Science leads to war. Ignorance leads to war. Wealth leads to war. Poverty leads to war. Pacifism leads to war. Religion leads to war. Atheism leads to war. Capitalism leads to war. Communism leads to war. Socialism leads to war. Democracy leads to war. Dictatorship leads to war. Anarchy leads to war. Gold leads to war. Land leads to war. Sex leads to war. The war between the Hatfields and the McCoys was started over a pig. Everything leads to war.
Wyatt Kaldenberg, in response to First Vice-President of the European Commission Frans Timmermans’ statement that nationalism in Europe “is the road to war”
December 7, 1941, started as a typical Sunday morning at Pearl Harbor, the US Navy’s Pacific Fleet Headquarters on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. That is, until shortly before 8:00 am, when Japan launched roughly 200 planes from six aircraft carriers in its first wave of Operation Hawaii—forever to be known by Americans as “the attack on Pearl Harbor” or just “Pearl Harbor.”
Today we remember the lives of approximately 2,400 Americans that were lost and more than 1,100 wounded. Marines, sailors, soldiers, airmen who paid the ultimate sacrifice. We remember the day that rallied our nation to enter World War II.
Yaeko Lillian Oda. Francisco Tacderan. John Kalauwae Adams. Joseph Kanehoa Adams. Nancy Masako Arakaki. Patrick Kahamokupuni Chong. Matilda Kaliko Faufata. Emma Gonsalves. Ai Harada. Kisa Hatate. Fred Masayoshi Higa. Jackie Yoneto Hirasaki. Jitsuo Hirasaki. Robert Yoshito Hirasaki. Shirley Kinue Hirasaki. Paul S. Inamine. Robert Seiko Izumi. David Kahookele. Edward Koichi Kondo. Peter Souza Lopes. George Jay Manganelli. Joseph McCabe, Sr. Masayoshi Nagamine. Frank Ohashi. Hayako Ohta. Janet Yumiko Ohta. Kiyoko Ohta. Barbara June Ornellas. Gertrude Ornellas. James Takao Takefuji, aka Koba. Yoshio Tokusato. Hisao Uyeno. Alice White. Eunice Wilson. Robert H. Tyce. Kamiko Hookano. Isaac William Lee. Rowena Kamohaulani Foster. Chip Soon Kim. Richard Masaru Soma. Tomoso Kimura.
August Akina. Philip Ward Eldred. Virgil P. Rahel. Tai Chung Loo. Daniel LaVerne.
John Carreira. Thomas Samuel Macy. Harry Tuck Lee Pang.2
Henry C. Blackwell. Clyde C. Brown. Warren D. Rasmussen. Joseph A. Medlen. Claude L. Bryant. Eugene B. Bubb. Oreste DaTorre. Donat G. Duquette, Jr. Private Edward F. Sullivan. Arthur A. Favreau. William G. Sylvester. Paul J. Fadon. Theodore J. Lewis. Walter R. French. Conrad Kujawa. Torao Migita.
US ARMY AIR FORCES
Hans C. Christiansen. George A. Whiteman. Lawrence R. Carlson. Donald F. Meagher. Louis Schleifer. George P. Bolan. Richard A. Dickerson. Alfred Hays. Richard E. Livingston. George M. Martin, Jr. Harold W. Borgelt. Daniel A. Dyer, Jr. Sherman Levine. James M. Topalian. Robert L. Avery. Robert S. Brown. Edward J. Cashman. Donal V. Chapman. Monroe M. Clark. Robert H. Gooding. James A. Horner. George F. Howard. Lawrence P. Lyons, Jr. Wallae R. Martin. William W. Merithew. George A. Moran. Herman C. Reuss. Robert M. Richey. Harry E. Smith. Edward F. Vernick. Marion H. Zaczkiewicz. Jerry M. Angelich. Malcolm J. Brummwell. Jack A. Downs. Paul R. Eichelberger. Arnold E. Field. Joseph Jedrysik. Andrew J. Kinder. Herbert E. McLaughlin. Emmett E. Morris. Joseph F. Nelles. Willard