Hatshepsut assumed the traditional role of queen and principal wife.

Thutmose II died after a 15 year reign, making Hatshepsut a widow before the age of 30. Hatshepsut had no sons — only a daughter, Neferure — and the male heir was an infant, born to a concubine named Isis.

Since Thutmose III was too young to assume the throne unaided, Hatshepsut served as his regent. Initially, Hatshepsut bore this role traditionally until, for reasons that are unclear, she claimed the role of pharaoh. Technically, Hatshepsut did not ‘usurp’ the crown, as Thutmose III was never deposed and was considered co-ruler throughout her life, but it is clear that Hatshepsut was the principal ruler in power.

She began having herself depicted in the traditional king’s kilt and crown, along with a fake beard and male body. This was not an attempt to trick people into thinking she was male; rather, since there were no words or images to portray a woman with this status, it was a way of asserting her authority.

Under Hatshepsut’s reign, Egypt prospered. Unlike other rulers in her dynasty, she was more interested in ensuring economic prosperity and building and restoring monuments throughout Egypt and Nubia than in conquering new lands.

She built the temple Djeser-djeseru (“holiest of holy places”), which was dedicated to Amon and served as her funerary cult, and erected a pair of red granite obelisks at the Temple of Amon at Karnak, one of which still stands today. Hatshepsut also had one notable trading expedition to the land of Punt in the ninth year of her reign. The ships returned with gold, ivory and myrrh trees, and the scene was immortalized on the walls of the temple.

The queen died in early February of 1458 B.C. In recent years, scientists have speculated the cause of her death to be related to an ointment or salve used to alleviate a chronic genetic skin condition - a treatment that contained a toxic ingredient. Testing of artifacts near her tomb have revealed traces of a carcinogenic substance.

Late in his reign, Thutmose III began a campaign to eradicate Hatshepsut’s memory: He destroyed or defaced her monuments, erased many of her inscriptions and constructed a wall around her obelisks. While some believe this was the result of a long-held grudge, it was more likely a strictly political effort to emphasize his line of succession and ensure that no one challenged his son Amenhotep II for the throne.

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May’s Sapling Report for the day was as follows:

Luna certainly had a lot to say this afternoon! I learned a lot about the plants her class is taking care of in kindergarten and heard quite a bit of gossip about whose plants are doing well and whose are wilting. Luna’s plant, Cucumber Shark, is apparently doing quite well for itself.

Indigo was very curious about the plants we were coloring. I had to look up the names of some of them as to not disappoint her. She then told me that some trees lose their leaves in the winter and some don’t. She’s so smart!

Hana decided to test if the chalk was really non-toxic. After five taste tests, I’m happy to report that they were!

               MAY  THE  ODDS  BE  EVER  IN  YOU  FAVOUR.  

the  75th  annual  hunger  games  has  finally  come  and  pairs  of  both  female  and  male  will  participate  from 12  districts.  a  total  of  24  tributes  from  each  district  of  the  panem  is  expected  to  participate  in honour of  this  event  and  ONLY  1  may  become  this  year’s  victor.  fail  to  participate,  consequences  shall arise.  prepare  yourselves,  and  good  luck  to  all.   Happy  hunger  games  and  may  the  odds  be  ever  in  your  favour  !  

THE ARENA.  

for the writers:  the  arena  that  will  be  used  will  be  from  the  third  book/film  of  the  series  catching fire  to keep  threads  interesting  and  also  have  extra  features  to  explore  ;  the  75th  annual  arena  is  set  up  as  a clock. a  12 to 1  wedge  consisted  of  the  tall  tree  that  will  periodically  strike  lightning  during  the  12th  hour, The  sections  of  the  "clock"   each  have  tall  tree  identical  to  the  12  to  1  tree  and  is   made  up  of  different “horrors”  unleashed  by  the  hour. The  following  horrors  will  be  (  one  is  made  up and  rest  from  the  film ) ;  psychological  effect  of  each  tributes’  fear,   acid fog,  blood rain,  an  unknown  beast,  a tidal wave, carnivorous monkeys,  jabberjays  that  repeat  the  sounds  of  loved  ones  screaming  in  terror,  tracker  jackers, wolves,   toxic  berries  that  will test  tributes  hunger,  carnivorous  squirrels,  mutts ( like wendigos ) i  will  also have  an  open  a  slot  for  a  gamemaker  and  will  also  have  the  opp  to  talk  about  the  games,  as  well  as  control  the  arena  when  writing  with  tributes.  |  grow  alliances, save  yourselves,  or  rebel  the  choice  will  up  to  you,  again  may  the  odds  be  in  your  favour  ;) 

