Common in Hindu and Buddhist Tantric traditions, especially those practiced in Tibet, a Kapala is a ceremonial vessel made from a human skull. Sometimes, the skull could be heavily decorated with silver, bronze, turquoise, and various stones or gems, sometimes it could be a plain skull that has elaborate carvings. Usually the skulls were collected from sky burials, a practice in which a corpse is left on the side of a mountain so that birds can feed upon. This is based on the idea that nothing should go to waste. The purpose of the Kapala was as a container to hold offerings to various Hindu and Tibetan deities.
Mani stones are prayer stones that are intentionally placed along roads or rivers. They are an offering of prayer to the protective spirits of the area. The creation and carving of these stones is a devotional art practice, and is similar in sentiment to Prayer Flags. In sparsely populated Tibet, Mani Stone mounds can take the place of prayer halls and shrines for some locals, who live in remote areas. Mani stones are also used in nearby Nepal.
The yidam with eight heads, sixteen arms and four legs standing in ardhaparyankasana (ecstatic union) with the consort Nairatmya, trampling underfoot four supine figures atop a lotus throne, wearing the five-pointed crown, the six bone ornaments, and garlands of skulls and severed heads, holding kapala aloft in the many hands, surrounded by a retinue of eight goddesses with Virupa, Kurukulla and lamas in the upper register, with Shri Devi, Kubera and other deities in the lower register.