Semoga Idul Fitri tahun ini menjadi momen terbaik kita untuk terus memantaskan diri, merawat cinta di dalam keluarga, merayakan kasih sayang pada sesama, mengeja alif-ba-ta semesta, menguatkan keyakinan di setiap titian anak tangga menuju surga.
Dengan segala kerendahatian kami mengucapkan selamat berlebaran. Mohon dimaafkan segala kesalahan, yang tampak maupun tak.
Mary I of England and Philip II of Spain – the first marriage of the
reigning Queen of England with the purpose to breed a new line of English
On July 25 1554, Mary I of
England married Philip II of Spain at Winchester Cathedral. Catherine of Aragon’s dream finally
came true: at the age of thirty seven, Mary Tudor became the first queen regnant in
England and was able to turn her attention to finding a husband.
The match was suggested by Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V, who wanted to use a great chance of creating an alliance
Anglia-Spaniard against France and of restoring the Roman Catholic Church in England.
To elevate his son to Mary’s rank, Charles V ceded the crown of Naples, as well
as his claim to the Kingdom of Jerusalem, to Philip.
During their marriage
negotiations, a portrait of Philip of Spain by Titian was sent to Mary in September
Mary was charmed by the image of young Philip in armor. She was thrilled
to marry him from the beginning despite the fact that he was only twenty-six, eleven
years Mary’s junior, and had a son from a previous marriage.
Mary called the match a “greater match than she deserved.”
Mary wanted to divide her
responsibilities as a wife, which she would have to Philip, from her duties she had as
the queen, stressing a political nature of their marriage. In one of
her letters, she wrote that “if
Philip will be inclined to be loving, this is not my desire, therefore I am in
the age that he’s highness already knows, and never I fed love thought. But if
he to desire to interfere in the government of my country, could not allow such
But not everyone wanted Mary
to marry a Spanish Prince. The House of Commons asked the queen not to marry a foreigner, but Mary
insisted that she had already made her final choice. In spite of her fears that she
could have complexities with the Parliament, both houses ratified the marriage
treaty within days of Parliament’s opening.
Finally, Mary’s marriage to
Philip took place with pomp and splendor befitting Mary’s role as Queen of
In her book “Mary Tudor:
Princess, Bastard, Queen”, Anna Whitelock writes about the wedding ceremony:“The ceremony was one of unparalleled pomp and extravagance. Winchester
Cathedral was decorated resplendently with banners, standards, streamers, and
tapestries, all emblazoned with Spanish regalia. A raised wooden platform,
covered with carpets, reached from the main door of the church to the choir, at
its center a dais in the shape of an octagon, the setting of the solemnization
of the marriage. The arrangements for the wedding were based on those of Mary’s
mother’s marriage to Prince Arthur. The ceremony was to be traditional and
performed in Latin by Bishop Gardiner, assisted by other bishops, all attired
in copes and miters.”
Mary was pleased and dedicated
to Philip, intending to be a good and dutiful wife to him. Someone may think
that Philip was a very bad husband, but it is not true because he was generous
and attentive to her even though he never loved her. Philip also kept his word
and didn’t interfere into the English state affairs, thoroughly devoted to
politics in Spain, Italy and America.
Ruy Gómez da Silva, 1st Prince
of Éboli, a Portuguese nobleman and one of Philip’s main advisers, said
tactfully: "The Queen is a lady of
quality, but older than we thought, but his Highness is behaving so well and
gives so many gifts that I’m sure both will be very pleased with each other,
the king is trying to be as friendly as possible, he believes that his marriage
was not made for flesh, but for the restoration of this area and preservation
of those states (Flanders).”
Another Spanish courtier, one
of Philip’s entourage, wrote to his friend about the first months of Philip’s
life in England:“Their Majesties are the happiest
couple in the world, and more in love than words can say. His Highness never
leaves her, and when they are on the road he is ever by her side, helping her
to mount and dismount. They sometimes dine together in public, and go to mass
together on holidays. The Queen, however, is not at all beautiful: small, and
rather flabby than fat, she is of white complexion and fair, and has no eyebrows. She
is a perfect saint and dresses badly. All the women here wear petticoats of
coloured cloth without admixture of silk, and above come coloured robes of
damask, satin or velvet, very badly cut.”
But the tension at the royal
court was slowly glowing. It was true that Philip was doing everything to secure
the goodwill of the English people, but the truth was that many of courtiers
and even servants hated the Spaniards. Many Spanish noblemen were robbed in the
streets of London and on the roads where the royal cortege stopped on the
progress. Soon a number of Spanish noblemen and gentlemen obtained permission
to depart from England.
