today on history

March 29 in Music History

1484 Birth of composer Johann Spangenberg.

1616 Birth of composer Johann Erasmus Kindermann.

1697 Death of German composer and organist Nicolaus Bruhns.

1716 Antonio Vivaldi loses his job temporarily at Pieta because he spends too much time on operas.

1719 Birth of English music author Sir John Hawkins who wrote the first history of music.

1725 Birth of composer Joseph Franz Xaver Dominik Stalder.

1752 Birth of composer Edward Jones.

1795 Beethoven’s first public performance in Vienna, where he premieres either his First or Second Piano Concerto.

1806 FP of Beethoven’s Leonore Overture No. 3, second version, of the opera Fidelio at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna.

1827 Beethoven’s funeral in Vienna attended by Schubert, Hummel, Czerny and Kreutzer and other more than 10,000 people.

1836 FP of Richard Wagner’s opera Das Liebesverbot at the Stadttheater in Magdeburg. 

1859 Birth of French opera composer Herman Bemberg in Paris.

1862 Birth of American composer Carl Busch. 

1871 Inauguration of The Royal Albert Hall in London. Queen Victoria in attendance.

1874 FP of Antonin Dvorak’s Symphony No. 3 in Eb, in Prague.

1878 Birth of American composer Albert Von Tilzer. 

1879 FP of Tchaikovsky’s opera Eugen Onegin at the Malïy Theater in Moscow.

1879 FP of Bedrich Smetana’s String Quartet in e minor. 

1880 Birth of Russian pianist Rosina Lhevinne, in Kiev.

1882 FP of the first symphony of 16-year-old composer Alexander Glazunov in St. Petersburg. Mili Balakirev conducting. 

1886 Birth of composer Gustaf Adolf Tiburtius Bengtsson.

1888 Death of French composer Charles-Henri Alkan, age 75, in Paris.

1890 Birth of Polish bass Robert Burg in Prague. 

1897 Birth of German tenor Fritz Göllnitz. 

1900 Birth of French bass-baritone Bernard-Henri Etcheverry in Bordeaux. 

1900 In Philadelphia, at the Academy of Music, Fritz Scheel conducts a concert with musicians who were to become The Fabulous Philadelphians of The Philadelphia Orchestra. 

1901 FP of Alexander Scriabin’s complete First Symphony in Moscow.

1902 Birth of English composer Sir William Turner Walton in Lancashire. 

1902 Birth of Italian opera conductor Mario Rossi in Rome. 

1906 Birth of English-born American organist E. Power Biggs in Westcliff. 

1911 Death of French composer Félix-Alexandre Guilmant. 

1911 FP of Chadwick’s Suite Symphonique. Philadelphia Orchestra, with the composer conducting.

1912 Birth of German bass Fritz Ollendorf in Darmstadt. 

1924 Death of Irish organist, conductor, composer Sir Charles Villers Stanford.

1928 Birth of composer Vaclav Felix.

1931 Birth of American soprano Gloria Davy in New Rochelle, NY.

1932 Birth of American tenor William Brown is born in Jackson, Mississippi.

1934 Birth of composer Ernstalbrecht Stiebler.

1935 Birth of Welsh bass Delme Bryn-Jones, Wales. 

1936 Birth of English composer Richard Rodney Bennett in Broadstairs, Kent. 

1937 Death of Polish composer Karol Szymanowski in Switzerland at age 55. 

1940 FP of Britten’s Violin Concerto, Op. 15. @nyphil  with soloist Antonio Brosa. 

1953 Birth of twin Turkish pianists Güher and Süher Pekinel.

1962 Birth of Swedish bass Urban Malberg in Stockholm.

1964 Birth of Greek guitarist and composer Apostolos Paraskevas in Volos, Greece.

1974 Birth of American composer Tom Schneller. 

1982 Death of german composer Carl Orff. 

2000 FP of Bright Sheng’s String Quartet No. 4. Shanghai String Quartet, in Richmond VA.

2001 Death of American pianist and composer John Lewis in NYC at age 80. 

2003 FP of Augusta Reed Thomas’ Canticle Weaving for trombone and orchestra. Ralph Sauer, trombone. Los Angeles Philharmonic, Esa-Pekka Salonen, cond. in LA, CA.