C. Orr. Halvor E. Rogness. Leo H. Surrells. Joseph Bush. John H. Couhig. Harold C. Elyard. Willard E. Fairchild. Paul V. Fellman. Homer E. Ferris. Stuart H. Fiander. James J. Gleason. Otto C. Klein. Harry W. Lord, Jr. Joseph Malatak. Russell M. Penny. Allen G. Rae. George J. Smith. Elmer W. South. Hermann K. Tibbets, Jr. George W. Tuckerman. Martin Vanderelli. Walter H. Wardigo. Lawton J. Woodworth. Thomas M. Wright. Virgil J. Young. Garland C. Anderson. Manfred C. Anderson. Gordon R. Bennett, Jr. Frank G. Boswell. Frank B. Cooper. John E. Cruthirds. Robert C. Duff, Jr. Lyle O. Edwards. Russell E. Gallagher. James E. Gossard, Jr. Johon S. Greene. Earl A. Hood. Theodore K. Joyner. Edmund B. Lepper. Durward A. Meadows. LaVerne J. Needham. Paul L. Staton. Anderson G. Tennison. William T. Anderson. William T. Blakley. Russell C. Defenbaugh. Joseph H. Guttmann. John J. Horan. Carl A. Johnson. Olaf A. Johnson. Doyle Kimmey. James I. Lewis. William E. McAbee. Stanley A. McLeod. Walter D. Zuckoff. Arthur F. Boyle. Billy O. Brandt. Rennie V. Brower, Jr. William J. Brownlee. Brooks J. Brubaker. Weldon C. Burlison. Leroy R. Church. Jack H. Feldman. Leo E. A. Gagne. Allen E. W. Goudy. William E. Hasenfuss, Jr. James R. Johnson. Robert H. Johnson. Marion E. King, Jr. Roderick O. Klubertanz. John H. Mann. James J. McClintock. Horace A. Messam. Victor L. Meyers. Edwin N. Mitchell. Thomas F. Philipsky. William F. Shields. Ralph S. Smith. John B. Sparks. Merton I. Staples. Jerome J. Szematowicz. William F. Timmerman. Ernest M. Walker, Jr. Lee I. Clendenning. Richard L. Coster. Byron G. Elliott. William Hislop. Howard N. Lusk. Lionel J. Moorhead. Francis E. Campiglia. Herbert B. Martin. Joseph G. Moser. Frank St. E. Posey. Raymond E. Powell. William T. Rhodes. Maurice J. St. Germain. James E. Strickland, Jr. Joseph S. Zappala. Walter J. Zuschlag. Felix Bonnie. Clarence A. Conant. Frank J. DePolis. Patrick L. Finney. Elwood R. Gummerson. Vincent J. Kechner. Robert H. Markley. Jay E. Pietzsch. Antonio S. Tafoya. Robert H. Westbrook, Jr. Jack W. Fox. Frank J. Lango. William M. Northway. Felix S. Wegrzyn. William R. Schick. Leland V. Beasley. William Coyne, Jr. Eugene B. Denson. Robert R. Garrett. Charles l. Hrusecky. Joseph N. Jencuis. Robert R. Kelley. Hal H. Perry, Jr. Carey K. Stockwell. Ralph Alois. Louis H. Dasenbrock. John T. Haughey. Clarence E. Hoyt. Henry J. Humphrey. Lester H. Libolt. Harell K. Mattox. William H. Offutt. Edward R. Hughes. John J. Kohl. George Price. Louis G. Moslener, Jr. Daniel J. Powloski. Dave Jacobson. Mathew T. Bills. Joseph J. Chagnon. Carlton H. Hartford. Ardrey V. Hasty. Donald E. Bays. George K. Gannam. Andrew A. Walczynski. Eugene L. Chambers. John G. Mitchell. Robert L. Schott. Robert R. Shattuck. Russell P. Vidoloff. Lumus E. Walker. Theodore F. Byrd, Jr. James H. Derthick. Joseph C. Herbert. William H. Manley. George R. Schmersahl. Robert O. Sherman. Anson E. Robbins. Robert G. Allen. Robert P. Buss. Donald D. Plant. Gordon H. Sterling, Jr. John L. Dains. Edward J. Burns. Malachy J. Cashen. Dean W. Cebert. William C. Creech. James Everett. Paul B. Free. Joseph E. Good. James E. Guthrie. Robert L. Hull. George G. Leslie. John A. Price. James M. Barksdale. Vincent M. Horan. Morris E. Stacey.