When Mary just became the Queen
of England, she issued a royal proclamation that she would not compel anyone to
abandon Protestantism. Nevertheless, being a staunch Catholic and not wishing to
tolerate heretics in her realm, Mary ordered
arrests of leading Protestant churchmen, including John Bradford, Hugh
Latimer, and Thomas Cranmer.
Philip’s role in the restoration of Catholicism in
England cannot be diminished: Mary and Philip presided over a joint session of
Parliament, in which reconciliation with Rome after twenty years of division was
achieved. By the end of 1554, the Heresy Acts were revived, and numerous
Protestants were executed.
One of the main purposes of
the union for Mary was to give birth to a Catholic heir to the English crown.
At first, it seemed that Mary had successfully conceived, and the pregnancy had
been confirmed by Mary’s royal physicians. Letters were sent to bishops
ordering special prayers for this “good hope of certain succession”. The
news was proclaimed across Europe, and Mary was very happy.
In the days before Christmas
1535, Queen Mary wrote to Charles V, her father-in-law:“As for that child which I carry in my belly, I declare it to be alive
and with great humility thank God for His great goodness shown to me, praying
Him so to guide the fruit of my womb that it may contribute to His glory and
honour, and give happiness to the King, my Lord and your son, to your Majesty,
who were my second father in the lifetime of my own father, and are therefore
doubly my father, and lastly that it may prove a blessing to the realm.”
Mary went into confinement and
made provisions for the birth of the child. On April 30 1535, bells rang out
the news that Mary safely delivered a prince of England, but people’s hopes
were empty – the rumors that had spread in England were false. The queen didn’t
go into labor, and fresh calculations for the new date of delivery were made.
Ruy Gómez da Silva wrote: “All this makes me wonder whether she is with
child at all, greatly as I desire the thing to be happily over.” Philip shared Gómez’s
suspicions and grew restless, simultaneously being increasingly involved with
the war against France.
As weeks passed, it became apparent that Mary’s
pregnancy was false. For Mary, embarrassment was great and
humiliation even greater. Soon Philip departed from
England to the Low Countries.
In Philip’s absence, Mary and Reginald Pole, who
was proclaimed Archbishop of Canterbury after his return from Rome to England,
continued persecutions of Protestants and burning them at the stake, which, however, proved to be ineffective to eradicate
heresy and was condemned even by Alfonso de Castro, one of Philip’s own ecclesiastical staff.
Philip again returned to
England for a while, and Mary was happy again. Mary’s second reunion with her
husband was called by one of diplomats “a warmed over honeymoon”. But
Philip’s reasons for return were purely political: he needed money for the war
with France and an English declaration of war against France. Soon, Philip left
England again, and Mary never saw her husband again. England was drawn into the
military conflict with France, but the result of that campaign was horrible –
England lost Calais.
Soon Mary was again convinced
that she was carrying Philip’s child, but her pregnancy was again false. Her
heath began to deteriorate, and she suffered from intermittent fevers,
insomnia, headaches, and loss of vision. In the Low Countries, Philip learned about the
death of his father and left for Brussels. Then he unexpectedly learned about the
death of his wife.
Philip II of Spain wrote to
his sister in Spain about Mary’s untimely death: “You may imagine what a state I am in. It seems to me that everything is
being taken from me at once.” With regards to Mary’s death, he added: “May God
have received her in His glory! I felt a reasonable regret for her death. I shall
miss her, even on this account.”
The royal marriage of Mary I of England and Philip II of Spain wasn’t a
love match, but it wasn’t a doomed match because the spouses
accepted that love was not a part of their marriage.
Even though she was married, Mary
I of England was never happy in personal life. I blame King Henry VIII for the unhappiness
of his eldest daughter and for her sad, lonely end. Henry VIII was obsessed with
the idea of having a male heir and married six times, declaring Mary illegitimate
in the process and depriving her of a chance for a marriage at a younger age than
it actually happened in her life.
Henry VIII destroyed the Tudor dynasty with his own hands,
and he has no one to blame but himself for the fact that neither Elizabeth nor Mary married and had children.
“Mary Tudor: Princess,
Bastard, Queen”, Anna Whitelock
Bloody Mary: The Life of Mary
Tudor, Erickson, Carolly
art history meme
jean auguste dominique ingres
- grande odalisque
The painting was commissioned by Napoleon’s sister, Queen Caroline Murat of Naples, and finished in 1814. Ingres drew upon works such as Dresden Venus by Giorgione, and Titian’s Venus of Urbino as inspiration for his reclining nude figure, though the actual pose of a reclining figure looking back over her shoulder is directly drawn from the 1809 Portrait of Madame Récamier by Jacques-Louis David.
Ingres portrays a concubine in languid pose as seen from behind with distorted proportions. The small head, elongated limbs, and cool color scheme all reveal influences from Mannerists such as Parmigianino, whose Madonna with the Long Neck was also famous for anatomical distortion.