As the Blackout ends, I want to say:

As the @Miraculousblackout comes to an end, I, a consumer of Fan-Art and Fan-Fic, want to say this to all the creators of Fan-Art and Fan-Fic out there.

You are why I came to Tumblr.  I love what you do, I appreciate what you do, I respect all the hard work that you do.

In other Social Media platforms, I can go a whole day seeing nothing but “Politics” and “Hate is Rising” and “Everything Looks Bleak” and on and on.

I do see these things on Tumblr as well, and yes–they are important.  We do need to talk about them.  

But they are not the only important thing.  

I come here to Tumblr every day, and I see your art, and your joy in creation, your inspiration, your humor, your angst, your OMG-cliffhangers, and I am reminded why those other things are important.  

Art is important.  Artists are important.   Art is vaster and more enduring than those other things, for while we may love our countries, artists created the flags, artists composed the anthems, artists memorialized the events of history in ways that mere dry texts can never fulfill.  Artists tell us about love, they show us the absurdity of life, they keep alive those who are gone.   Art is how we tell the story of being Human, and without it we are not human at all.  Humanity cannot be measured, but if it were, then Artists would be measured as the most Human of us all, for they do what no machine can yet replace, nor science reduce to numbers. 

I come to Tumblr because when Facebook has me ready to weep in rage and despair, I can see your artwork and remember that it is not all in vain.  There is still joy in the world.   As others are determined to tear down, you are still creating.

To those artists who are retiring from the field of fan-art: I am sorry.  I respect your decision, and I wish it had never been necessary.  You gifted us with the products of your practice and your toil, the software and art supplies you paid for out of your own pockets and the art lessons or the years spent teaching yourself, and you were treated like what you did was not important.  As if it was something dropped on the ground that anyone could pick up and claim as their own. That is not just an insult to the Artists, it is an insult to Art itself.  

Rest now.  You gave more than anyone can demand of you, and more was taken from you than you should ever have had to fear losing.  Rest.  

To those artists who are wading back into the fray, I stand with you.  I will continue to support you, and I will continue to document art-theft accounts when I find them. 

Thank you for all you have done for this community.  

“The arts are essen­tial to any com­plete national life. The State owes it to itself to sus­tain and encour­age them….Ill fares the race which fails to salute the arts with the rev­er­ence and delight which are their due.”  – Winston Churchill

Learn Esperanto with ~200 Words

This guide has been updated to include an updated word list and more grammar explanations/example sentences.

This post by Fun with Languages describes a method for quickly learning languages by using around 200 basic words and learning to phrase your ideas using only those. I translated their word list to Esperanto and added some basic grammar notes in case anyone wanted to try this method with Esperanto!

VERBS (English: Esperanto)

Be: esti
Can: povi
Cause: igi
Do: fari
Eat: manĝi
Feel: senti
Get (Obtain): ricevi
Give: doni
Go: iri
Have: havi
Know: scii
Learn: lerni
Like: ŝati
Make: fari
Need: bezoni
Say: diri
See: vidi
Should: devi
Sleep: dormi
Speak: paroli
Start: komenci (transitive, e.g. I started the movie…), komenciĝi (intransitive, e.g. the movie started…)
There is: ekzistas
Think: pensi
Try: provi
Use: uzi
Want: voli
Work: labori
Write: skribi

Conjugation: drop the –i from the infinitive form and add…
-as for present tense
-is for past tense
-os for future tense
Two verbs with the above endings must be separated at some point in the sentence by a conjunction (see below). To “link” two verbs (e.g. “I like to eat”), leave the second/object verb in the infinitive form (”Mi ŝatas manĝi”).

Negation: to negate a verb (e.g. “I don’t speak…”) preface it with “ne” (”Mi ne parolas…”).

Direct object: the noun (and any adjectives attached to it) that is the direct object of a verb receives the –n (accusative) ending.


Hello: Saluton
Goodbye: Ĝis (temporary), adiaŭ (long time)
Nice to meet you: Estas bone ekkoni vin
Yes: Jes
No: Ne
Ok: Bone, ok (“oh-koh”)
Please: …mi petas
Thank you: Dankon
You’re welcome: Ne dankinde
Sorry: Mi bedaŭras…, mi petas pardonon, mi pardonpetas
Excuse me: Pardonu
Well…: Nu…


That: ke
And: kaj
Or: aŭ
But: sed
Though: kvankam
Because: ĉar
Therefore: tial…, pro tio…, do…
If: se
Before: antaŭe, antaŭ ol
After: poste, post ol


In front of: antaŭ
Behind: post
Of (belonging to): de
Of (quantity): da
From: de
To: al
In: en
At (place): ĉe
At (time): je (specific time, e.g. 9:00), dum (more general, e.g. morning)
With (e.g. a person): kun
With (i.e. using): per
About: pri
Like (i.e. similar to): kiel
For: por

Movement: Certain prepositions (antaŭ, post, en, ĉe, je, kun) can indicate location relative to the following noun or motion relative to the following noun. To indicate motion, the following noun receives the –n (accusative) ending. For example…
Mi iris en la domo. = While inside the house, I went (around).
Mi iris en la domon. = I went into the house.
The accusative never follows prepositions that always indicate movement (de, al) or describe neither location nor movement (da, dum, per, pri, por).


