three dimensional shape


Sketches of my d&d character, Haili Raasniemi aka Silakka. Based on quick play character sheet from 5e (folk hero, human, fighter). He has a tattoo written in dwarven language that translates to (Baltic) herring. He doesn’t know that himself, tho.

Aesthetics before everything, the boob window stays.

superchris64  asked:

Dear Lamus Dworski, My grandmother from North Eastern Poland told me about Pajaki. The basic form she mentioned is two pyramids that share the same base (the only webpages I've found with instructions are for these "basic" pajaki) but my grandmother recalls when she was little that several (maybe around 10 to 12) "basic pajaki" are joined to make a three dimensional star-like shape. Have you come across this design? I've been trying to find instructions. Kind regards, Chris

Hello! I’m trying to picture your description in my head. Is it one of those types below? They’re often referred to as the ‘star’ types of pająki.

The shape of the 2 joined pyramids which I’ll be calling a ‘diamond’ shape is always defined by the length of the straws. 

First of all, you should prepare at least 4 different lengths of the straws. Make them for example 4, 8, 12 and 16 centimeters. Their exact length isn’t really important here, it simply has to be 4 different length types. 

Prepare the basic forms of them: let’s call them the small, medium, big and large diamonds. Here’s a good picture where the ‘diamonds’ of different sizes are nicely visible:

Now, there are dozens of various types of those pająki with different levels of complexity. One large diamond makes always the centre part. 

Then, the big diamonds are tied to all its joints (sometimes you can pull the thread through an additional short straw that will make a prolonged vertical suspension for those diamonds). It should be 4 big diamonds tied to the side joints (the joints in the square base of the pyramid in the diamond) and one to the bottom joint - at least 5 big ones in total. Optional are the big diamonds tied to the large’s top joint: one above and one can be hidden inside it. 

Then, medium diamonds are tied to the side and bottom joints of the big ones. Last part is the small diamonds tied to the bottom joints of the medium ones.

The central part can be made of an elaborate, seemingly complicated construction where lots of the diamonds are connected together in a mesh-like form:

They look intimidating at first, but might be actually easy to make if you have enough patience. It can require days or even weeks to make. I made simple ‘mesh’ bases in the past and the most important key here, beside making sure to prepare all the straws of the same length for the mesh, is to keep an eye on the horizontal levels of the pyramids’ / diamonds’ square bases and just build new triangles and squares upon them. Heavy needles and gravitation helps with pulling the threads through the straws, especially when the ‘mesh’ becomes larger. If you’re interested, I could make a drawing as a tutorial for the ‘mesh’ construction of pająki in my free time - let me know.

There’s also a ‘star’ type of the pająki where the central part is flat made in an octagonal shape (such base is made of a stronger material than the straw, for example thin steel rods, and decorated with wool tied around the centre) and the ‘diamond’ sections are tied to its 8 joints.

I don’t think there are many good tutorials online, never came across any describing the complicated types of pająki, but here’s a simple video where you can see how the bigger and smaller diamonds can be tied together:

Try to observe the photographs carefully. When you ‘get’ the idea behind the geometry of pająki right, it becomes very simple. I learned how to make them without any tutorials :)

(photo sources: 1,2,3)

Social psychologists are becoming rather brilliant at setting up these gender difference sleights of hand [to show that gender differences disappear in the absence of stereotype threat]. The examples are piling up in all sorts of domains–from social sensitivity to chess to negotiation–but the pièce de resistance is the visuospatial skill of mental rotation performance.

In the classic and most widely used test of this ability, the test taker is shown an unfamiliar three-dimensional shape made up of little cubes–the target–and four other similar shapes. Two of these are the same as the original but have been rotated in three-dimensional space, and two are mirror images. The task is to work out which two are the same as the target. Mental rotation performance is the largest and most reliable gender difference in cognition. In a typical sample, about 75 percent of people who score above average are male. Gender differences in mental rotation ability have even recently been seen in babies three to four and five months of age. While it’s easy to see that a high score on the mental rotation test would be a distinct advantage when it comes to playing Tetris, some also claim (although they’re often strongly disputed) that male superiority in this domain plays a significant role in explaining males’ better representation in science, engineering, and math.

