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The One Number That Shows Why Climate Change Is Making Hurricane Season Worse
Hurricanes Irma and Harvey have reignited discussions about the link between global warming and extreme weather, with climate scientists now saying they can show the…
By Justin Worland

Understanding the link really comes down to one figure: the air can hold 7% more water with every degree Celsius that the temperature rises. That figure comes from the Clausius–Clapeyron equation, a widely accepted physical law established centuries ago long before any politicized debate on climate change.

“A warmer ocean makes a warmer atmosphere, a warmer atmosphere can hold more moisture,” says Gabriel Vecchi, a professor of geosciences at Princeton University who studies extreme weather events. “So, all other things equal, the same storm in a warmer planet would give you more rainfall.”

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An African-American Jockey Hasn't Won the Kentucky Derby for More Than a Century. Here's Why
When it became possible to make a good living riding, things changed
By Olivia B. Waxman

As jockeys who weren’t black saw African-American jockeys making a good living off of horse-racing, Murphy was an example of someone who became “a victim of his own success,” says Pellom McDaniels III, author of The Prince of Jockeys: The Life of Isaac Burns Murphy and an Assistant Professor of African American Studies at Emory University. In the 1890 season, Murphy was accused of being an alcoholic and drunk on the back of a horse. McDaniels says that, in his research, he discovered that Murphy was actually drugged.

Many black jockeys were sabotaged, to the point where, by the early 20th century, they were becoming more of a rarity in the sport. Jimmy Winkfield was the last African-American jockey to win the Kentucky Derby, in 1902, and he ended up going to Europe and making a name for himself in Russia, France and Germany.

(cont.)

Former slaves and immediate descendants knew the horses and took care of them, naturally becoming jockeys.

Black jockeys were making way too much money and white people wanted in.

Black jockeys were drugged and sabotaged, and now there are no more Black jockeys.

The older I get, the more amazed I am that these little nuggets of America Ain’t Shit keep crossing my path. Things I never even imagined just weaving themselves into the tapestry of white men doing whatever they could to keep every other group underfoot.

anonymous asked:

Is there any scientific evidence which suggests that gender identity is nonbinary? Gender expression is certainly nonbinary, as men can wear dresses or women can wear trousers, but I've yet to see any convincing, scientifically valid evidence that supports a nonbinary gender identity.

I am including resources on the sex binary as well as the gender binary, as the sex binary tends to be what people are, knowingly or unknowingly, referring to when they say the “scientific” binary of gender, as well as because the two subjects are closely interrelated (though ultimately unique in key ways). 

As one would expect of literature aimed at a perisex, cisgender and vaguely medical audience, some of the language in these articles leaves much to be desires from a personal standpoint, but the information is valuable.

Finally, I’ll leave you with this.

Science is nothing more, and nothing less, that the study of phenomena that exist.

Think of it like this: we know that the stars exist.

Knowing that the stars exist lead to centuries of collective effort studying them. How do they exist, why, what makes the stars behave the way they do?

But the fact that the stars exist is not in doubt, merely the underlying systems of that.

The fact that nonbinary people exist is also not in doubt. There are millions of people in the anglophone world alone who will happily- or viciously, or defiantly, or proudly- admit to their own existence as a nonbinary person. Nonbinary genders have been codified into law in so many cultures, both modern and ancient. They are as old as the concept of gender itself, and as unrepentant. 

The only thing science can do is look at the existence of nonbinary gender identities, and try to determine the causes, the functionalities of those identities. That is the purpose of science, as a field and as a system: to see the world as it exists, and determine why

Asking science if nonbinary people exist is a foolish endeavour, because they plainly occupy the same physical reality as the scientists and the equipment and so on. 

Philosophy might be able to answer the question of whether or not nonbinary people exist, but only in the same way it can answer the question of whether or not anything exists.

Science, however, is for studying things that already exist. Science can only be determine why and how and if nonbinary people can be explained or quantified. 

But for science to even begin that kind of study, there is one crucial step: those people have to exist.

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Survey shows LGBTQ Americans feel less safe under President Trump
A new poll shows a change in attitudes since Obama was in office
By Katy Steinmetz

We now have data showing what (most) LGBTQ people believe to be true: Under the Trump administration, the majority of us feel less safe than we did when Barack Obama was president. 

A survey of more than 800 LGBTQ Americans showed that almost 2/3 of them feel less safe now. 66% said there is “a lot” of discrimination against LGBTQ people. More numbers from the TIME roundup:

The poll of self-identified members of the LGBT community also found growing cynicism about the nation. In a previous poll fielded two months after the 2015 Supreme Court decision on same-sex marriage , SurveyMonkey found that 93% of LGBT respondents thought society’s level of acceptance would improve in the coming decade. That number has fallen to 83% in June of this year, according to the new poll, and the intensity has flagged. The number of respondents who said society would be “a lot” more accepting in the next 10 years dropped from 54% to 34%. […]

The poll respondents also said they have faced different treatment since the election. When asked if they had been treated differently because of their sexuality or gender identity since Trump took office, 37% said yes.

I know what everyone’s gonna say: Water is wet. We don’t need a survey to know this. Etc etc. But this is something I haven’t said previously and that many of you (thankfully) called me on: We do need surveys like this, because data sticks and serves as important support for our cause. Anecdotes don’t always add up to a trend. Numbers do. The more research we can point to in illustrating why this administration is so dangerous and toxic to our wellbeing – especially if we can get it recorded somewhere important – the better. 