A lot: multaj
A few: malmultaj, kelkaj
Good: bona
Bad: malbona
More: pli
More… than…: pli… ol…
Better: pli bona
Most: plejparto de
Enough: sufiĉe da
Even: eĉ
The: la
This: ĉi tiu
That: tiu
All: ĉiom da, ĉiu
Some: iom da, iu
No, none: neniom da, neniu
Other: alia
Any: iom da, iu
Easy: facila
Hard: malfacila
Early: frua
Late: malfrua
Important: grava
Cool (e.g. “that’s cool”): mojosa
Different: malsimila, malsama
Beautiful: bela

Opposites: You may have noticed that you can create new adjectives with the opposite meaning by adding the prefix mal-.
Grava = important
Malgrava = unimportant

Plural/Accusative Endings: actual adjectives (single words above that end in –a or –u, not adverbs or correlatives followed by a preposition) take the same plural (-j) and accusative (-n) ending(s) as the noun they modify. Note that “la” is the definite article, and never takes the accusative or plural ending.


A lot: multe
A little: malmulte
Well: bone
Badly: malbone
More: plu
Better: pli bone
Mostly: plejparte
Enough: sufiĉe
Even: eĉ
Very: tre
Too: tro
Also: ankaŭ
Only: nur
Now: nun
Here: ĉi tie
Maybe: eble
Always: ĉiam
Sometimes: iam, fojfoje
Today: hodiaŭ
Yesterday: hieraŭ
Tomorrow: morgaŭ
Almost: preskaŭ
Still: ankoraŭ
Quickly: rapide

Opposites: similarly to adjectives, you can create new adverbs with the opposite meaning by adding the prefix mal-.

Word Order: Irregular adverbs (those that do not end in –e), always occur just before the word they modify.
Ankaŭ mi manĝis matenmanĝon. = I also ate breakfast (e.g. as well as my friend).
Mi ankaŭ manĝis matenmanĝon. = I also ate breakfast (e.g. as well as cooked it).
Mi manĝis ankaŭ matenmanĝon. = I also ate breakfast (e.g. as well as lunch).


Thing: afero, aĵo (physical object)
Person: homo
Place: loko
Everything: ĉio
Something: io
Nothing: nenio
Time (period of time): tempo
Time (occasion): fojo
Friend: amiko
Mother: patrino
Father: patro
Parent: gepatro
Daughter: filino
Son: filo
Child: infano
Wife: edzino
Husband: edzo
Girlfriend: koramikino
Boyfriend: koramiko
Breakfast: matenmanĝo
Lunch: tagmanĝo
Dinner: vespermanĝo
Money: mono
Day: tago
Year: jaro
Hour: horo
Week: semajno
House: domo
Office: oficejo
Language: lingvo
Name: nomo
Word: vorto
Company: firmo
Internet: interreto

Plural form: all singular nouns end in –o. To make them plural, add the –j ending (pronounced like “y” in English) to the end. If the noun takes the accusative ending, the –n comes after the –j e.g. “domojn”.

Subwords: To make learning vocabulary easier, many words are made up of subwords.
Patrino = patr (father) + in (female) + o (noun)
Gepatro = ge (all/any gender) + patr (father) + o (noun)
Koramiko = kor (heart) + amik (friend) + o (noun)
Matenmanĝo = maten (morning) + manĝ (meal/eat) + o (noun)
Oficejo = ofic (job/position) + ej (place) + o (noun)


Who: Kiu
Which: Kiu
What: Kio
When: Kiam
Where: Kie
Why: Kial
How: Kiel
How much: Kiom da
Does…?, Is…?: Ĉu…?

Word order: Though in most cases word order doesn’t matter, questions almost always begin with one of these words.


I: mi
You: vi
She: ŝi
He: li
It: ĝi
We: ni
They: ili

Reflexive pronoun: When referring to the subject of the sentence a second time, the word “si” is used instead of ŝi/li/ĝi/ili. It is modified in the same way as other pronouns.
Bob iris en sian domon. = Bob went into his (own) house.
Li iris en lian domon. = He went into his (someone else’s) house.

Direct Object: To make a pronoun the direct object of a verb, add the -n (accusative) ending as with a noun.

Possessive: To make a pronoun possessive (e.g. “my”), add the -a (adjective) ending (before the accusative, if necessary).

 Lao Tse dijo:


Quienes sirven a la vida se adaptan a los cambios cuando actúan. Los cambios surgen de los tiempos; quienes conocen los tiempos no se comportan de manera fija, por ello digo:


«Los caminos pueden ser guías, pero no senderos trazados; los nombres pueden ser designados, pero no etiquetas fijadas.»


Los escritos se producen mediante palabras, y las palabras proceden del conocimiento; los intelectuales no saben que ellos no constituyen un camino fijado.


Los términos que pueden ser designados no forman libros que puedan ser atesorados.