US MARINE CORPS
John A. Blount, Jr. Roy E. Lee, Jr. Shelby C. Shook. Earl D. Wallen. George E. Johnson. Thomas A. Britton. Francis C. Heath. Orveil V. King, Jr. Jack L. Lunsford. Edward F. Morrissey. Keith V. Smith. Richard I. Trujillo. Marley R. Arthurholtz. Waldean Black. Walter L. Collier. Alva J. Cremean. Elmer E. Drefahl. Harry H. Gaver, Jr. Ted Hall. Otis W. Henry. Robert K. Holmes. Vernon P. Keaton. John F. Middleswart. Robert H. Peak. Raymond Pennington. Charles R. Taylor. Thomas N. Barron. Morris E. Nations. Floyd D. Stewart. Patrick P. Tobin. Jesse C. Vincent, Jr. George H. Wade, Jr. William E. Lutschan, Jr. William G. Turner. Edward S. Lawrence. Carlo A. Micheletto.
Howard L. Adkins. Moses A. Allen. Thomas B. Allen. Wilbur H. Bailey. Glen Baker. James W. Ball. Harold W. Bandemer. Michael L. Bazetti. Albert Q. Beal. Thomas S. Beckwith. Henry W. Blankenship. Edward D. Bowden. Robert K. Bowers. Robert L. Brewer. Samuel J. Bush. James W. Butler. Elmer L. Carpenter. Cullen B. Clark. Francis E. Cole. Kenneth J. Cooper. Herbert S. Curtis, Jr. Lloyd H. Cutrer. Edward H. Davis. John W. Deetz. Marshall L. Dompier. Norman W. Douglas. Guy Dugger. Billie J. Dukes. Thomas R. Durning, Jr. Robert W. Ernest. Alfred J. Farley. Marvin L. Ferguson, Jr. Stanley C. Galaszewski. Robert S. Garcia. Thomas J. Gary. George H. Gilbert. Tom Gilbert. Helmer A. Hanson. Gilbert A. Henderson. John A. Hildebrand, Jr. Merle C. J. Hillman. Paul E. Holley. Richard F. Jacobs. Ira W. Jeffrey. Melvin G. Johnson. Ernest Jones. Herbert C. Jones. Harry Kaufman. Arlie G. Keener. Harry W. Kramer. John T. Lancaster. Donald C. V. Larsen. John E. Lewis. James E. London. Howard E. Manges. John W. Martin. George V. McGraw. Clyde C. McMeans. Aaron L. McMurtrey. James W. Milner. James D. Minter. Bernard J. Mirello. William A. Montgomery. Marlyn W. Nelson. Wayne E. Newton. June W. Parker. Kenneth M. Payne. George E. Pendarvis. Lewis W. Pitts, Jr. Alexsander J. Przybysz. Roy A. Pullen. Edward S. Racisz. Thomas J. Reeves. Joseph L. Richey. Edwin H. Ripley. Earl R. Roberts. Alfred A. Rosenthal. Joe B. Ross. Frank W. Royse. Morris F. Saffell. Robert R. Scott. Erwin L. Searle. Russell K. Shelly, Jr. Frank L. Simmons. Tceollyar Simmons. Lloyd G. Smith. Gordon W. Stafford. Leo Stapler. Charles E. Sweany. Edward F. Szurgot. Frank P. Treanor. Pete Turk. George V. Ulrich. George E. Vining. David Walker. Milton S. Wilson. Steven J. Wodarski. John C. Wydila. Mathew J. Agola. Clarence A. Wise. Joseph I. Caro. Lee H. Duke. Clifton E. Edmonds. John W. Frazier. Nickolas S. Ganas. George H. Guy. Kenneth J. Hartley. Edward S. Haven, Jr. Anthony Hawkins, Jr. Thomas Hembree. Andrew Kin. Robert S. Lowe. James E. Massey. Maurice Mastrototaro. Jesse K. Milbourne. Dean B. Orwick. William J. Powell. Wilson A. Rice. Howard A. Rosenau. Benjamin Schlect. Joseph Sperling. J.W. Baker. Howard F. Carter. Roy A. Gross. Andrew M. Marze. James E. Bailey. Benjamin L. Brown. Marvin J. Clapp. Thomas W. Collins. Edward C. Daly. Albert J. Hitrik. George E. Jones. John A. Marshall. Nolan E. Pummill. William H. Silva. Perry W. Strickland. James Vinson. Mitchell Cohn. Fred J. Ducolon. Manuel Gonzalez. Leonard J. Kozelek. William C. Miller. Sidney Pierce. John H. L. Vogt, Jr. Walter M. Willis. Eric Allen, Jr. Frederick F. Hebel. Herbert H. Menges. Salvatore J. Albanese. Thomas E. Aldridge. Robert