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Behind the TIME Cover Story: Beyond 'He' or 'She'
How a new generation is changing the meaning of gender and sexuality
By Katy Steinmetz

In a new survey from LGBTQ advocacy organization GLAAD, conducted by Harris Poll, those open minds are reflected in the numbers: 20% of millennials say they are something other that strictly straight and cisgender, compared to 7% of boomers.

Hello, tumblr!

Today, I’m going to talk about AP Calculus! It has a reputation as one of the hardest AP courses, not without desert; it is heavy with concepts and requires a high degree of proficiency in all the math that comes before it. It is also enormously useful for a variety of fields, from architecture to medicine, and can be a lot of fun to do! Some tips:

Prepare

  • Most AP Calc courses come after a substantial list of prerequisites: Algebra 1 and 2, Geometry, Trigonometry, and whatever your school calls the mish-mash of topics falling under pre-calculus. It is imperative to be comfortable with these when you start; calculus uses all of them.
  • Specifically:
    • Know. The. Trigonometric. Circle. Know it like the back of your hand (if you are someone who studies each detail of your hand carefully like the weirdo who came up with this saying)
    • Make sure you know the trigonometric identities too, back and forth.
    • You will need the formulas from Geometry. These aren’t as hairy as the trigonometric ones imo, but still good to know so you don’t have to relearn them later.
    • Make sure you are comfortable with algebraically changing expressions from one form to another. Factoring and reducing expressions will be super important.
  • If you have a hard time with any of these, it’s ok; you can review them! If you find that you have forgotten anything you need during your course, see if you can find some excercises in it online or in a book, and do a few so that you are comfortable with it.

Practice

  • AP Calc involves some proofs, but most of the course is about learning how to do specific types of operations. The best way to prepare is to just do the problems you are assigned for homework, then do more as time passes or if you have a hard time with a particular one.
  • Memorize formulas as they are introduced. Review them often. Do problems with them.
  • If you do not understand a concept:
    • Try to break down why. Do you understand part of it? Write down what you know. See what it is that is stopping you.
    • Try drawing a picture. Label it. See if you can relate your problem to the visual geometry.
    • Try working a problem. See where you stop understanding it. Ask yourself why you are doing each step. See if you can explain to yourself.
    • Look at a worked problem. Explain each step to yourself. See where you stop understanding.
    • If there a proof involved? Work through the proof, making sure you understand each step. This can give you a solid foundation.
    • Go to your teacher or a friend with specific questions.
  • The FRQs and MCQs from previous tests are a goldmine. Do every one you can get your hands on. For FRQs, compare your answers to the model answers given on the College Board website. Mark everything you do wrong. Try to remember it and do it right next time you do a similar problem.
  • FRQs are great because they tend to incorporate multiple concepts, giving you practice, and they also follow similar patterns. Getting used to those patterns is really helpful.

The Test

  • Do some full practice tests. Time yourself. Note the concepts you get wrong and review them. Ask someone about things that give you trouble.
  • Make sure you know all your formulas well.
  • Make sure you can do everything you will need to with your calculator.
  • Part of the test is no-calculator. Make sure you can do the sort of problems which appear there without your calculator.
  • When you take the test:
    • Sleep.
    • 0/10 do not recommend late night cramming the night or two before the test.
    • Change your calculator’s batteries. Just so you’re certain it won’t die on you.
    • Have something to drink on you.
    • On the MCQs, skip problems you can’t do quickly and come back to them. I recommend:
      • Doing all the easy problems first. The ones that you get instantly. Just read the rest.
      • Come back and do the ones you need some time for. Ignore any if you have no idea how start or take a lot of time.
      • Come back for these on the third pass.
      • They’re all worth the same amount, so don’t worry about specific ones; just get as many as you can right.
    • Show. You. Work. On the FRQs. Write down everything you can.
    • If you don’t know how to do the first part of a problem, but the second part relies on it, just pick a number you think is reasonable for the answer to the first part, and use it. You can still get credit for the second part if you use that number correctly.
    • Don’t stress out too much. Even if you feel terribly, it is quite possible that you did will.
    • For illustration, I took BC, and I literally cried after the test, because I thought I did terribly. I got a five. The percentage you need to get right to do well is low, and how you feel does not predict how you do.
  • Take a bit of time for yourself afterwards. It’s going to be May. The weather will be beautiful. Breathe it in. :)

my posts on:

ap in general

ap english literature

ap us history

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Mert and Marcus Talk 20 Years in Fashion, Taylor Swift album | Time.com

You two just shot the Taylor Swift album cover for reputation; what was it like working with her? Was it a collaboration?

Mert: Amazing! Super collaborative; she’s got the most incredible photographic eye. The first time that we worked with her years ago, we connected then and there. I like when someone has an opinion and a point of view and Taylor had an incredible point of view. We had a lot of different ideas to do before the shoot and then the day of, we were changing everything, like maybe we should do this, maybe we should do that. It was totally fruit of collaboration. She’s a very cool chick.

Did you listen to the new album?

Mert: Yeah!

Did you listen to the whole album?

Mert: Not the full album, but what we heard, it’s good.