Las personas instrui­das llegan una y otra vez a un callejón sin salida; esto no es tan bueno como mantenerse centrado. Acaba con el escolasticismo, y no habrá preocupaciones; pon un final a la sagacidad, abandona el conocimiento, y la gente se beneficiará muchas veces.


Los seres humanos son tranquilos por nacimiento; ésta es la naturaleza celestial.


Al sentir las cosas, actúan; esto es deseo natural.


Cuando las cosas vienen a ellos, responden. Éste es la acción del conocimiento.


Cuan­do el conocimiento y las cosas interactúan, surgen las preferencias y las aversiones.


Cuando las preferencias y las aversiones están formadas, el conocimiento va hacia las cosas externas \ no puede retornarse al ser; de esta manera desaparece el diseño celestial.



Por consiguiente, los sabios no sustituyen lo celes­tial por lo humano.


Externamente evolucionan con las cosas, pero internamente no pierden su verdadero estado.


Así, quienes realizan el Camino regresan a la clara tranquilidad.


Quienes descubren el secreto de las cosas acaban sin tener estratagemas.


Alimentan la inte­ligencia mediante la calma, unifican el espíritu median­te la abstracción, y se dirigen a la puerta de la nada.


Quienes siguen el cielo viajan con el Camino; quienes siguen a los humanos se mezclan con lo vul­gar.


Por ello, los sabios no dejan que los negocios per­turben al mundo y no permiten que los deseos con­fundan los sentimientos.


Hacen lo que es apropiado sin argucias; se confía en ellos aunque no hablen.


Tie­nen éxito sin pensar en él, logran sus metas sin estrata­gemas.


Por lo tanto, cuando están arriba, la gente no lo toma a mal; y cuando no están al frente, los demás no les atacan.


Todo el mundo recurre a ellos, los traicio­neros le temen.


Como ellos no luchan con nadie, nadie se atreve a luchar con ellos.


* * *

Learn Esperanto with ~300 Words

A while ago I wrote a guide, “Learn Esperanto with ~200 Words”, based on Fun with Languages’ method for getting started with a language by learning the most “important” words first. I made it mostly as an exercise for myself, but it ended up being my most popular post by far. If I had known it would be seen/used by so many people, I probably would have put some more effort into it to be honest. :P

Anyway, Fun with Languages updated their word list, so I updated my guide since it’s gotten so popular. Now with more grammar and example sentences!


  1. this: ĉi tio
  2. that: tio
  3. everything: ĉio
  4. something: io
  5. nothing: nenio
  6. everyone: ĉiuj
  7. someone: iu, iuj (some people)
  8. no one: neniu
  9. English: la angla
  10. thing: afero
  11. person: homo
  12. place: loko
  13. time (as in “a long time”): tempo
  14. time (as in “I did it 3 times”): foje (this is actually an adverb meaning “on one occasion”, “Mi faris ĝin tri-foje” = “I did it three times/on three occasions”)
  15. friend: amiko
  16. woman: virino
  17. man: viro
  18. money: mono
  19. country: lando
  20. city: urbo
  21. language: lingvo
  22. word: vorto
  23. food: manĝaĵo
  24. house: domo
  25. store: butiko
  26. office: oficejo
  27. company: firmao
  28. manager: manaĝisto
  29. coworker: kunlaboranto
  30. job: ofico (position in a company), tasko (task, duty)
  31. work: laboro (act of working)
  32. problem: problemo
  33. question: demando
  34. idea: ideo
  35. life: vivo
  36. world: mondo
  37. day: tago
  38. year: jaro
  39. week: semajno
  40. month: monato
  41. hour: horo
  42. mother, father, parent: patrino, patro, gepatro
  43. daughter, son, child: filino, filo, infano
  44. wife, husband: edzino, edzo
  45. girlfriend, boyfriend: koramikino, koramiko

Plural: In order to make a noun plural, add -j to the end. E.g. tago (day) -> tagoj (days). Note that ĉio, nenio, (ĉi) tio, and io are never pluralized.

Subwords: in order to make vocabulary easier to learn, Esperanto was designed with a subword system. All nouns end with the subword o. Some examples:
 virino = vir (man) + in (female) + o (noun)
 oficejo = ofic (job) + ej (place) + o (noun)
 kunlaboranto = kun (together) + labor (work) + ant (doing) + o (noun)


  1. I: mi
  2. you: vi
  3. she: ŝi
  4. he: li
  5. it: ĝi
  6. we: ni
  7. they: ili

Possessive: In order to make a pronoun possessive, add the ending -a. E.g. mi (I) -> mia (my).

Reflexive pronoun: si is a third person pronoun that refers to the subject of the sentence
 Marko eniris sian domon. – Mark entered his (Mark’s) house.
 Marko eniris lian domon. – Mark entered his (someone else’s) house.

Generic pronoun: oni is a pronoun used to refer to generic or non-specific people:
 Oni devas lavi la manojn. – You must wash your hands (in general).
 Vi devas lavi la manojn. – You (specifically) have to wash your hands.
 Oni ne simple promenis en Mordor-n. – One does not simply walk into Mordor.