People’s mental rotation ability is malleable; it can be greatly enhanced by training. But there are far quicker, easier ways to modulate mental rotation ability. By…manipulating the social context in such a way that it changes the mind that is performing the task. For example, you can feminize the task. When, in one study, participants were told that performance on mental rotation is probably linked with success on such tasks as “in-flight and carrier-based aviation engineering … nuclear propulsion engineering, undersea approach and evasion, [and] navigation,” the men came out well ahead. Yet when the same test was described as predicting facility for “clothing dress and design, interior decoration and interior design … decorative creative needlepoint, creative sewing and knitting, crocheting [and] flower arrangement,” this emasculating list of activities had a draining effect on male performance.

Alternatively, instead of changing the gender of the task, you can keep the task the same but push gender into the mental background. Matthew McGlone and Joshua Aronson, for example, measured mental rotation ability in students at a selective liberal arts college in the northeastern United States. One group was primed with gender, while another group was primed with their exclusive private-college identity. Women who had been induced to think of themselves as a student at a selective liberal arts college enjoyed a performance boost, scoring significantly higher than gender-primed women. Likewise, Markus Hausmann and colleagues found that although gender-stereotype-primed men outperformed gender-stereotype-primed women, men and women primed with an irrelevant (geographical region-based) stereotype performed similarly on the mental rotation task.

Another outrageous, but successful, approach was recently devised by Italian researcher Angelica Moè. She described the mental rotation test to her Italian high school student participants as a test of spatial abilities and told one group that “men perform better than women in this test, probably for genetic reasons.” The control group was given no information about gender. But a third group was presented with a downright lie. That group was told that “women perform better than men in this test, probably for genetic reasons.” So what effect did this have? In both the men-are-better and the control group, men outperformed women with the usual size of gender difference. But women in the women-are-better group, the recipients of the little white lie, performed just as well as the men.

—  Cordelia Fine, Delusions of Gender: How Our Minds, Society, and Neurosexism Create Difference

Lucretia brings bits and pieces of her homeworld with her. Things she cannot forget. 

Though they may not remember, there’s a reason the Bureau of Balance is made of domes.

Lucretia doesn’t like looking up. There’s only one sun and the sky overhead is painted the wrong color, a deep unnerving blue that makes her nauseous if she stares at it too long. Besides, craning her neck back gives her a crick that brings painfully to the front of her mind her new old age.

“Do you have the plans?”

“Of course,” Lucretia replies, handing the plan to Maureen and closing her folder again with a snap.

“Gotcha.” Maureen runs a quick eye over it and nods approvingly. Then a half-smile quirks up at her lips. “Fan of domes, are we?”

“Something of the sort.”

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Appearing like a winged fairy-tale creature poised on a pedestal, this object is actually a billowing tower of cold gas and dust rising from a stellar nursery called the Eagle Nebula. The soaring tower is 9.5 light-years or about 57 trillion miles high, about twice the distance from our Sun to the next nearest star.

Stars in the Eagle Nebula are born in clouds of cold hydrogen gas that reside in chaotic neighborhoods, where energy from young stars sculpts fantasy-like landscapes in the gas. The tower may be a giant incubator for those newborn stars. A torrent of ultraviolet light from a band of massive, hot, young stars [off the top of the image] is eroding the pillar.

The starlight also is responsible for illuminating the tower’s rough surface. Ghostly streamers of gas can be seen boiling off this surface, creating the haze around the structure and highlighting its three-dimensional shape. The column is silhouetted against the background glow of more distant gas.

The edge of the dark hydrogen cloud at the top of the tower is resisting erosion, in a manner similar to that of brush among a field of prairie grass that is being swept up by fire. The fire quickly burns the grass but slows down when it encounters the dense brush. In this celestial case, thick clouds of hydrogen gas and dust have survived longer than their surroundings in the face of a blast of ultraviolet light from the hot, young stars.