2011 Death of English tenor Robert Tear.

2

March 29th 1879: Battle of Kambula

On this day in 1879, the Battle of Kambula occurred, marking a decisive moment in the Anglo-Zulu War. The war in South Africa began in 1878 after the murder of several British citizens by Zulus and the Zulu king’s refusal to hand over the perpetrators for trial. However, authorities in Britain had long been seeking pretense to launch an assault on the Zulu Kingdom to consolidate British rule in the area. The indigenous Zulu warriors had some initial success against the European invaders, including at the battle of Isandlwana in January 1879, though this victory was offset by defeat at Rourke’s Drift. Wary of the enemy, British forces in the Zulu Kingdom led by Evelyn Wood fortified an area near Kambula. On March 29th the Zulu army launched an attack on the British position, but their advance was halted by a British mounted force. The Zulu forces continued their attack, and 11,000 fighters charged head-on into a hail of British fire. They sustained heavy losses, but the Zulu army successfully exerted pressure on the British stronghold and forced the defenders to retreat. Despite putting up a considerable attack, the Zulu forces were eventually forced to retreat under British fire. The battle was a decisive British victory, with the defenders losing 29 soldiers and the Zulu up to 3,000. Kambula also severely weakened the Zulu forces, allowing the British to ultimately defeat the Zulu and imprison their king in July. British victory spelled the end of the independence of the Zulu nation in South Africa.

2

// So Ultra Mun did too much today. I had a rough day today and my history professor had to escorts me out of class today. I almost blacked out in class from pain. And this evening all my jaw could do was snap and crack. It’s about time I sleep now.

I’ll see you all tomorrow and post that wonderful art then too!

3

February 19th 1942: Japanese internment begins

On this day in 1942, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed executive order 9066 which allowed the military to relocate Japanese-Americans to internment camps. A climate of paranoia descended on the US following the attack on the naval base at Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan, which prompted the US to join the Second World War. Americans of Japanese ancestry became targets for persecution, as there were fears that they would collude with Japan and pose a national security threat. This came to a head with FDR’s executive order, which led to 120,000 Japanese-Americans being rounded up and held in camps. The constitutionality of the controversial measure was upheld by the Supreme Court in Korematsu v. United States (1944). Interned Americans suffered great material and personal hardship, with most people losing their property and some losing their lives to illness or the violence of camp sentries. The victims of internment and their families eventually received an official government apology in 1988 and reparations began in the 1990s. This dark episode of American history is often forgotten in the narrative of US involvement in the Second World War, but Japanese internment poses a stark reminder of the dangers of paranoia and scapegoating.

Louis already has someone who...

“is there for him”

“is one of the most genuinely caring people in his life”

“is a stable…influence in his life whom he trusts”

“genuinely cares about him as a friend” 

3

March 8th 1935: Hachikō the dog dies

On this day in 1935, the world famous dog Hachikō died. Hachikō was a dog from Japan who became famous worldwide for his extraordinary loyalty to his owner - Hidesaburō Ueno. Ueno was a professor at the University of Tokyo, and each day Hachikō would greet him at Shibuya Station when he returned from work. One day in May 1925, Ueno did not return. He had suffered a cerebral hemorrhage and died, so he never met Hachikō at the station that day. However, every day for the next nine years, Hachikō waited at the station, appearing precisely when the train was due. Hachikō attracted the attention of many people, including one of Ueno’s former students who published articles about the dog. The Japanese considered his loyalty and faithfulness to his master an example of family loyalty for all to follow. On this day in 1935, Hachikō was found dead on a street in Shibuya; he had died from terminal cancer and worms. His legacy lives on, with a bronze statue of him erected at Shibuya Station and many films made about his life.

10

“I’m interested in flawed protagonists. I was raised on them.”

Happy birthday, Laura Dern!

2

February 22nd 1943: White Rose group executed

On this day in 1943, three members of the peaceful resistance movement in Nazi Germany, the White Rose, were executed. The White Rose, comprising students from the University of Munich and their philosophy professor, began in June 1942. The group secretly distributed leaflets protesting against the regime of Adolf Hitler and the war being waged in Europe, highlighting the repressive nature of the Nazi police state and drawing attention to the mistreatment of Jews. The group took precautions to avoid capture by keeping the White Rose group very small. However, on 18th February 1943, the siblings Sophie and Hans Scholl were discovered distributing leaflets by a university janitor, who informed the Gestapo. Hans and Sophie were arrested and immediately admitted guilt, hoping to avoid being coerced into implicating their fellow members of the White Rose, but after further interrogation were forced to give up the names. Four days later, the Scholls and Christoph Probst - some of the founding members of the group - were put on trial and found guilty of treason; they were sentenced to death. That same day, February 22nd, the three were executed by beheading at Stadelheim Prison. After their executions, the remaining members were arrested and killed, thus ending the White Rose resistance movement. The White Rose, alongside other groups like the Edelweiss Pirates, are an important example of Germans speaking out against Hitler’s regime, and their deaths are yet another in the litany of Nazi crimes.

“We will not be silent. We are your bad conscience. The White Rose will not leave you in peace!”