  1. the: la (there is no word for “a”)
  2. this: ĉi tiu~ (e.g. “this house”, by itself implies “this person”)
  3. that: tiu~  (e.g. “that house”, by itself implies “that person”)
  4. good: bona
  5. bad: malbona
  6. all: ĉiu~ (every~), ĉiom da (can be used with non-countable nouns, all of)
  7. some, any: iu(j)~, iom da (can be used with non-countable nouns, some/any amount of)
  8. no: neniu~, neniom da (can be used with non-countable nouns)
  9. many: multaj, multe da (can be used with non-countable nouns)
  10. few: malmultaj, malmulte da (can be used with non-countable nouns)
  11. a few: kelkaj, kelke da (can be used with non-countable nouns)
  12. most: la plejparto de
  13. other: alia
  14. same: sama
  15. different: malsama (distinct thing), malsimila (different in some attribute)
  16. enough: sufiĉa, sufiĉe da (can be used with non-countable nouns)
  17. one: unu
  18. two: du
  19. first: unua
  20. next: sekvanta
  21. last (meaning “past”, e.g. “last Friday”): lasta
  22. last (meaning “final”): fina
  23. easy: facila
  24. hard: malfacila
  25. early: frua
  26. late: malfrua
  27. important: grava
  28. interesting: interesa
  29. fun: amuza
  30. boring: enua
  31. beautiful: bela
  32. big: granda
  33. small: malgranda
  34. happy: ĝoja (experiencing emotion), ĝojiga (causing emotion, e.g. a happy movie)
  35. sad: malĝoja (experiencing emotion), malĝojiga (causing emotion, e.g. a sad movie)
  36. busy: okupita
  37. excited: ekscitita
  38. tired: laca
  39. ready: preta
  40. favorite: plej ŝatata
  41. new: nova
  42. right (meaning “correct”): ĝusta
  43. wrong: malĝusta
  44. true: vera

Plural: an adjective must match the number of the noun it describes. To make an adjective plural, add the ending -j. E.g. nova domo (new house) -> novaj domoj (new houses). This is only done to adjectives (which end with the adjective subword a) as well as (ĉi) tiu, iu, and ĉiu.

Opposites: adding mal to the beginning of an adjective results in the opposite, e.g. bona (good) -> malbona (bad). This works with most of the adjectives (ending with a) above.

Adjectives without nouns: when referring to one of multiple things using la + adjective, you can drop the noun:
 Mia plej ŝatata estas la ruĝa. – My favorite is the red one.
 Li havas la vian. – He has yours.

First Verbs

  1. be: esti
  2. there is: ekzisti, esti
  3. have: havi
  4. do: fari
  5. go: iri
  6. want: voli
  7. can (be able to): povi
  8. may (be allowed to): rajti
  9. need: bezoni
  10. must, have to: devi
  11. think: pensi
  12. know: scii (information), koni (person or place)
  13. say: diri
  14. like: ŝati
  15. speak: paroli
  16. learn: lerni
  17. understand: kompreni

Conjugation: the verbs above are in the infinitive form (“to~”). In order to conjugate them, drop the -i from the end of the infinitive form and add…
 Present tense: -as (e.g. estas – is/am/are)  Past tense: -is (e.g. estis - was/were)
 Future tense: -os (e.g. estos – will be)

Direct object: in order to specify the direct object of a verb, add the accusative ending -n to the noun/pronoun and any adjectives associated with it.
 Mi parolas Esperanton. – I speak Esperanto.
 Li ŝatas ŝin. – He likes her.
 La viro bezonas multajn librojn. – The man needs many books.
 Mi legis tiun libron. – I read that book.
Linking verbs such as esti (to be) and ekzisti (to exist) do not have direct objects.
 La domo estas granda. – The house is big.
 Estas virino en la oficejo. – There is a woman in the office.
 Ekzistas multaj urboj en mia lando. – There are many cities in my country.

The infinitive: a complete sentence contains one verb in past, present, or future tense. It can also contain one or more infinitive verbs:
 La viro ŝatas manĝi. – The man likes to eat
 Mi povas vidi vin. – I can see you.
 Vi devas daŭri labori. – You must continue to work.

Negation: in order to negate a verb, add the word ne (not) just before it:
 Mi ne parolas Esperanton. – I don’t speak Esperanto.
 Ne estas virino en la oficejo. – There isn’t a woman in the office.
 Vi ne devas daŭri labori. – You don’t have to continue to work.
 Vi devas ne daŭri labori. – You must not continue to work.
 Vi devas daŭri ne labori. – You must continue to not work.


  1. that (as in “the woman that…”): kiu
  2. that (as in “I think that…”): ke
  3. and: kaj
  4. or: aŭ
  5. but: sed
  6. because: ĉar
  7. although: kvankam
  8. so: do
  9. if: se

Connecting sentences: mostconjunctions are used similarly to their translations in English:
 Ŝi iris al la butiko, kaj ŝi aĉetis manĝaĵojn. – She went to the store, and she bought food.
 Ni povas manĝi nun, aŭ ni povas manĝi poste. – We can eat now, or we can eat later.
 Li serĉis la monon sed ne trovis ĝin. – He looked for the money but didn’t find it.
 Mi ne ŝatas fromaĝon, do mi ne manĝas ĝin. – I don’t like cheese, so I don’t eat it.
It is improper to start a sentence with these words. The corresponding transition words that can be placed there are cetere (additionally), alie (otherwise), tamen (however), and tial (therefore).

