tool use

Archaeologists Discover First Hominid To Own Tools But Never Use Them

“In a groundbreaking find that provides new insight into early human behavior, a group of archaeologists from the Smithsonian Institute announced the discovery Friday of the first known hominid to own tools but never use them. “Based on the evidence we uncovered, it appears this ancient human ancestor was the earliest species to keep a variety of specialized stone implements nearby without ever picking one of them up and putting it to use,” said Dr. Phillip Davidson, adding that the team unearthed a neatly arranged set of choppers, awls, and scrapers with no wear on their surfaces whatsoever, indicating they were never employed on even a single project. “Our findings suggest that these tools were procured by this early hominid in the Lower Paleolithic period, set down in a designated space in the individual’s dwelling, and then simply stayed in the same spot untouched for the past 2 million years.” Davidson added that the tools were found next to a set of completely unused stone hand weights and a formal animal-hide loincloth that the protohuman appears to have worn only one time.”

***Oddly enough, this is similar to a genuine (though strongly and rightly refuted) hypothesis about certain handaxes, giant handaxes and caches…Other hypotheses too. 

(Source: The Onion)

Starts/Speculations / Available at www.draw-down.com / Starts/Speculations exhibition catalog designed for the Chicago Design Museum showcasing exhibited pieces (printed matter and installation) dating back to 1909 and contemporary work by Chicago-based designers/studios. Inspired by the past century of design achievement and looking toward the future with insight and creativity, Starts/Speculations represents an anthology of work from Chicago’s graphic design legacy and a glimpse into how the tools we use to design and communicate could evolve and influence our interactions in the future. Designed by Programme #graphicdesign #typography #design #exhibition #chicago #ChicagoDesignMuseum

anonymous asked:

What'd you do in story of seasons? I mean like, I just got the game but I use my stamina so quickly.. I'm unsure what to do for most of the day :(

yeahhhh stamina in the beginning of the game is such a butt–you won’t get any  more stamina in the game, but as you upgrade your tools and stuff it’ll take less stamina to use them so you won’t run out as quickly (the old tools use a huuuuge amount of stamina, so it’ll make a huge difference once you start getting your tools up past silver level at the very least) 
also, there are accessory combinations that you can make that will regenerate stamina at intervals of 5, 10, or 15 minute intervals if i remember correctly, so that in tandem with higher level tools will pretty much take care of any stamina problems because you’ll be saving stamina and regenerating whatever stamina you use pretty quickly. stamina won’t be an issue for too long so don’t worry about that too much! 

also, you don’t have to go through the whole day! once you finish everything you need to do you can just go to sleep and move to the next day lol i do it all the time, no reason to sit around if you’re done for the day! <3

anonymous asked:

Hey I saw the ask by the previous anon and thought I might chip in. Autodesks Maya is an excellent 3D creation/animation tool as well as zbrush. Pixologic also offers a free option Sculptris which isnt as advanced but has fundamental tools and gets you used to 3D sculpting. There is also Blender which is free and available on Steam. Other alternatives include 3ds MAX and Autodesks Mudbox as well as many others. But as said before, if you aren't too engaged with one program, try others, worth it.

ah, I was hoping someone would send an ask like this. :) thanks for the info.

tadleesgirl also let me know you can register a student account at Autodesk and they’ll allow you to download their software free!

2

CRISIS MAPPING:  Internet Mapmakers help Nepal and beyond

Nowadays, whenever there’s a natural catastrophe, a team of “crisis mappers” activate around the world. These volunteers use crowdsourcing tools to turn satellite data into digital maps, which are then used to make decisions on the ground.

After Typhoon Haiyan struck the city of Tacloban in the Philippines, volunteers with the Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team (HOT) worked to add the city’s pre-storm roads and buildings to the map. For months, the group mapped the rural infrastructure of Guinea and other countries hit by Ebola.

The city of Kathmandu was already well mapped before the recent earthquake, but in the past week volunteers have tripled the amount of mapping data in Nepal in OpenStreetMap.

Volunteers need pictures of Nepal from above so they can then trace them. Tracing works exactly as it sounds: People sitting at their computers see a road on an underlying image file and click-and-drag a digital version of that road on top of it. 

Once complete, they add that road to an online database called OpenStreetMap (OSM), where it can be calculated with like data or printed out as a map. (OSM is free to use and can be edited by anyone: It’s the Wikipedia of world maps.)

Such maps “improve outcomes,” in the lingo of international relief organizations. In other words, they enable rescuers to deliver food, shelter, and supplies to areas that need them most.

Source:  The Atlantic (MAY 2, 2015)

To any aspiring artists who hope to go to university and do Art professionally soon:

For the love of god, PUT THE DATE OF YOUR ARTWORKS ON THEM AS WELL AS WHAT MEDIUM IT WAS AND WHAT PAINT/TOOLS YOU USED TO MAKE IT, AND IF POSSIBLE, THE CANVAS TYPE. 