A. Arnesen. Loren L. Beardsley. Regis J. Bodecker. William J. Carter. Luther E. Cisco. Allen A. Davis. Ernest B. Dickens. Richard H. Dobbins. Robert N. Edling. Leland E. Erbes. Robert J. Flannery. Eugene D. Fuzi. Arthur J. Gardner. Robert D. Greenwald. Arvel C. Hines. Donald W. Johnson. Ernest G. Kuzee. Carl R. Love. Marvin W. Mayo. Orville R. Minix. Edo Morincelli. Hugh K. Naff. John C. Pensyl. Joe O. Powers. Ralph W. Thompson. Edward B. Uhlig. John J. Urban. Benjamin F. Vassar. Hoge C. Venable, Jr. Oswald C. Wohl. Michael C. Yugovich. Claire R. Brier. Howard D. Crow. James B. Ginn. Warren H. McCutcheon. Arnold L. Anderson. Zoilo Aquino. James R. Bingham. Herman Bledsoe. Lyle L. Briggs. Harold J. Christopher. Joseph W. Cook. Leon J. Corbin. Leo P. Cotner. Frederick C. Davis. Lonnie W. Dukes. Edward W. Echols. Harry L. Edwards. George L. Faddis. Kay I. Fugate. Samuel M. Gantner. Thomas R. Giles. Herman A. Goetsch. Arthur K. Gullachson. Johnie W. Hallmark. Charles W. Harker. Gerald L. Heim. Edwin J. Hill. Edgar E. Hubner. Robert C. Irish. Flavous B. M. Johnson. Kenneth T. Lamons. Wilbur T. Lipe. John K. Luntta. Andres F. Mafnas. Dale L. Martin. Frazier Mayfield. Lester F. McGhee. Edward L. McGuckin. William F. Neuendorf, Jr. Alwyn B. Norvelle. Elmer M. Patterson. Eugene E. Peck. Mark C. Robison. Emil O. Ronning. Harvey G. Rushford. Herbert C. Schwarting. Donald R. Shaum. Adolfo Solar. Herman A. Spear. Delbert J. Spencer. George J. Stembrosky. Charles E. Strickland. Lee V. Thunhorst. Ivan I. Walton. Marvin B. Adkins. Willard H. Aldridge. Hugh R. Alexander. Stanley W. Allen. Hal J. Allison. Leon Arickx. Kenneth B. Armstrong. Daryle E. Artley. John C. Auld. John A. Austin. Walter H. Backman. Gerald J. Bailey. Robert E. Bailey. Wilbur F. Ballance. Layton T. Banks. Leroy K. Barber. Malcolm J. Barber. Randolph H. Barber. Cecil E. Barncord. Wilber C. Barrett. Harold E. Bates. Ralph C. Battles. Earl P. Baum. Howard W. Bean. Walter S. Belt, Jr. Robert J. Bennett. Harding C. Blackburn. William E. Blanchard. Clarence A. Blaylock. Leo Blitz. Rudolph Blitz. John G. Bock, Jr. Paul L. Boemer. James B. Booe. James B. Boring. Ralph M. Boudreaux. Lawrence A. Boxrucker. Raymond D. Boynton. Carl M. Bradley. Oris V. Brandt. Jack A. Breedlove. Randall W. Brewer. William Brooks. Wesley J. Brown. William G. Bruesewitz. James R. Buchanan. Earl G. Burch. Oliver K. Burger. Millard Burk, Jr. Rodger C. Butts. Archie Callahan, Jr. Raymond R. Camery. William V. Campbell. Murry R. Cargile. Harold F. Carney. Joseph W. Carroll. Edward E. Casinger. Biacio Casola. Charles R. Casto. Richard E. Casto. James T. Cheshire. Patrick L. Chess. David Clark, Jr. Gerald L. Clayton. Hubert P. Clement. Floyd F. Clifford. George A. Coke. James E. Collins. John G. Connolly. Keefe R. Connolly. Edward L. Conway. Grant C. Cook, Jr. Robert L. Corn. Beoin H. Corzatt. John W. Craig. Warren H. Crim. Samuel W. Crowder. William M. Curry. Glenn G. Cyriack. Marshall E. Darby, Jr. James W. Davenport, Jr. Francis D. Day. Leslie P. Delles. Ralph A. Derrington. Francis E. Dick. Leaman R. Dill. Kenneth E. Doernenburg. John M. Donald. Carl D. Dorr. Bernard V. Doyle. Stanislaw F. Drwall. Cyril I. Dusset. Buford H. Dyer. Wallace E. Eakes. Eugene K. Eberhardt. David B. Edmonston. Earl M. Ellis. Bruce H. Ellison. Julius Ellsberry. John C. England. Ignacio C. Farfan. Luther J. Farmer. Lawrence