VICTORS.  

fun extra verse:  this  verse  will  be  for  anyone  to  write  as  the  WINNER  of  the  hunger  games  (  will  be later on  when  group  verse  succeeds )  in  order  to  write  this  verse   we  will  have  a  president  and  the gamemaker  as  well  as  an  escort  and  a  mentor  from  each  district. (  this  will  need  to  be messaged/submitted   to  me  as  these  will  be  important  for  the  writers  starring  as  the  tributes  because you  will  be  writing  the  most  with  them  for  threads  that  occur before  the  games  and  after  the  games. )

APPLICANTS  //.   TO JOIN AND REQUIREMENTS  is under the cut

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anonymous asked:

Hello! I am aware that female idols have individual eyelashes applied instead of full or half strips. Are these the last-a-few-weeks kind or the comes-off-at-the-end-of-the-day kind? Any routine/tips on applying/brands? Thanks for answering!

both individual singlets as well as half and whole strips are used equally. these are usually the one-time-use applications.

while i don’t have any specific recommendations on brands, just assure that you are using a glue that is non-toxic and skin-test the glue for allergy reactions and irritations before applying it directly to your eyelid. 

if your hand is not stable enough, i would recommend using tweezers for application.

  • apply the glue in moderation and allow it to sit for a minimum of 15 seconds to obtain enough adhesive. (S/N: you can blow on the glue to quicken the drying process, however, if you are to be applying at ANY cosmetic/makeup academy and going for an evaluation or certification of any kind, you WILL be automatically disqualified/failed for blowing on the glue with your mouth.)
  • assure you are under adequate lighting (no angled shadows that may obstruct your view).
  • holding the mirror at a slightly lower angle (below your chin) to apply the lashes, coming in a “downward motion” from the top to press downward against the lash-line as opposed to coming direction towards your eyelid.
  • upon removing the lashes, begin from the outer corner and pull (much like a band-aid) in a swift and quick motion. DO NOT wet the eye lashes to clean them. using your nails, carefully peel/pick the glue off and store them in a sanitary container.
  • i would recommend no more than 5 times of usage (maximum) to prevent from bacteria buildup. discard them afterwards.

“In 2006, Congress passed the Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act, a bill conceived of and advanced by the American Legislative Exchange Council, a corporate-sponsored conservative think tank and lobbying group that champions pro-"free market” legislation. The new law criminalizes actions aimed at “damaging or interfering with the operations of an animal enterprise,” including First Amendment activity such as pickets and boycotts. The legislation was crafted explicitly to empower law enforcement to squelch hitherto legal, above-ground animal rights advocacy, after a group of activists called Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty nearly shut down an infamous multinational animal testing corporation through purely legal means. Activists charge SHAC’s target, Huntingdon Life Sciences, with killing hundreds of animals a day through their toxicity testing business, which involves practices such as injecting puppies with pesticides. Undercover footage has shown Huntingdon technicians punching beagle puppies in the face and dissecting a live, conscious monkey. Under the AETA’s predecessor, the Animal Enterprise Protection Act, six SHAC activists were convicted as terrorists for posting publicly available information on a website. They were sentenced to a combined 23 years in prison. The new law was created because the animal enterprise lobbies felt that those penalties did not go far enough.

This year, laws were passed in Iowa and Utah that make it a crime to take a job at a factory farm for the purpose of shooting clandestine video footage of animal abuse. As with the AETA, these laws were a direct response to the success of an animal advocacy group using legal means to expose industrial cruelty – in this case an undercover video by Mercy For Animals. The FBI has already recommended prosecuting undercover investigators under the AETA as terrorists.“

Just in case you still believe these people have nothing to hide. 