Ex: 

“Title of artwork if you have one but this is optional from what I’ve gathered. or if you made it in school put what artclass it was like say Art 20”
2/13/2011
Watercolor on canvas
[your name/signature]

It’s gonna probably save you some hassle for when you submit your works to a portfolio for school. From what I’ve seen, some art schools rather like to be specific for what you submit, but just in case, check the school that you’re apply to’s website and see what the requirements are. Just a heads up.

Tool use in crocodylians: crocodiles and alligators use sticks as lures to attract waterbirds

In recent years it has – I really, really hope – become better known that non-bird reptiles (turtles, lizards, snakes, crocodiles, alligators and so on) are not boring dullards, but behaviourally complex creatures that get up to all sorts of interesting things. Play behaviour, complex social interactions, gaze recognition, pair-bonding and monogamy, social hunting, speedy learning abilities and good memories have all been demonstrated across these groups. And another interesting and unexpected bit of complex behaviour has just been published. It’s so interesting that I feel compelled to write about it today. It concerns what seems to be tool use in crocodiles and alligators.

As described by Dinets et al. (2013), Mugger crocodiles Crocodylus palustris in India and American alligators Alligator mississippiensis in the USA have both been observed to lie, partially submerged, beneath egret and heron colonies with sticks balanced across their snouts. Birds approach to collect the sticks for use in nest building and… well, let’s just say that it doesn’t end well for the birds. If the crocodylians really are using the sticks as bait to attract their bird prey, this is tool use, since the sticks are objects that are being employed for a specific function.

[read more]

Archaeologists Take Wrong Turn, Find World’s Oldest Stone Tools

Archaeologists working in the Kenyan Rift Valley have discovered the oldest known stone tools in the world. Dated to around 3.3 million years ago, the implements are some 700,000 years older than stone tools from Ethiopia that previously held this distinction. They are so old, in fact, that they predate the earliest fossils representing our genus, Homo,by half a million years. As such they suggest that stone tool manufacture began not with Homo, but with a more primitive member of the human family.

Continue Reading.

Female chimps more inclined to use tools when hunting

It was a discovery that changed what researchers knew about the hunting techniques of chimpanzees. In 2007, Jill Pruetz first reported savanna chimps at her research site in Fongoli, Senegal, were using tools to hunt prey. That alone was significant, but what also stood out to Pruetz was the fact that female chimps were the ones predominantly hunting with tools.

It was a point some dismissed or criticized because of the small sample size, but the finding motivated the Iowa State University anthropology professor to learn more. In the years following, Pruetz and her research team have documented more than 300 tool-assisted hunts. Their results, published in the journal Royal Society Open Science, support the initial findings – female chimps hunt with tools more than males.

Generally, adult male chimps are the main hunters and capture prey by hand. Researchers observed both male and female chimps using tools, but more than half of the hunts – 175 compared to 130 – were by females. While males made up about 60 percent of the hunting group, only around 40 percent of the hunts were by males.

“It’s just another example of diversity in chimp behavior that we keep finding the longer we study wild chimps,” Pruetz said. “It is more the exception than the rule that you’ll find some sort of different behavior, even though we’ve studied chimps extensively.”

Both male and female chimps primarily pursued galagos, or bush babies, in tool-assisted hunts. Pruetz says the chimps used a spear-like tool to jab at the animal hiding in tree cavities. She added that one explanation for the sex difference in tool use is that male chimps tended to be more opportunistic. (continue reading)

Journal Reference:

J. D. Pruetz , P. Bertolani , K. Boyer Ontl , S. Lindshield , M. Shelley , E. G. Wessling. New evidence on the tool-assisted hunting exhibited by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in a savannah habitat at Fongoli, Sénégal. Royal Society Open Science, 15 April 2015 DOI: 10.1098/rsos.140507 (PDF)

Study finds crocodiles are cleverer than previously thought

Turns out the crocodile can be a shrewd hunter himself. A University of Tennessee, Knoxville, researcher has found that some crocodiles use lures to hunt their prey.

Vladimir Dinets, a research assistant professor in the Department of Psychology, is the first to observe two crocodilian species—muggers and American alligators—using twigs and sticks to lure birds, particularly during nest-building time.

The research is published in the current edition of Ethology, Ecology and Evolution. Dinets’ research is the first report of tool use by any reptiles, and also the first known case of predators timing the use of lures to a seasonal behavior of the prey—nest-building.

Dinets first observed the behavior in 2007 when he spotted crocodiles lying in shallow water along the edge of a pond in India with small sticks or twigs positioned across their snouts. The behavior potentially fooled nest-building birds wading in the water for sticks into thinking the sticks were floating on the water. The crocodiles remained still for hours and if a bird neared the stick, they would lunge.