H. Fecho. Charlton H. Ferguson. Robert A. Fields. William M. Finnegan. Francis C. Flaherty. James M. Flanagan. Felicismo Florese. Walter C. Foley. George P. Foote. George C. Ford. Joy C. French. Tedd M. Furr. Michael Galajdik. Martin A. Gara. Jesus F. Garcia. Eugene Garris. Paul H. Gebser. Leonard R. Geller. George T. George. George H. Gibson. George E. Giesa. Quentin J. Gifford. George Gilbert. Warren C. Gillette. Benjamin E. Gilliard. Arthur Glenn. Mach. Daryl H. Goggin. Jack R. Goldwater. Charles C. Gomez, Jr. George M. Gooch. Clifford G. Goodwin. Robert Goodwin. Duff Gordon. Claude O. Gowey. Wesley E. Graham. Arthur M. Grand Pre. Thomas E. Griffith. Edgar D. Gross. Vernon N. Grow. Daniel L. Guisinger, Jr. William I. Gurganus. William F. Gusie. Hubert P. Hall. Robert E. Halterman. Harold W. Ham. Dale R. Hamlin. Eugene P. Hann. Francis L. Hannon. George Hanson. Robert J. Harr. Charles H. Harris. Daniel F. Harris. Louis E. Harris, Jr. Albert E. Hayden. Harold L. Head. Robert W. Headington. William F. Hellstern. Floyd D. Helton. Jimmie L. Henrichsen. William E. Henson, Jr. Harvey C. Herber. George Herbert. Austin H. Hesler. Denis H. Hiskett. Joseph P. Hittorff, Jr. Frank S. Hoag, Jr. Herbert J. Hoard. Joseph W. Hoffman. Kenneth L. Holm. Harry R. Holmes. James W. Holzhauer. Edwin C. Hopkins. Chester G. Hord. Frank A. Hryniewicz. Charles E. Hudson. Lorentz E. Hultgren. Robert M. Hunter. Claydon I. C. Iverson. Willie Jackson. Herbert B. Jacobson. Challis R. James. George W. Jarding. Kenneth L. Jayne. Theodore Q. Jensen. Jesse B. Jenson. Charles H. Johannes. Billy J. Johnson. Edward D. Johnson. Joseph M. Johnson. Jim H. Johnston. Charles A. Jones. Fred M. Jones. Jerry Jones. Julian B. Jordan. Wesley V. Jordan. Thomas V. Jurashen. Albert U. Kane. John A. Karli. Howard V. Keffer. Ralph H. Keil. Donald G. Keller. Joe M. Kelley. Warren J. Kempf. Leo T. Keninger. William H. Kennedy. Elmer T. Kerestes. David L. Kesler. William A. Klasing. Verne F. Knipp. Hans C. Kvalnes. William L. Kvidera. D. T. Kyser. Elliott D. Larsen. Johnnie C. Laurie. Elmer P. Lawrence. Willard I. Lawson. Gerald G. Lehman. Myron K. Lehman. Lionel W. Lescault. Harold W. Lindsey. John H. Lindsley. Alfred E. Livingston. Clarence M. Lockwood. Adolph J. Loebach. Vernon T. Luke. Octavius Mabine. Howard S. Mrs. Michael Malek. Algeo V. Malfante. Walter B. Manning. Henri C. Mason. Joseph K. Maule. Edwin B. McCabe. Donald R. McCloud. James O. McDonald. Bert E. McKeeman. Hale McKissack. Lloyd E. McLaughlin. Earl R. Melton. Herbert F. Melton. Archie T. Miles. Wallace G. Mitchell. Charles A. Montgomery. John M. Mulick. Ray H. Myers. George E. Naegle. Elmer D. Nail. Paul A. Nash. Don O. Neher. Arthur C. Neuenschwander. Sam D. Nevill. Wilbur F. Newton. Carl Nichols. Harry E. Nichols. Frank E. Nicoles. Arnold M. Nielsen. Laverne A. Nigg. Joe R. Nightingale. Charles E. Nix. Camillus M. O’Grady. Charles R. Ogle. Eli Olsen. Jarvis G. Outland. Lawrence J. Overley. Alphard S. Owsley. Millard C. Pace. James Palides, Jr. Calvin H. Palmer. Wilferd D. Palmer. George L. Paradis. Isaac Parker. Dale F. Pearce. Walter R. Pentico. Stephen Pepe. SCharles F. Perdue. Wiley J. Perway. Milo E. Phillips. James N. Phipps. Gerald H. Pirtle. Rudolph V. Piskuran. Herbert J. Poindexter, Jr. Brady O. Prewitt. Robert L. Pribble. George F. Price. Lewis B. Pride, Jr. Jasper L. Pue, Jr. Paul