day in 1879, the Battle of Kambula occurred, marking a decisive moment
in the Anglo-Zulu War. The war in South Africa began in 1878 after the
murder of several British citizens by Zulus and the Zulu king’s refusal
to hand over the perpetrators for trial. However, authorities in Britain
had long been seeking pretense to launch an assault on the Zulu Kingdom
to consolidate British rule in the area. The indigenous Zulu warriors
had some initial success against the European invaders, including at the
battle of Isandlwana in January 1879, though this victory was offset by
defeat at Rourke’s Drift. Wary of the enemy, British forces in the Zulu
Kingdom led by Evelyn Wood fortified an area near Kambula. On March
29th the Zulu army launched an attack on the British position, but their
advance was halted by a British mounted force. The Zulu forces
continued their attack, and 11,000 fighters charged head-on into a hail
of British fire. They sustained heavy losses, but the Zulu army
successfully exerted pressure on the British stronghold and forced the
defenders to retreat. Despite putting up a considerable attack, the Zulu
forces were eventually forced to retreat under British fire. The battle
was a decisive British victory, with the defenders losing 29 soldiers
and the Zulu up to 3,000. Kambula also severely weakened the Zulu
forces, allowing the British to ultimately defeat the Zulu and imprison
their king in July. British victory spelled the end of the independence
of the Zulu nation in South Africa.
// So Ultra Mun did too much today. I had a rough day today and my history professor had to escorts me out of class today. I almost blacked out in class from pain. And this evening all my jaw could do was snap and crack. It’s about time I sleep now.
I’ll see you all tomorrow and post that wonderful art then too!
this day in 1942, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed executive
order 9066 which allowed the military to relocate Japanese-Americans to
internment camps. A climate of paranoia descended on the US following the attack on the naval base at Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan, which prompted the US to join the Second World War. Americans of Japanese ancestry became targets for persecution, as there were fears that they would collude with Japan and pose a national security threat. This came to a head with FDR’s executive order, which led to 120,000 Japanese-Americans being rounded up and held in camps. The constitutionality of the controversial measure was upheld by the Supreme Court in Korematsu v. United States (1944). Interned Americans suffered great material and personal hardship, with most people
losing their property and some losing their lives to illness or the
violence of camp sentries. The victims of internment and their families eventually received
an official government apology in 1988 and reparations began in the
1990s. This dark episode of American history is often forgotten in the narrative of US involvement in the Second World War, but Japanese internment poses a stark reminder of the dangers of paranoia and scapegoating.
On this day in 1935, the world famous dog Hachikō died. Hachikō was a dog
from Japan who became famous worldwide for his extraordinary loyalty to
his owner - Hidesaburō Ueno. Ueno was a professor at the University of
Tokyo, and each day Hachikō would greet him at Shibuya Station when he
returned from work. One day in May 1925, Ueno did not return. He had
suffered a cerebral hemorrhage and died, so he never met Hachikō at the
station that day. However, every day for the next nine years, Hachikō
waited at the station, appearing precisely when the train was due.
Hachikō attracted the attention of many people, including one of Ueno’s
former students who published articles about the dog. The Japanese
considered his loyalty and faithfulness to his master an example of
family loyalty for all to follow. On this day in 1935, Hachikō was found
dead on a street in Shibuya; he had died from terminal cancer and
worms. His legacy lives on, with a bronze statue of him erected at
Shibuya Station and many films made about his life.
On this day in 1943, three members of the peaceful resistance movement in Nazi Germany, the White Rose, were executed. The White Rose, comprising students from the University of Munich and their philosophy professor, began in June 1942. The group secretly distributed leaflets protesting against the regime of Adolf Hitler and the war being waged in Europe, highlighting the repressive nature of the Nazi police state and drawing attention to the mistreatment of Jews. The group took precautions to avoid capture by keeping the White Rose group very small. However, on 18th February 1943, the siblings Sophie and Hans Scholl were discovered distributing leaflets by a university janitor, who informed the Gestapo. Hans and Sophie were arrested and immediately admitted guilt, hoping to avoid being coerced into implicating their fellow members of the White Rose, but after further interrogation were forced to give up the names. Four days later, the Scholls and Christoph Probst - some of the founding members of the group - were put on trial and found guilty of treason; they were sentenced to death. That same day, February 22nd, the three were executed by beheading at Stadelheim Prison. After their executions, the remaining members were arrested and killed, thus ending the White Rose resistance movement. The White Rose, alongside other groups like the Edelweiss Pirates, are an important example of Germans speaking out against Hitler’s regime, and their deaths are yet another in the litany of Nazi crimes.
“We will not be silent. We are your bad conscience. The White Rose will not leave you in peace!”