Conditional tense: Often, sentences with se (if) use verbs in the conditional tense, formed by dropping the -i from the infinitive and adding -us. This tense describes imaginary situations:
 Se mi havus tempon, mi irus. – If I had money (which I didn’t/don’t/won’t), I would go.
 Mi ne havas amikon, kiu irus kun mi. – I don’t have a friend who would go with me.
Use verbs in past/present/ future tense to describe a situation that is real or may be real:
 Se li estus afabla, mi ŝatus lin. – If he was nice (which he was/is not), I would like him.
 Se li estas afabla, mi ŝatas lin. – If he is nice (which he might be), I like him (already).

That: two conjunctions translate to “that”. The first describes a noun:
 La kato, kiu manĝis la muson – The cat that ate the mouse
This conjunction must have the same number as the noun it is describing, and may take the accusative ending depending on the phrase that follows. It may also follow a preposition:
 Tiuj, kiuj venis – Those (people) who came
 La kato, kiun manĝis la muson – The cat that was eaten by the mouse
 La domo, en kiu mi loĝas – The house that I live in
The second conjunction makes an entire second sentence the object of a verb in the first:
 La viro pensis, ke la domo estis bela. – The man thought that the house was beautiful.
 Mi scias ke vi scias ke mi ne diras la veron. – I know you know that I’m not telling the truth.

Question Words

  1. who: kiu
  2. what: kio
  3. where: kie
  4. when: kiam
  5. why: kial
  6. how: kiel
  7. how much: kiom (to what extent), kiom da (what amount of)
  8. which~: kiu~ (by itself implies “which person” - who)

Asking yes/no questions: to ask whether or not a statement is true, add ĉu to the beginning:
 Ĉu vi parolas Esperanton? – Do you speak Esperanto?

Asking open-ended questions: Question words go at the beginning of a question. Note that both kiu and kio can take the accusative ending; however, only kiu takes the plural ending.
Kio estas tio? – What is that?
 Kion vi volas? – What do you want?
 Kiu domo estas la via? – Which house is yours?
 Kiuj vi estas? – Who are you (people)?
 Kie estas la urbo? – Where is the city?
 Kiom da manĝaĵo manĝis vi? – How much food did you eat?
 Kiom kostas ĉi tiu libro? – How much does this book cost?

Other uses: all question words also function as a conjunction to describe a noun:
 La loko, kie mi loĝas. – The place where I live.
 La tempo, kiam mi devas iri – The time when I have to go.
Each of them corresponds to a word that represents an answer to the question asked: tio (that), tiu (that [person]), tiu~ (that~), tie (there), tiam (then), tial (for that reason), tiel (in that way), tiom (that much). These words can be used in pairs to make sentences like the following:
 Mi iros tiam, kiam vi iros. – I will go when you go. (Kiam vi iros? Mi iros tiam.)
 Mi faris ĝin tial, kial vi faris ĝin. – I did it for the same reason you did. (Kial vi faris ĝin? Tial mi faris ĝin.)
 Mi faras tion, kion mi volas. – I do what I want. (Kion mi volas? Mi faras tion.)


  1. of: de (from), da (amount)
  2. to: al
  3. from: de
  4. in: en
  5. at (a place): ĉe
  6. at (a time): je
  7. with (as in “together with” e.g. “I live with my mother”): kun
  8. with (as in “using” e.g. “I hit it with a newspaper”): per
  9. about (a topic or subject): pri
  10. about (approximate amount): ĉirkaŭ
  11. like (meaning “similar to”): simila al, kiel
  12. like (meaning “as though”): kvazaŭ
  13. for (“the sake of”, “the purpose of”): por
  14. for (an amount of time): dum
  15. before: antaŭ
  16. after: post
  17. during: dum

General notes: Esperanto is flexible with prepositions as long as the meaning is clear, but it is improper to end a sentence with a preposition. Most of the prepositions above can be used similarly to English.

Use of je: there is a catch-all preposition je which is used when “no other preposition is appropriate.” For example:
 Mia patro venos je la deka horo. – My father will come at 10:00.
 Je Kristnasko oni ornamas arbojn. – On Christmas one decorates trees.
 Mi kredas je fantomoj. – I believe in ghosts (i.e. that ghosts exist).
 Mi kredas al fantomoj. – I believe in ghosts (i.e. that ghosts are trustworthy/capable).
 Je Dio! – By God!
 Je mia suprizo, mia patrino vizitis. – To my surprise, my mother visited.
 La hundo mordis min je la piedo. – The dog bit me in the foot.