Inside the gaseous tower, stars may be forming. Some of those stars may have been created by dense gas collapsing under gravity. Other stars may be forming due to pressure from gas that has been heated by the neighboring hot stars.

The first wave of stars may have started forming before the massive star cluster began venting its scorching light. The star birth may have begun when denser regions of cold gas within the tower started collapsing under their own weight to make stars.

The bumps and fingers of material in the center of the tower are examples of these stellar birthing areas. These regions may look small but they are roughly the size of our solar system. The fledgling stars continued to grow as they fed off the surrounding gas cloud. They abruptly stopped growing when light from the star cluster uncovered their gaseous cradles, separating them from their gas supply.

Ironically, the young cluster’s intense starlight may be inducing star formation in some regions of the tower. Examples can be seen in the large, glowing clumps and finger-shaped protrusions at the top of the structure. The stars may be heating the gas at the top of the tower and creating a shock front, as seen by the bright rim of material tracing the edge of the nebula at top, left. As the heated gas expands, it acts like a battering ram, pushing against the darker cold gas. The intense pressure compresses the gas, making it easier for stars to form. This scenario may continue as the shock front moves slowly down the tower.

The dominant colors in the image were produced by gas energized by the star cluster’s powerful ultraviolet light. The blue color at the top is from glowing oxygen. The red color in the lower region is from glowing hydrogen. The Eagle Nebula image was taken in November 2004 with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope.

Object Names: Eagle Nebula, M16, NGC 6611, IC 4703

Image Type: Astronomical

Credit: NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)

Time And Space

Trailblazing maths genius who was first woman to win Fields Medal dies aged 40

The first woman to win the prestigious Fields Medal prize for mathematics, Maryam Mirzakhani, has died at the age of 40.

A professor at Stanford University in California, she had been fighting a four-year battle against breast cancer which had spread to her bone marrow, according to reports.

Born in Iran, she died in a US hospital, and was awarded the Fields Medal – considered the mathematics equivalent of the Nobel Prize – in 2014.

The award recognised her highly original work in the fields of geometry and dynamical systems, citing “her outstanding contributions to the dynamics and geometry of Riemann surfaces and their moduli spaces”.

Wisconsin professor Jordan Ellenberg described her research in a blog post at the time: “[Her] work expertly blends dynamics with geometry. Among other things, she studies billiards.

“But now, in a move very characteristic of modern mathematics, it gets kind of meta: She considers not just one billiard table, but the universe of all possible billiard tables.

“This isn’t the kind of thing you do to win at pool, but it’s the kind of thing you do to win a Fields Medal.”

Professor Mirzakhani graduated from the Sharif University of Technology in Tehran in 1999.

She went on to complete a PhD on hyperbolic surfaces – theoretical doughnut-like shapes – at Harvard in 2004.

Curtis McMullen, her doctoral adviser, had won the Field Medal himself in 1998.

She later collaborated with American mathematician Alex Eskin on research about the dynamics of abstract surfaces connected to billiard tables.

She doodled three-dimensional shapes constantly while she worked, and was known for her slow, measured approach to mathematical problems.

No other woman has won the prize, which is awarded every four years by the International Congress of Mathematicians to up to four mathematicians under 40, an age at which many women are re-entering the workplace after having children.

She was also the first Iranian to win a Fields Medal.

“The grievous passing of Maryam Mirzakhani, the eminent Iranian and world-renowned mathematician, is very much heartrending,” President Hassan Rouhani.

Growing up in Iran during the Iran-Iraq war, Professor Mirzakhani dreamed of becoming a writer and watched biographies of famous women like Marie Curie and Helen Keller.

She entered the Iranian International Mathematical Olympiad team at 17 in 1994, becoming the first girl to win a gold medal in 1994 and a perfect score the following year.