S. Raimond. Eldon C. Ray. Dan E. Reagan. Leo B. Regan. Irvin F. Rice. Porter L. Rich. Clyde Ridenour, Jr. David J. Riley. Russell C. Roach. Joseph M. Robertson. Harold W. Roesch. Walter B. Rogers. Joseph C. Rouse. Charles L. Ruse. Edmund T. Ryan. Roman W. Sadlowski. Kenneth H. Sampson. Dean S. Sanders. Charles L. Saunders. Lyal J. Sav. John E. Savidge. Paul E. Saylor. Walter F. Schleiter. Herman Schmidt. Aloysius H. Schmitt. Andrew J. Schmitz. John H. Schoonover. Bernard O. Scott. Chester E. Seaton. Verdi D. Sederstrom. William L. Sellon. Everett I. Severinson. William K. Shafer. William J. Shanahan, Jr. Edward J. Shelden. William G. Silva. Eugene M. Skaggs. Garold L. Skiles. Edward F. Slapikas. Leonard F. Smith. Merle A. Smith. Rowland H. Smith. Walter H. Sollie. James C. Solomon. Maurice V. Spangler. Kirby R. Stapleton. Ulis C. Steely. Walter C. Stein. Samuel C. Steiner. Charles M. Stern, Jr. Everett R. Stewart. Lewis S. Stockdate. Donald A. Stott. Robert T. Stout. James Stouten. Milton R. Surratt. Charles H. Swanson. Edward E. Talbert. Rangner F. Tanner, Jr. Monroe Temple. Houston Temples. Benjamin C. Terhune. Arthur R. Thinnes. Charles W. Thompson. Clarence Thompson. George A. Thompson. Irvin A. R. Thompson. William M. Thompson. Richard J. Thomson. Cecil H. Thornton. Robert L. Thrombley. David F. Tidball. Lloyd R. Timm. Lewis F. Tindall. Dante S. Tini. Henry G. Tipton. Everett C. Titterington. Neal K. Todd. Natale I. Torti. Orval A. Tranbarger. Harold F. Trapp. William H. Trapp. Shelby Treadway. William D. Tucker. Victor P. Tumlinson. Billy Turner. Louis J. Tushla. Russell O. Ufford. Lowell E. Valley. ADurrell Wade. Lewis L. Wagoner. Harry E. Walker. Robert N. Walkowiak. Eugene A. Walpole. Charles E. Walters. James R. Ward. Edward Wasielewski. Richard L. Watson. James C. Webb. William E. Welch. Alfred F. Wells. Ernest R. West. John D. Wheeler. Claude White. Jack D. White. Alton W. Whitson. Eugene W. Wicker. Lloyd P. Wiegand. George J. Wilcox, Jr. Albert L. Williams. James C. Williams. Wilbur S. Williams. Bernard R. Wimmer. Everett G. Windle. Starring B. Winfield. Rex E. Wise. Frank Wood. Lawrence E. Woods. Winfred O. Woods. Creighton H. Workman. John L. Wortham. Paul R. Wright. Eldon P. Wyman. Martin D. Young. Robert V. Young. Joseph J. Yurko. Thomas Zvansky. Robert E. Arnott. Henry E. Baker, Jr. Charles Braga, Jr. Evan B. Brekken. Frederick A. Browne. Harold K. Comstock. James E. Craig. Clarence F. Haase. Dancil J. McIntosh. Joseph A. Muhofski. James P. Owens. Joseph W. Pace. Damian M. Portillo. Richard R. Rall. William H. Rice. Martin R. Slifer. Payton L. Vanderpool, Jr. Claude B. Watson, Jr. George R. Keith. Frank J. Annunziato. Anthony Bilyi. Albert J. Bolen. Guy W. Carroll. Leon Egbert. Fred Fugate. Joseph L. B. Gaudrault. Paul G. Gosnell. Rodney W. Jones. John S. McAllen. Robert C. McQuade. Clyde C. Moore. Chester L. Parks. George A. Penuel, Jr. Robert A. Petz. Ernest C. Porter, Jr. Daniel P. Platschorre. Edward J. Quirk. John T. Rainbolt. Benjamin N. Russell. Johnnie H. Spaeth. Frank W. Stief, Jr. Palmer L. Taylor. James R. Westbrook. Clyde Williams. Warren P. Hickok. Jesse L. Adams. Alfred W. Hudgell. J.B. Delane Miller. Eugene O. Roe. Gerald O. Smith. John A. Bird. John W. Pence. Laddie J. Zacek. William D. Arbuckle. Joseph Barta. Rudolph P. Bielka. Virgil C. Bigham. John E. Black. John T. Blackburn. Pallas