From: de is used to mean “from” or “of”:
 Tiu viro estas de Usono. – That man is from the U.S.A.
 La Sorĉisto de Oz – The Wizard of Oz
It is also used to indicate possession by nouns other than pronouns:
 La domo de mia patrino estas malgranda. – My mother’s house is small.
Da is used to mean “of” when talking about the amount of something. The words following it never take the accusative ending:
 Mi legas multe da libroj. – I read a lot of books.
 Mi legas multajn librojn. – I read many books.

Before and after: the word antaŭ means “before”, “in front of”, or “ago”, and can be used in reference to space or time:
 Estas arbo antaŭ la domo. – There is a tree in front of the house.
 Mi iris al Kanado antaŭ ses monatoj. – I went to Canada six months ago.
 Mi manĝis antaŭ mi venis. – I ate before I came.
The opposite of antaŭ is malantaŭ when referring to space, and post when referring to time.
 Estas arbo malantaŭ la domo. – There is a tree behind the house.
 Mi iros al Kanado post ses monatoj. – I will go to Canada in six months.
Post mi manĝis, mi iris. – After I ate, I went.
The temporal words antaŭe and poste can also be used as adverbs/transition words.
 Antaŭe, mi estis malĝoja. – Before, I was sad.
 Mi estis studento longe antaŭe. – I was a student long ago.  
 Poste, mi iros al la butiko. – Afterwards, I will go to the store.

Like: the phrase simila al directly translates to “similar to” and is used to describe nouns. Simila is an adjective, so it has the same number and case as the noun it is attached to.
 Mi volas domon similan al la via. – I want a house like yours.
As above, kiel can be used to mean “like” or “as” when paired with tiel. Sometimes, tiel can be omitted. Note how the presence of the accusative changes the meaning:
 Malrapida kiel heliko = slow like a snail. Implies “…tiel malrapida kiel heliko
 Mi amas vin kiel frato. - I love you like a brother would love you. Implies “Mi amas vin tiel, kiel frato amus vin.
 Mi amas vin kiel fraton. - I love you like I would love a brother. Implies “Mi amas vin tiel, kiel mi amus fraton.

Describing movement: certain prepositions, specifically en, ĉe, antaŭ, and malantaŭ, have two meanings: a stationary position in space, and a destination of movement. To express the meaning regarding movement, the noun following the preposition takes the accusative ending -n:
 Mi promenis en la domo. – I walked (around) inside the house.
 Mi promenis en la domon. – I walked into the house.
Other prepositions either don’t describe space at all (kun, per, por, dum, da) or automatically imply movement (de, al), so the following nouns never takes the accusative ending.


  1. a lot: multe
  2. a little: malmulte
  3. well: bone
  4. badly: malbone
  5. only: nur
  6. also: ankaŭ
  7. very: tre
  8. too (as in “too tall”): tro
  9. too much: tro multe (to too great an extent), tro ofte (too often)
  10. so (as in “so tall”): tiel
  11. so much: tiom
  12. more: pli, pli da (for comparing physical quantities), plu (further, continuing. “Diru plu.” = Say more/continue talking)
  13. less: malpli, malpli da (for comparing physical quantites)
  14. as … as …: tiel… kiel…(see “Question Words”)
  15. most: plej
  16. least: malplej
  17. better: pli bona
  18. best: plej bona
  19. worse: malpli bona
  20. worst: malplej bona
  21. now: nun
  22. then: tiam
  23. here: ĉi tie
  24. there: tie
  25. maybe: eble
  26. always: ĉiam
  27. usually: kutime
  28. often: ofte
  29. sometimes: fojfoje
  30. never: neniam
  31. today: hodiaŭ
  32. yesterday: hieraŭ
  33. tomorrow: morgaŭ
  34. soon: baldaŭ
  35. almost: preskaŭ
  36. already: jam
  37. still: ankoraŭ
  38. even: eĉ
  39. enough: sufiĉe

General notes: do not confuse adverbs with adjectives. Adjectives describe nouns only and take the same number and case (accusative ending). Adverbs describe other types of words, and do not change form.

More and Less: the word ol means “than” and is used with pli and malpli to make comparisons:
 La hundo estas pli granda ol la kato. – The dog is bigger than the cat.
 La kato estas malpli granda ol la hundo. – The cat is smaller than the dog.
 Vi havas pli da mono ol mi. – You have more money than me.
The words plej and malplej mean “most” and “least” and are not used with ol:
 La plej granda besto estas baleno. – The biggest animal is a whale.
 La malplej malgranda besto estas baleno. – The least small animal is a whale.

Word order: generally, adverbs that do not end in e apply to the next word:
 Ankaŭ mi manĝis pomojn. – I also ate apples (i.e. someone else did too).
 Mi ankaŭ manĝis pomojn. – I also ate apples (i.e. I did something else with them too).
 Mi manĝis ankaŭ pomojn. – I also ate apples (i.e. I ate something else too).

Generic subject: adverbs describe a generic subject (it in “it is cold”) instead of adjectives. Any adjective can be made into an adverb by replacing the ending -a with -e:
 Estas malvarme. – It is cold. (I.e. the environment is cold.)
 Ĝi estas malvarma. – It is cold. (I.e. some physical object is cold to the touch).
Adverbs also used when describing a verb or phrase. A described phrase begins with ke (that), and a described verb is in the infinitive form.
 Estas malĝojige ke vi ne venos. – It’s sad that you won’t come.
 Fari problemojn estas malbone. – It is bad to create problems.