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’ uh, no. i got your seal of disapproval for that, remember? ‘
it’s tony’s handy hot water bottle pet that he carries wherever he goes. he’s fond of it. 

( there’s just a lot of paper around, and he’s antiwired to its connotations enough to need a blood toxicity test at this point. and he’s tired. and maybe many of the reach-outs he’d filtered through and out to his personal pile earlier yesterday were unsubtly sokovia-themed. )

still, tony circles back from the edge of freedom, his neck rolling a busted side-smile into place as he measures how deadly to a supersoldier love/hate letters from the press and soft legal institutions are.

’ and judgment, apparently.
can we pass it down to the next meeting? i’m off the clock. ‘

@sxmbolfrom

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Stem Cells Grow Mini-Kidney

Scientists have coaxed human stem cells to grow different structures found inside working kidneys. The advance is being called an important step toward the goal of growing functional organs from patients’ stem cells once their own kidneys fail.

A research team in Australia and The Netherlands report today in the journal Nature that they were able to grow tiny kidney-like organoids with a complex of different kidney cell types. Over the course of 20 days, the cultured cells differentiated and grew into an organoid containing 500 kidney cells known as nephrons. That substantial number is equal to the state of a more than 14-day-old mouse embryo’s kidney, write Minoru Takasato and colleagues. Comparing the engineered tissue to normal human development, they found its gene expression most closely resembled that of a first-trimester fetal kidney.

“There is a long way to go until clinically useful transplantable kidneys can be engineered, but Takasato and colleagues’ protocol is a valuable step in the right direction,” writes the University of Edinburgh’s Jamie Davies, who did not participate in the research.

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Friendly reminder that mushroom identification can be extremely dangerous as many edible mushrooms have almost identical counterparts that range from being bitter to being incredibly toxic.

Do not eat any mushroom that you can’t identify with 100% certainty. And even if you know without a doubt, consider doing toxicity tests to be safe.

Mushrooms are often very difficult to properly identify, that’s why they tend to have their own field guides with far more intricate detail than other edible wild objects.

If you don’t know what you’re doing, study on it intensively or find someone who is well versed in mushroom identification to help you. This isn’t something you can be careless with.

And remember, a great deal of mushrooms CANNOT be identified properly with a picture alone. Do your research, please.

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Earlier this month, two dams retaining tons of iron-mining waste near the Brazilian town of Bento Rodrigues burst, releasing 60 million cubic metres of thick, red toxic mud that flattened buildings and trees, smothered the small town, and left twelve dead. The wave of toxic sludge—tested and found to contain high levels of mercury and arsenic, according to a BBC report—then moved downstream, into the Rio Doce, and spent two weeks making its way several hundred miles downstream, finally reaching the Atlantic Ocean. According to Reuters: “Scientists say the sediment, which may contain chemicals used by the mine to reduce iron ore impurities, could alter the course of streams as they harden, reduce oxygen levels in the water and diminish the fertility of riverbanks and farmland where floodwater passed.”

From here

Photos by Ricardo Moraes / Reuters

anonymous asked:

What rights do we have to make animals suffer just for animal testing? I am sorry but I cannot understand it!

It’s a tricky philosophical question. I can’t speak for animal testing in the cosmetics industry, which is what a lot of people think of when they think about animal testing. However, regarding academic research I can explain a few things. 

  • No one likes using animals. No one. We avoid using them if at all possible. This is a fundamental underlying tenet of animal research.
  • If there’s no avoiding using animals, all efforts are made to ensure the animals’ comfort and well-being. They are provided with more food than they can possibly ever eat, veterinary care, and environmental enrichment. 
  • Further, each institution (at least in the US) has internal and federal oversight with multiple levels of review before a project can even begin. You have to have really good justification and literature backing to even get approval for an animal study.
  • All efforts are made to ensure animals do not suffer. If animals are to undergo surgery, they are given anesthesia, antibiotics/painkillers, and are monitored for complications, just like a person would be. When it comes time to end their lives, again, all efforts are made to reduce suffering so that it is quick and painless. 