She had first taken an interest in maths when her older brother told her about how German mathematician Gauss discovered the formula for adding numbers from 1 to 100.

“It was the first time I enjoyed a beautiful solution,” she said in an interview given to the Clay Institute where she was a Research Fellow from 2004 to 2008.

“Of course, the most rewarding part is the ‘Aha’ moment, the excitement of discovery and enjoyment of understanding something new – the feeling of being on top of a hill and having a clear view. Most of the time, doing mathematics for me is like being on a long hike with no trail and no end in sight.”

Professor Mirzakhani is survived by her husband, an associate professor at Stanford University, and daughter Anahita.

anonymous asked:

How did DNA and amino acids arise? Where did the genetic code come from?

Hi! Thank you for your question. It’s a big one! I can’t answer it definitively because there’s still a lot to learn about how the chemistry of life began. However, the prevailing theory right now is called the RNA World.

RNA is a nucleic acid very similar to DNA, with almost the same set of nucleotide bases. RNA uses adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine while DNA uses adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. RNA also has one extra hydroxyl (an oxygen bonded to a hydrogen) group than DNA, so it is slightly less stable. In cells, RNA is more commonly found in short, single-chain strands and DNA is found in long, double-chain helices (your genes!).

But the interesting thing about RNA is how it folds. Since it doesn’t have a complementary strand like most DNA, it binds to itself in very interesting shapes. Here’s an example of how a strand of RNA binds to itself - the first image shows which base pairs interact, and the second shows the three-dimensional shape formed. Here’s a link to the paper it’s from.

These folds are very interesting because they can actually act like enzymes, which we normally think of as complicated molecules made out of twenty different amino acids. But RNA enzymes (which we call ribozymes, from ribonucleic acid + enzyme) can do crucial chemical work despite only being made of four bases. Ribozymes are a huge component of ribosomes - the molecular machine responsible for translating genetic information into proteins.

So the prevailing theory is that - since RNA can both store information (like DNA) and act on that information (like proteins) - the first form of life was simply self-replicating chains of RNA. Over time, these chains became more complex and developed into the DNA/RNA/protein system most life uses today (viruses and prions are potential exceptions, but may technically not be ‘alive’). DNA is much better at storing information than RNA, and proteins are more versatile for chemical work than RNA, which is probably why we don’t see self-sufficient RNA life-forms today (or we just haven’t discovered them yet! The world is a big place). 

Thanks again for the question!

Orbs and Cubes

That orbs are the three dimensional shape of the ruling class is well known. One can hardly think of an orb without it being in the hands of an egomaniacal villain. But why this is so, and how other volumetric shapes fit into its environment, is less obvious.

Orbs belong to evil men because they represent a way of organizing space that only makes sense for a perfect god or an evil man. Orbs originate from their centers. However large they grow, they always represent the same idea of centrality, and the collapsibility of that surface back towards the center.

There is only ever one orb. If other orbs exist they are merely surface phenomena freckling the face of the one true orb. Of course, in reality there are many orbs, and they are all held by madmen believing they hold the one orb.

The opposite of the orb is the cube. There are always many cubes. They are made for building, for interoperability with other cubes, for the assembly of ever larger structures that may or may not be cubes. Even cubes that are poorly designed for interoperability (i.e., they have dimensions that are not multiples of other cubes) can be integrated one place or another. Cubes can build anything.

Cubes can always work together. Orbs never can.

CONCEPT ZERO Ferrofluid Display

Though the technical description of ferrofluid is “a stable colloidal suspension of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles,” we prefer to stick with “magnetic magic in a bottle.”