More Verbs

  1. work (as in a person working): labori
  2. work (meaning “to function”, e.g. “the TV works”): funkcii
  3. see: vidi
  4. watch: spekti (a specific thing, e.g. a movie), observi (over a period of time with no specific goal, e.g. birds)
  5. use: uzi
  6. should: devus, -u
  7. believe: kredi
  8. practice: ekzerci (lit. exercise, object is person/thing being exercised. Ŝi ekzercas sin pri Esperanto. = She practices Esperanto./”She exercises herself about Esperanto.”)
  9. seem: ŝajni
  10. come: veni
  11. leave: foriri
  12. return: reveni
  13. give: doni
  14. take: preni
  15. bring: alporti (by carrying), venigi (person or large animal, lit. cause to come)
  16. look for: serĉi
  17. find: trovi
  18. get (“obtain”): akiri
  19. receive: ricevi
  20. buy: aĉeti
  21. try: provi (test if something works, is possible, or is appropriate), peni (make an effort to succeed at something)
  22. start: komenci (I started the movie), komenciĝi (the class started)
  23. stop: halti (to stop moving, functioning), haltigi (to cause to stop moving, functioning), ĉesi (to stop~, I stopped going = Mi ĉesis iri), ĉesigi (to cause to stop~)
  24. finish: fini (I finished my work), finiĝi (the movie finished)
  25. continue: daŭri
  26. wake up: vekiĝi (to wake up), veki (to wake up someone)
  27. get up: ellitiĝi
  28. eat: manĝi
  29. eat breakfast: matenmanĝi
  30. eat lunch: tagmanĝi
  31. eat dinner: vesperamanĝi
  32. happen: okazi
  33. feel: senti (object is physical thing or sensation. Mi sentas min malĝoja. = I feel sad.)
  34. create (aka “make”): fari
  35. cause (aka “make”): igi
  36. earn [money] (aka “make”): enspezi (as income), gajni (as a prize)
  37. meet (meeting someone for the first time): ekkoni
  38. meet (meaning “to bump into”): renkonti
  39. meet (an arranged meeting): rendevui
  40. ask (a question): demandi
  41. ask for (aka “request”): peti (object is thing being asked for, peti ion de iu)
  42. wonder: scivoli (“Mi scivolas ĉu…” = “I wonder if…”; “Mi scivolas, kio(n)…” = “I wonder what…”; etc.)
  43. reply: respondi
  44. mean: signifi
  45. read: legi
  46. write: skribi (words, sentences), verki (books, poems)
  47. listen: aŭskulti
  48. hear: aŭdi
  49. remember: memori
  50. forget: forgesi
  51. choose: elekti
  52. decide: decidi
  53. be born: naskiĝi
  54. die: morti
  55. kill: mortigi
  56. live: vivi (to be alive), loĝi (to live e.g. at a place)
  57. stay: resti
  58. change: ŝanĝi (I changed the channel), ŝanĝiĝi (the channel changed)
  59. help: helpi
  60. send: sendi
  61. study: studi
  62. improve: plibonigi
  63. hope: esperi
  64. care about~: ~ gravas al [iu] e.g. Tio gravas al mi. = I care about that/that is important to me.

Imperative: the imperative tense is formed by dropping the -i from the infinitive and adding -u. This form is used to give commands:
 Haltu! – Stop!
 Penu esti bona. – Try to be good.
 Penu ne esti malbona. – Try not to be bad.
It can also be used to mean “should” or “may”:
 Ni estu amikoj. – We should be friends.
 Ni estu ĉiam amikoj. – May we always be friends.
 Dio benu vin. – (May) God bless you.

Turning verbs into nouns: many verbs can be turned into a noun by adding the subword ad before the infinitive -i, then transforming it to a noun by replacing -i with the noun subword o:
 Vi ekzercu vin pri parolado. – You should practice speaking.
 Mia plej ŝatata hobio estas kuirado. – My favorite hobby is cooking.
 Spektado de filmoj – watching movies
There are some verbs, however, such as labori and uzi, that were originally made from nouns, so the ad subword has a different meaning: continuous or repeated action.
 Mi ne komprenas la uzon de “-ad-”. – I don’t understand the use of “-ad-”.
 Mi ne komprenas la uzadon de “-ad-”. – I don’t understand the continuous use of “-ad-”.