I’d encourage you (and everyone, really) to think about what the world would look like if not for the sacrifices of our animal friends. We wouldn’t have a vast majority of medications available today–no chemotherapy, no vaccines, no antivirals to treat baddies like HIV, among many others. In fact, FDA approval for new drugs requires that you show that your new drug isn’t toxic in an animal before you’re allowed to even contemplate a human clinical trial. Animal research also helps to show the instances when synthetic chemicals are toxic and need to be taken out of products.

A lot of people would argue that we could just use cell culture or other in vitro or in silico methods, and largely there is a shift in the biomedical field towards alternative models. There are promising things on the horizon like “organs-on-a-chip”, which could have more relevance than a few cells in a dish. However, there is a large caveat to alternative models that we can’t overlook, and that is that cells in a dish (in a closed, controlled system) cannot accurately predict what happens in a living organism, where there are multiple factors influencing every process in the body. The body is not a closed system. In fact, there are several reported instances in the literature were even primary cells (cells isolated from a living organism) behave differently in culture than they do in the body. It’s also pretty much assumed that transformed and immortalized cell lines do not completely recapitulate the physiology they would have in an organism. In other words, where cell culture studies show one effect, an animal model may show a completely different effect.

Overall, alternative models can give us valuable information, but it’s like taking two pages from a George R.R. Martin novel and saying it’s the whole story. Until better alternatives are developed, animal research (for all its own caveats) will remain an essential tool for drug development and toxicity testing.

quaintcutwork  asked:

Opinions on PAX body paint?? (Made with 1 part nontoxic acrylic paint and 1 part Pros Aide)

Update: After contacting Liquitex and Pros-Aide, I will no longer suggest PAX as a skin-safe paint. Want to know why? Learn more here. If you are looking for a skin-safe body paint I suggest Mehron, Ben Nye or Kryolan which are made for use on skin. Snazaroo is also a popular choice, recommended by many in the Homestuck community. 

 I haven’t used it myself, but it is apparently really great stuff because you can customize the colour, it stays on and it is flexible. Since it’s adhesive based, you will need a remover to get this paint off, and it may take quite a bit of scrubbing. You will also have to powder your makeup to get rid of the tacky feeling. 

Some things to keep in mind: Liquitex acrylic paint is specifically recommended for use in PAX by many people. Since acrylic paint is not made for use on skin, they aren’t necessarily tested for toxicity in the same way that cosmetics are and that is important to keep in mind. Liquitex goes into detail about their health and safety labeling here. They also list their pigments on the site, making it easy to do research before purchasing. Making sure the paint you use is non-toxic is important!

For my body-paint projects I have used Mehron or Ben Nye cake makeups and with proper sealing, I’ve never had any major issues with them. (I just recently purchased another StarBlend cake by Mehron)  So if you are concerned about mixing,scrubbing or toxicity these may be an option. If you really want something that won’t rub off, alcohol activated makeup might be an option as well.

Hope this helps you out :) 

If anyone has experience with PAX, please contribute your knowledge!

shadowanddancer  asked:

Here's a Golly prompt for you: some time after "Goodnight, Gail", Holly finds out she has competition for Gail's affection.

Say Something

“Goodnight, Gail.”

Gail Peck was never good at goodbyes. She never liked their permanency. It felt like a turning of back after a see you later that you know from the start won’t ever happen. It felt certain and Gail Peck was never a big fan of certainties. All her life had been about beating the odds that were written out to her from the moment of her birth. Her life had always been about proving that certainty was nothing but uncertainty’s twin sister. Everything was still possible. Open.

Holly’s goodnight.

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Will Water Be Your Next Printer Ink?

by Michael Keller

For office workers concerned about cutting costs and environmental impacts, clicking the print button triggers an ongoing internal debate. Many people find reading words on a printed page to be a hard habit to break when the only alternative is reading them on glowing screen.

But given that up to 40 percent of office documents are printed for one-time use, the desire to take in paper-based words versus ink’s relatively high cost and the waste that is generated is an area ripe for change.