Usually confined to scientific demonstrations, in the presence of a magnetic field ferrofluid essentially goes nuts—shifting into spiky three-dimensional shapes, bouncing from one magnetic pole to the other, and being generally fascinating in every way.

anonymous asked:

fsdefkfkr im sorry if you have gotten an ask like this but how do you draw hands?? your hands in drawings are so nice

hi anon! i’m not the best person to ask about this since my hands are pretty stylized and often times drawn wonky, but i’ll try offering some structural knowledge to see if it helps ;;;

what i like to do is study the subject and look for landmarks so i can later break it down into simple shapes. 

i try to remind myself of certain details like the bump in the wrist from the radius bone, or the lengths of the fingers, and even the two joints in the phalanges that help with bending the finger.

once you’ve got an idea of how it works, you can start building it up in three-dimensional form. use simple shapes like a bucket for the palm of the hand, and cylinders that stack on top of each other to create the form in a finger. it helps a lot to look at real life references or pictures of real hands and to try and recreate it through using these simple shapes.

also, once you’ve got the hang of drawing the anatomy of a realistic hand, it’s easier to play around with the stylization aspect, such as changing the bend of a finger to look more simplified and stylized. hopefully this helps a bit ^^;

The Spectrum of Reality

There exists so little written on the mechanics of magic and the nature of reality. What literature that does exist that is open to esoteric concepts is often a mishmash of eastern ideology and misunderstood science dressed up in some new age prom dress. More helpful information is found in the staid books of contemporary physics, environmental science, and theoretical biology. But these tend to adhere to an overwhelming cynicism in regards to the beyond, despite decades of being proven incorrect.

In considering the mechanics of the actions of magic one must consider the nature of what is commonly understood to be the boundaries of reality. What is “real” and what is unreal in the minds of the worlds inhabitants. These boundaries vary based on the culture and the languages of that culture, but universally are bound by the limited scope of the human senses.

Much like we see only a portion of the total spectrum of light our perceptions of all energy and mass are limited to a very narrow field of awareness. We exist between two planes of reality much like life on earth exists in the narrow gaseous film on the exterior of the planet.

This spectrum of perceptual reality is based on evolutionary need to survive in the ecosystem of earth. Our dietary needs, and thus the senses required to fulfill those needs, are based on the specific set of variables present in our current terran ecosystem.

At the threshold of our perception exists a vast degree of energy and matter we are absolutely unaware of, much as we are unaware of the air that is all around us unless the wind blows. In that spectrum of energy and matter beyond our perception exist other forms of being. Entities that have evolved much the way we have, contained much in the way we are to the variables inherent on this planet.

Yet their bodies, if we are to use that term, are manifest in forms of matter beyond our current perceptual awareness. Their existence centered on forms of energy, wavelengths, that are outside of our normal sense of reality. It is only at the far edges of our mathematics, of our physics, that we have knowledge of these forms of matter. And in that science we are still in our infancy of understanding the nature of reality outside of the “real”.

Although the most cutting edge science is just now beginning to understand those fields of energy the common folk of earth have long known of the existence of some other at the edge of reality. We have, through evolutionary design, not totally become oblivious to those things at the edge of our conscious. Those beings and energies that manifest continuously around us but of which only a few, and often only in brief moments of focus/unfocus, are truly aware.

This was not so for mankind less than two centuries ago. It is our modern way of living, our constant focus on language (as opposed to experience) as the center of learning, that has pushed us away from nature. And in our psychological disconnection from nature we have lost the awareness of those things that exist just beyond the edge of what we call the real.

But what are those “things”? What is it that we once knew well and now only stumble upon in the rarest instances? At the corner of our eyes periphery?

Life is manifest as the organization of elements into the path of greatest energy distribution. The pools and eddies of this distribution pattern have coalesced into the forms on earth we call life. But just as evolution has limited our access to some forms of energy it has given access to other lifeforms. The bird is aware of the electromagnetic field of the earth in the way we are aware of the clouds. The dolphin perceives the underwater world as a giant 360˙ three dimensional shape, finely detailed down to moving objects within the range of the dolphins “hearing”.

Within the field of the earth there are complex patterns of energies - both known and unknown. These patterns have formed entities in the way that water and carbon have formed entities. They exist as part of the necessary pattern of energy in the universe. They evolve just as other forms of life do, though variables like reproduction, birth, and death vary with the nature of the materials they are composed from.