  1. hello: Saluton
  2. goodbye: Ĝis (temporary), adiaŭ (for a longer time)
  3. thank you: Dankon
  4. you’re welcome: Ne dankinde
  5. excuse me (to get someone’s attention): Pardonon
  6. sorry: Mi bedaŭras (I regret), Mi pardonpetas (I apologize), pardonu min (forgive me)
  7. it’s fine (response to an apology): Ne gravas (it’s not important), ĉio en ordo (everything is alright)
  8. please: …, mi petas (…, please), Bonvolu -i (please do something), -u, mi petas (do something, please)
  9. yes: jes
  10. no: ne
  11. okay: bone
  12. My name is: Mia nomo estas…
  13. What’s your name?: Kio estas via nomo?
  14. Nice to meet you.: Estas bone ekkoni vin.
  15. How are you?: Kiel vi fartas
  16. I’m doing well, how about you?: Mi fartas bone. Kaj vi?
  17. Sorry? / What? (if you didn’t hear something): Pardonon?/Kio?
  18. How do you say~ in Esperanto?: Kiel oni diras~ en Esperanto?
  19. What does~ mean?: Kion signifas~?
  20. I don’t understand.: Mi ne komprenas.
  21. Could you repeat that?: Ĉu vi bonvolus ripeti tion?/Bonvolu ripeti tion.
  22. Could you speak more slowly, please?: Ĉu vi bonvolus paroli pli malrapide?/Bonvolu paroli pli malrapide.
  23. Well (as in “well, I think…”): Nu
  24. Really?: Ĉu vere?
  25. I guess that…: Mi supozas ke…
  26. It’s hot. (talking about the weather): Estas varme.
  27. It’s cold. (talking about the weather): Estas malvarme.

Bonvoli: bonvoli means “to be so kind as to”. It is made up of the subwords bon (good), vol (will, as in spirit), and i (infinitive verb):
Ĉu vi bonvolus helpi min? – Would you be so kind as to help me?
Bonvolu helpi min. – Please help me. (Be so kind as to help me.)
Li bonvolis fari manĝaĵojn por ni. – He was so kind as to make food for us.

For: in order to thank someone or apologize for a particular thing, use the following forms:
Dankon por la helpo. – Thank you for the help.
Dankon por via kuirado de la manĝaĵo. – Thank you for cooking the food.
Mi bedaŭras ke mi faris tion. – I regret that I did that.
Mi bedaŭras miajn agojn. – I regret my actions.
Mi pardonpetas por miaj agoj. – I apologize for my actions.
Mi pardonpetas, ke mi tiel agis. – I apologize for acting that way.
Pardonu min pri miaj pekoj. – Forgive me for my transgressions.

Example Translation

Original paragraph:

“I have had a good run, producing more films than virtually anyone else. And I believe better films (okay, maybe I am biased, but…), and ones with more consistent returns, but damn! It is harder now to justify investment or commitment than ever before — even when the tools have improved and the talent pool grown like never before.  Film, like all the culture economies, has been turned on its head, but unlike the others, since the work at the top still delivers a return, our leaders and corporations act like business is as it’s always been.”

Rephrased for Esperanto Translation:

“I worked hard and made more films than most people. And I think that my films were better (okay, I just want to believe that, but…), and they almost always made money. However! It is harder now than before to say that hard work on films is important – though the things we use to make them are better and better people want to work for us. Films, like other things that make money from culture, have changed. But films are different than the others because the best films still make a lot of money, so the companies that make films continue to work like nothing has changed.”

Esperanto Translation:

Mi bone laboris kaj faris pli da filmoj ol la plejparto de homoj. Cetere, mi pensas ke miaj filmoj estas pli bonaj (bone, mi nur volas kredi tion, sed…), kaj ili preskaŭ ĉiam  enspezis monon. Tamen! Estas pli malfacile nun ol antaŭe diri ke bona laboro pri filmoj estas grava  – kvankam la aĵoj, kiujn ni uzas por fari ilin, estas pli bonaj, kaj pli bonaj homoj volas labori por ni. Filmoj, kiel aliaj aferoj, kiuj gajnas monon de kulturo, ŝanĝiĝis. Tamen, filmoj estas malsimilaj al la aliaj, ĉar la plej bonaj filmoj ankoraŭ gajnas multe da mono, do la firmaoj, kiuj faras filmojn, daŭras funkcii kvazaŭ nenio ŝanĝiĝis.”



Corbin Poop-pants Partlist
1989 Cressida
BC Racing 14/10k
Xcessive flca/tension rod
Xcessive rca
Xcessive rack bushings
Xcessive arms
Xcessive subframe reinforcement
CX gt35 .68
CX exhaust manifold
CX fmic
Tial 44mm waste gate
Noname intake manifold
Bosch 1010cc injectors
Aem ems v2
Aem boost controller
Aem iat
Aem map
Panic wire harness
Coil on plug conversion
Xcessive motor mounts
Xcessive skid plate
Arp head studs
2jzgte head gasket
Mishimoto radiator
Cfr efans
Walbro fuel pump
Xcessive one piece driveshaft
Xcessive diff bushings
Xcessive clutch pedal
Oem clutch master cyl
Welded diff
Competition clutch flywheel
Action clutch stage 3
Cube short shifter
Serial 9 type 1
Amg vents in front bumper
Ganador mirrors
Flowmaster dual tip
Super advan sa3r 18x9.5 +22
Aem gauges
Bride zeta ii
xcessive seat bracket
Key!s steering wheel
Key!s shift knob
Brown recluse garage full-capacity 4pt with door bars