Chinese researchers say they may have come up with just the thing to ease the conscience and lower the cost of reading documents on paper. They’ve created a jet printer that uses water instead of ink and a complimentary reusable paper that changes color while it’s moist.

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Harvard’s Wyss Institute has created “organs-on-chips” that contain human cells grown in a state-of-the-art system to mimic the structure and function of human organs and organ systems. The chips can be used instead of animals in disease research, drug testing, and toxicity testing and have been shown to replicate human physiology, diseases, and drug responses more accurately than crude animal experiments do. Some companies, such as the HµRel Corporation, have already turned these chips into products that other researchers can use in place of animals.

anonymous asked:

Hello! I personally do not believe in using animals to test cosmetics, household products, etc., but what are the alternatives? How can we test products without harming ourselves or animals?

  • Pioneering contract research laboratory CeeTox uses human cell-based in vitro (test tube) toxicity screening to test drugs, chemicals, cosmetics, and consumer products. These humane tests replace cruel tests that involve pumping substances into animals’ stomachs and lungs and dripping chemicals into animals’ eyes or onto their raw, shaved skin. In a landmark 2007 report, the National Academy of Sciences confirmed that scientific advances can “transform toxicity testing from a system based on whole-animal testing to one founded primarily on in vitro (non-animal) methods.”
  • Innovative biotechnology firm Hµrel has developed a 3-D in vitro (test tube) human “liver” that scientists can use to study the breakdown of chemicals in the human body. This technology effectively mimics human organs and can be used to test cosmetics, drugs, and chemicals.
  • VaxDesign’s groundbreaking Modular IMmune In vitro Construct (MIMIC) system uses human cells to create a working dime-sized human immune system for testing the safety and effectiveness of HIV/AIDS vaccines. This in vitro method is faster than animal tests, can be used to test vaccines on the immune systems of many different human populations at once, and can replace cruel, ineffective tests on animals in which monkeys are infected with HIV-like diseases and forced to endure acute weight loss, major organ failure, breathing problems, and neurological disorders before they die excruciating deaths or are killed.
  • The scientists and engineers at Harvard’s Wyss Institute have created “organs-on-a-chip,” including the “lung-on-a-chip” and “gut-on-a-chip.” These tiny devices contain human cells in a 3-dimensional system that mimics human organs. The chips can be used—instead of animals—in disease research, drug testing, and toxicity testing.
  • Researchers with the National Cancer Institute, the U.S military, private companies, and universities across the country have shown that MatTek’s in vitro 3-D human skin tissue equivalent is an excellent substitute for animals when it comes to conducting burn research and cosmetics testing and doing research related to radiation exposure and chemical weapons attacks, etc.
  • Instead of cutting into and damaging the brains of rats, cats, and monkeys, progressive researchers who are interested in studying the human brain are using advanced human-based brain-imaging and -recording techniques such as MRI, fMRI, EEG, PET, and CT. These modern techniques allow the human brain to be safely studied down to the level of a single neuron (as in the case of intracranial EEG), and researchers can even temporarily and reversibly induce brain disorders using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Not only do these techniques eliminate the use of animals and the obstacle of interspecies extrapolation, they also provide rich data about the human brain that could not be ascertained through the use of animals.
  • Antibodies—which are used to research, diagnose, and fight diseases and have traditionally been created by injecting cancer cells into mice—can now be produced using DNA that’s made in a laboratory or taken from human cells.
  • A research method called microdosing can provide vital information on the safety of an experimental drug and how it is metabolized in humans. Volunteers are given an extremely small one-time drug dose that is well below the threshold necessary for any potential pharmacologic effect to take place, and advanced imaging techniques are used to monitor how the drug is broken down in the body.
  • Ninety-five percent of medical schools across the U.S. have completely replaced the use of animal laboratories in medical training with sophisticated human-patient simulators, virtual-reality systems, computer simulators, and supervised clinical experience. The American Medical Student Association now states that it “strongly encourages the replacement of animal laboratories with non-animal alternatives in undergraduate medical education.”

To be honest there is so many alternatives. How do you think companies that do not do animal testing test their products?