Vaisravana, is the reagent of the North, a Lokapala and the Lord of the Yakshas. He is one of the Four Heavenly Kings, each associated with a cardinal direction.

In Buddhist legends, Kubera is equated with Pancika, whose wife Hariti is the symbol of abundance.

Kubera is seen with a mongoose, ejecting jewels from its mouth. The mongoose is the enemy of the snake, a symbol of greed of hatred; the ejection of jewels represents generosity.



Chased gold presentation box - Peter Russell (box) and George Michael Moser (chased decoration), 1741.

The scene on the top of the box (second photo) depicts Gaius Mucius Scaevola standing before the Etruscan king Lars Porsena after his failed attempt to assassinate him, thrusting his hand into the fire to show Porsena the resolve of the Romans to resist the Etruscan siege. On the bottom of the box (third photo) Romulus and Remus suckle their wolf foster-mother beside a god representing the Tiber.


The Death of Saint Valentine at Milvian Bridge

The most popular martyrology associated with Saint Valentine was that he was imprisoned for performing weddings for soldiers who were forbidden to marry and for ministering to Christians, who were persecuted under the Roman Empire. During his imprisonment, he is said to have healed the daughter of his jailer Asterius. Legend states that before his execution he wrote “from your Valentine” as a farewell to her.

He reportedly died on February 14th (year uncertain) on the Via Flaminia near the Milvian Bridge (aka Ponte Milvio) which spans the Tiber River in northern Rome. According to the official biography of the Diocese of Terni, the year of his death is 273 AD.

The feast of St. Valentine of February 14th was first established in 496 AD by Pope Gelasius I, who included Valentine among all those “whose names are justly reverenced among men, but whose acts are known only to God”. As Gelasius implies, nothing was yet known to him about Valentine’s life.

On another note, there was an important battle fought at the bridge in 312 by the Emperor Constantine I (Constantine the Great) and Maxentius. You can read about it here.