To see if the stick-displaying was a form of clever predation, Dinets and his colleagues performed systematic observations of the reptiles for one year at four sites in Louisiana, including two rookery and two nonrookery sites. A rookery is a bird breeding ground. The researchers observed a significant increase in alligators displaying sticks on their snouts from March to May, the time birds were building nests. Specifically, the reptiles in rookeries had sticks on their snouts during and after the nest-building season. At non-rookery sites, the reptiles used lures during the nest-building season.

“This study changes the way crocodiles have historically been viewed,” said Dinets. “They are typically seen as lethargic, stupid and boring but now they are known to exhibit flexible multimodal signaling, advanced parental care and highly coordinated group hunting tactics.”

The observations could mean the behavior is more widespread within the reptilian group and could also shed light on how crocodiles’ extinct relatives—dinosaurs—behaved.

“Our research provides a surprising insight into previously unrecognized complexity of extinct reptile behavior,” said Dinets. “These discoveries are interesting not just because they show how easy it is to underestimate the intelligence of even relatively familiar animals, but also because crocodilians are a sister taxon of dinosaurs and flying reptiles.”

Dinets collaborated with J.C and J.D. Brueggen from the St. Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park in St. Augustine, Fla. More of his crocodile research can be found in his book “Dragon Songs.”

Researchers unearth simple cutting stones dated to 3.3 million years ago—before the genus Homo arose

Researchers at a meeting here say they have found the oldest tools made by human ancestors—stone flakes dated to 3.3 million years ago. That’s 700,000 years older than the oldest-known tools to date, suggesting that our ancestors were crafting tools several hundred thousand years before our genus Homo arrived on the scene. If correct, the new evidence could confirm disputed claims for very early tool use, and it suggests that ancient australopithecines like the famed “Lucy” may have fashioned stone…

Members of a troop of chimpanzees living at a site called Fongoli in southeastern Senegal have been observed by scientists fashioning tree branches into spears and using them to hunt and kill bushbabies. The researchers, a combined team with members from the U.S. the U.K. and Germany have published their observations and findings in Royal Society Open Science.

In their seven year study of the chimps living at the site, the researchers spotted chimpanzees breaking off tree branches, tearing off smaller branches and leaves, removing the weak tips and sometimes gnawing on the ends to sharpen them. The spears (which were on average about 75 centimeters long) were then used to stab bushbabies sleeping in their nests in tree hollows. The poking, the team reports was not lethal, instead, it caused injuries to the bushbabies which was enough to allow the chimps to bite and kill them with relative ease.

Bushbabies are small primates with big eyes and sharp teeth, and serve as a primary protein source for the chimps living in that part of Africa, where other sources are rare. The researchers began their study in 2007, observing chimp behavior up until last year. During that time period they recorded 308 spear hunting events, which they noted, was more common for females than males—they accounted for 61 percent of the total. The researchers suggest this is likely the case because it is more difficult for females to chase down prey because they almost always have offspring clinging to their bodies. To date, the chimps are the only known animal to use a tool as a weapon to hunt a “large” animal, other than humans—chimps in other troops have been seen to use twigs as tools to help collect termites, but scientists do not count that as hunting.

The researchers also found that the troop at Fongoli was a much more cooperative collective than has been found in chimp troops in other parts of Africa—dominant males, for example, allow females and smaller males to keep and eat what they kill, rather than stealing it from them. That might help explain the development of tool use, which the team speculates, likely began with females. They also suggest the same might be said for early humans, who developed weapons use in a very similar environment.

Goats can Solve Complex Mechanical Puzzles, Remember The Solution Nearly a Year Later

New research found that most goats tested could quickly figure out how to solve a “mechanical puzzle” that yielded a delicious piece of fruit. In this case they had to pull on and then lift up a lever, a “highly novel cognitive task.” Completing this two-step process caused a box to open, within which was a piece of fruit. Of the 12 goats tested, nine of them got it within fewer than a dozen trials on average. Two of them were disqualified for trying to pry open the fruit-box with their horns, which actually might have been a smart idea (and it’s not like the goats knew they’d be DQ'ed), and one was dismissed as hopeless upon not showing signs of learning the task after 22 trials.  

The scientists re-tested the goats 10 months later, and this time they solved the puzzle much more quickly, within two minutes. “The speed at which the goats completed the task at 10 months compared to how long it took them to learn indicates excellent long-term memory," co-author Dr Elodie Briefer, at ETH Zurich, said in a statement

The study, published this week in Frontiers in Zoology, shows that goats can learn rather quickly, and can also store these lessons in long-term memory.

(via Goats Found to be Much Smarter Than Previously Believed | Popular Science)