“Let anyone who possesses a vivid imagination and a highly-wrought nervous system, even now, in this century, with all the advantages of learning and science, go and sit among the rocks, or in the depths of the wood, and think of immortality, and all that that word really means, and by-and-by a mysterious awe will creep into the mind, and it will half believe in the possibility of seeing or meeting something - something - it knows not exactly what.” - Richard Jefferies, World’s End

How we perceive these entities is more a measure of the culture doing the perceiving than it is of the beings themselves. Our language in particular casts a mold for how we will project our socio-normative constructions onto the incoming data our senses give us about these beings.

Fairies, wights, sprites, goblin, dybbuk, trolls, kitsune, sidhe. The names we give them are a hallmark for the role they play. We project onto them our culture, and the narrative our culture has developed for what these experiences are. Those subtle beings of energy made manifest, lingering among the recesses of the natural world, receding into the last of the ancient forests as man encroaches on their spaces. We name them, and in naming them we give them power over us. Power that they may grant back to us through favor, spite and happenstance.

To fully grasp the field of energy that exists beyond the edge of our senses we must unlearn the confines of human language. We must push past the boundaries inherent in our cultural perceptions of what is real, and dictated to us by the language in which our thoughts form. Regardless of the tools and techniques we chose to overcome these limitations we must strive to break down barriers, to cross thresholds, to eliminate the boundaries of our cultural and evolutionary paradigms and to rend aside the Veil.


A little video I made a couple of years ago. It works perfectly on a simple spoon like this, I’m not sure it’d be as good on a more complex, three dimensional shape. Maybe I’ll do another one for a batch of coffee scoops…
#wpwoodcraft #wood #woodcraft #woodworking #spoon #spooncarving #handmade #handcraft #handcrafted #craft #igersbristol #slöjd #spooncarvingmagazine

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Mordecai plush: Process

This process post is about obtaining a complex shape through multiple rough drafts. My aim for all my plushies is to have the least amount of seams showing. Basically making the pattern as efficient as possible.

I tend to start with the head and work down since the head is the point of reference. For Mordecai I used a sphere as you can see in the sketch mock up.

This is not a tutorial on how to make mordecai but my process in creating complex shapes for intermediate to expert plush artist reference. I won’t be offering anymore on mordecai than what is shown in this post.

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Shadows of Doubt

More spoopy Halloween thoughts…

What if the shadow counterparts of the Toa Mata never fully reintegrated with them? The very act of having their dark half ripped from their being  either damaged them enough that that they could never fully rejoin, or their shadow counterparts grew enough of a sense of self in the brief time they were apart that they are no longer truly a single entity together.

This could manifests itself in different ways. Such as, the Toa may see or hear their dark counterpart, and even converse with them internally or externally. Others can’t see or hear them, and they have to be cautious that they don’t do so in public. More than once, a Matoran has walked in on the Mata having an angry conversation with their reflection.

Perhaps their shadows may also literally move independently, and even split from their form, though are unable to take a three dimensional shape without the Makuta’s power feeding them. Were they more cooperative, they could serve as scouts and allies to the Toa. Instead, they remain the darkest parts of their inner selves. They constantly whisper of doubt, jealousy, and anger, and all of it directly from the Toa’s own hearts and minds.

Perhaps if the Toa are under great stress or feel great anger, their shadow selves might temporarily seize control of their bodies to carry out their darkest thoughts and urges. At times like this, only their dearest friends, especially Takanuva, can break the hold of their shadow selves and help them regain control of their bodies.


Viral Membrane Protects Medical Nanorobots From Immune System

Scientists say they have developed a cloaking device to spirit medical nanorobots of the future past immune systems into diseased cells. Their innovation comes from stealing a powerful weapon viruses wield to infect their hosts.

Some viruses wrap themselves in a protective membrane to avoid detection by their host’s immune system and enter cells they are trying to infect. A team at Harvard’s Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering have been able to construct their own version of a viral membrane.

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