F. Brown. William F. Brunner. Feliciano T. Bugarin. George V. Chestnutt, Jr. Lloyd D. Clippard. Joseph U. Conner. John R. Crain. David L. Crossett. Billy R. Davis. Leroy Dennis. Douglas R. Dieckhoff. William H. Dosser. Vernon J. Eidsvig. Melvyn A. Gandre. Kenneth M. Gift. Charles N. Gregoire. Herold A. Harveson. Clifford D. Hill. Emery L. Houde. David W. Jackson. Leroy H. Jones. William A. Juedes. John L. Kaelin. Eric T. Kampmeyer. Joseph N. Karabon. William H. Kent. George W. LaRue. John G. Little III. Kenneth L. Lynch. William E. Marshall, Jr. Rudolph M. Martinez. Charles O. Michael. Marvin E. Miller. Donald C. Norman. Orris N. Norman. Edwin N. Odgaard. Elmer A. Parker. Forrest H. Perry. James W. Phillips. Walter H. Ponder. Frank E. Reed. Ralph E. Scott. Henson T. Shouse. George R. Smith. Robert D. Smith. Joseph B. Sousley. Gerald V. Strinz. Peter Tomich. Elmer H. Ulrich. Michael W. Villa. Vernard O. Wetrich. Glen A. White. Harold R. Arneberg. William Duane. Lowell B. Jackson. Charles W. Jones. Raymond J. Kerrigan. Guy E. Long. William H. Reid. Welborn L. Ashby. Benjamin E. Bargerhuff, Jr. William L. Barnett. Frank J. Bartek, Jr. Mervyn S. Bennion. Charlie V. Booton. Fred H. Boyer. George O. Branham. Ennis E. Brooks. Charles D. Brown. Riley M. Brown. John E. Burgess, Jr. William C. Campbell. William G. Christian. Harold K. Costill. Louis A. Costin. Charles E. Cottier. Howard D. Cromwell. Eugene V. Downing. Donald L. Drum. George S. Dunn, Jr. Edward N. Durkee. Clement E. Durr. Tommy Dye. Roland W. Edwards. Ronald B. Endicott. Richard B. England. Woodrow W. Evans. Jose S. N. Flores. Jack Foth. Gilbert R. Fox. Neil D. Frye. Angelo M. Gabriele. Claude R. Garcia. Bibian B. Gonzales. Myron E. Goodwin. Arthur Gould. Harry J. Halvorsen. Hugh B. Harriss. Hadley I. Heavin. Fred A. Hilt. Howard D. Hodges. Joseph E. Hood. William D. Horton. Ira D. Hudson. William C. Jackson. Carl S. Johnson. Sanford V. Kelley, Jr. Chester F. Kleist. Milton J. Knight, Jr. William P. Kubinec. Henry E. LaCrosse, Jr. Thomas F. Leary. Joseph S. L. Lemire. Eugene V. Lish. Royle B. Luker. Donald W. Lynch. Arnold E. Lyon. Charles W. Mann. Jesus M. Mata. Donald J. Mathison. Luther K. McBee. Thomas A. McClelland. Lawrence J. McCollom. Clarence W. McComas. Quentin G. McKee. John A. Meglis. John R. Melton. Enrique C. Mendiola. Joe E. Mister. Wallace A. Montgomery. William F. Morris. Albin J. Mrace. Clair C. Myers. Earl T. Nermoe. Paul E. Newton. Emile S. Noce. Maurice M. O’Connor. Clifford N. Olds. Arnold J. Owsley. Walter J. Paciga. James A. Paolucci. Andrew A. Pinko. Jack A. Pitcher. Roy W. Powers. George B. Reid. Albert Renner. Leonard C. Richter. Ernest C. Rose. Glenn D. Sahl. Theodore H. Saulsbury. Richard M. Schuon, Jr. George W. Scott. Gordon E. Smith. Ernest E. Speicher. Otis D. Sterling. George E. Taber. Ernie E. Tibbs. Keith W. Tipsword. Albert P. VanderGoore. Joseph Vogelgesang, Jr. Thomas G. Wagner. Bethel E. Walters. Harold Wilbur. Clyde R. Wilson. Lester F. Zobeck. Theodore W. Croft. Stanley D. Dosick. John D. Buckley. Clarence M. Formoe. Rodney S. Foss. Milburn A. Manning. James H. Robinson. Joseph G. Smartt. Luther D. Weaver. Walter S. Brown. Lee Fox, Jr. Daniel T. Griffin. George W. Ingram. Charles Lawrence. Carl W. Otterstetter. Robert K. Porterfield. Robert W. Uhlmann. Raphael A. Watson. Laxton G. Newman. Arthur W. Russett. John H. Thuman.
