Molecule of the Day: Warfarin

Warfarin (C19H16O4) is an extremely important drug; it is used as an anticoagulant, and is routinely used to prevent blood clotting and the subsequent migration of the clots to other parts of the body, which could cause severe effects such as cardiac arrest and hypoxia of tissues.

It was first discovered when a mysterious case of cattle bleeding to death after minor medical procedures occurred in the 1920s. This were traced back to mouldy fodder made from sweet clover, and upon analysis, warfarin was found to be responsible for the effects. Since then, it has been used as a useful life-saving drug worldwide.

Warfarin acts by inhibiting Vitamin K epoxide and quinone reductases, which are responsible for regenerating Vitamin K. Since Vitamin K is needed for the carboxylation and thus activation of proteins responsible for blood cells to adhere to each other, a lower amount of clotting factors is produced, and consequently blood clotting is inhibited.

Warfarin does have side effects: most commonly, due to the decrease in blood clotting, the risk of bleeding, or more severely, haemorrhaging, increases. Other possible adverse effects, such as necrosis or osteoporosis, are uncommon. However, consumption of particular foods, such as ginger and garlic, and drugs, especially antibiotics, can increase the risk of side effects by impeding the metabolism of warfarin.

Warfarin has also been used as a rat poison since 1948, although its usage has been declining due to increasing resistance to it as well as the emergence of more potent poisons.


Here are some more cards from Diana’s style! …Diana cards?? Jupiter cards?? God cards?? …Wait, that last one is Yu-gi-oh;;

Man, there are a lot of good ones in this batch methinks :> Individually, I like Keima and Mio’s. The cape of Keima’s card came out wonderfully, and I really liked the concept of Mio’s! As a pair, I like the shared concept of Chihiro & Yokkyun’s though, since they’re like mirrors of each other :o

Obviously Minami’s and Kusunoki’s are still good, but they were a bit more challenging!