Hundreds of thousands of people have taken to the streets in the Romanian capital to protest against an emergency government decree decriminalising a string of corruption offences.
Protesters on Wednesday evening in Bucharest shouted “Rats” and carried banners that read “The morning shift”, sending a message that the protests will continue until the government resigns.
The marches against the government’s move
followed similar protests a day earlier
At least 130,000 people marched in Bucharest, while more took to the streets elsewhere in the country, including Timisoara, Cluj, Iasi and Sibiu.
OPINION: Keep the corrupt in jail, where they belong
Romania’s top judicial watchdog announced a court challenge on Wednesday against the government decree decriminalising a number of corruption offences in what critics say is the biggest retreat on reforms since the country joined the European Union a decade ago.
The decree, unveiled by the Social Democrat-led government of Prime Minister Sorin Grindeanu after it took power earlier this month, has drawn sharp criticism and triggered the biggest street protests since the fall of communism in Romania in 1989.
If enforced, the decree would, among other things, decriminalise abuse-of-power offences in which the sums involved were less than 200,000 lei ($48,000).
That would put an end to an ongoing trial of Social Democrat party leader Liviu Dragnea, who is accused of using his political influence to secure state salaries for two people working at his party headquarters between 2006 and 2013. Dozens of MPs and mayors across all parties stand to benefit from the decree.
“I don’t understand what protesters are upset about,” Dragnea told reporters on Tuesday.
Two opposition parties, the opposition Liberals (PNL) and the Save Romania Union (USR), announced they would file a no-confidence motion on Wednesday against the government, which enjoys a comfortable majority in parliament.
As parliament opened for its first regular session of the year, USR lawmakers paraded banners that read “Shame” while other opposition deputies shouted “Resignation” and “Thieves”.
President Klaus Iohannis took part in an emergency meeting of Romania’s top magistrates’ body, the Superior Magistrates’ Council (CSM), telling reporters afterwards: “The problem is that one cannot act the way the government did in a country with the rule of law, which Romania is and wants to remain.”
CSM president Mariana Ghena said she would file a challenge with the constitutional court by the end of the day.
The European Commission, which has Romania’s justice system under special monitoring, warned against backtracking.
“The fight against corruption needs to be advanced, not undone,” Commission head Jean-Claude Juncker, and his deputy, Frans Timmermans, said in a joint statement. “We are following the latest developments in Romania with great concern.”
The embassies of Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United States expressed deep concerns in a joint statement “over the government’s actions … which have undermined Romania’s progress over the last ten years with the rule of law and the fight against corruption.”
“This decree … can only undermine Romania’s reputation in the international community and risks affecting partnerships based on common values, inherent to the guiding principles of the EU and NATO,” the statement said.
Romania’s Social Democrats won back power in a December 2016 election a year after protesters drove them from office in an outpouring of anger over a deadly fire at a nightclub that lacked emergency exits and safety permits.
Many saw the fire as emblematic of widespread corruption and impunity, but after 12 months of technocrat government, the Social Democrats returned on a promise to hike wages and pensions and cut taxes.
Anti-corruption prosecutors are currently investigating over 2,000 abuse of power cases. They indicted over 1,000 over the last 3 years with damages worth up to 1 billion euros.
The decree would apply to ongoing investigations and trials as well as new cases and it specifies it will come into effect within ten days. Criminal negligence is also no longer an offense and the definition of conflict of interest has narrowed.
The government on Tuesday also approved a draft bill granting prison pardons that requires parliamentary approval.
“These provisions aim to exonerate all top and medium ranking officials - parliament clerks, government members, all those able to approve laws, decrees, local decisions,” chief anti-corruption prosecutor Laura Codruta Kovesi told television station DIGI24.
“Since last night, every day has become a major risk for the judicial system.”