thorough guide

justanotherwritingblog  asked:

Hi there, I just discovered you blog and I think it's amazing! Congrats on your contract! :D I've recently finished writing my third novel and my friends and family keep prodding me to try to publish. Do you have any advice on how to get started on that? Thanks in advance ^^

Hi! Thanks for all of those nice words :) 

First of all, I would just like to say that you shouldn’t try to publish unless it’s something you’re sure you want to do. No matter how stellar the book you’ve written is, you’ll receive tons of rejections. To withstand all of those, you’re going to need a belief in your work that doesn’t rely on external validation. 

If this is something you really do want to pursue, I’d say there are three major steps. 

1. Readying Your Manuscript for Submission 

I don’t know whether this is a first draft, or something you’ve revised, but you’ll need to do at least three levels of revision: a macro-edit, a micro-edit, and a copyedit. 

The macro-edit focuses on all of the big features of the book. This is where you make sure your characters are fully fleshed out; that your plot makes sense and has a defined beginning, middle, and end; that your world building is engaging and realistic, etc. There may be multiple macro-edits as you whip your book into shape. 

Once you’ve finished the macro-edits, move on the micro-edits. Micro-editing is about making your sentences flow. In your micro-edits, you focus on fixing your dialog, descriptions, syntax, etc. You also fix any small plot holes, cliches, and character inconsistencies.

After micro-edits come copyedits. Here, you mainly fix spelling, grammar, and style errors. If you haven’t submitted work to formal workshops/writing classes, I’d suggest doing some research on how to style punctuation/paragraphs/pages in fiction. Fiction writing has a ton of largely unspoken style rules, and breaking these rules will make your writing appear more amateur and unrefined than it may actually be. Here are some great sources to check out:

Once you’ve readied your manuscript for submission, it’s time to actually prepare to send it out.  

2. Finding Agents to Query 

Most publishing houses don’t take unsolicited submissions. Instead, they take submissions from agents. So when you want to get your manuscript published with any of the big publishing houses, you should look for an agent instead of a publisher. 

This answer is already going to be long enough without an explanation about what a literary agent is and why you should get one, so if you’d like more information, I’m going to direct you to this article:

An agent is someone who’ll support you throughout your career. This is going to be a very important relationship in your writing life, and so you should do quite a bit of research into them. There are a great number of sources for researching agents. These two are some of the most popular: 

If you need some more advice about how to find the right agent, check out these articles:

3. Querying 

Once you have a list of agents you’d be interested in representing you, you’ll notice that they all require query letters. Luckily, I’ve already typed up a thorough guide to writing one of those. 

You’ll want to query a good handful of agents at a time: between six and ten. Agents may get back to you within a day or after a few months, so it’s a good idea to track who you’ve queried, when you’ve queried them, and what they’ve said. Query Tracker is a good source for this, but you can also just use a spreadsheet or a notebook. This article suggests not giving up until you’ve queried 80 agents or more, which could represent an entire year of querying. 

(There’s a reason this is called the “query trenches.”) 

Once you land an agent, the rest of your journey to publication will be decided in discussion with them. 

Throughout this entire process, from step one to step three, you should be keeping up with the publishing industry, and doing your best to learn about it. There’s only so much I can cover here, and I’ve really only skimmed the surface. 

I recommend:

Best of luck! 

How I learn languages

So, depending on the level of interest people have in my way of doing things, I might create a more thorough guide in the future. However, in the interest of brevity I will create a very rough step by step guide for people because why not.

1. Pick a language - Pick one you like; don’t worry about it being “practical” or “useful.” If you don’t like the language you’re studying, it’s going to be a miserable experience and learning languages should be fun!

2. Learn IPA - Learning how to read IPA characters (International Phonetic Alphabet) is imperative to being a successful language learner. If you haven’t already, put some time into learning how to read IPA transcriptions because it will save you a lot of time and give you a much better accent when learning the sounds of your target language. Avoid “english-y” transcriptions (e.g. très = TRAY) like the plague. They’re bad and people who make them should feel bad.

3. Learn the alphabet/writing system - Usually it doesn’t take a super long time, and if you’re studying a language like Japanese or Chinese it’s best to get used to using the writing system from the very beginning. You’re gonna have to deal with it eventually so you may as well hop right in. Relying on latin character transcriptions will only put off the inevitable.

4. Learn the pronunciation of your target language - I advocate a pronunciation-first approach. This will be easier or harder depending on how many unfamiliar sounds there are in your TL, but it’s worth going over the phonology (sound system) of your language early and getting used to how its sounds interact. If you don’t learn proper pronunciation in the beginning, you’ll ingrain incorrect pronunciations into your brain which will be hard to undo later on. You don’t have to try to make your accent perfect, accent reduction can come later, but it’s worth spending some time on. This is especially true for language with odd sounds or features (tones, voicing distinctions, etc.)

5. Pick ONE course/book - A problem I see a lot, and one that I have fallen into many times myself, is hording language learning resources. In the beginning, and especially for beginner polyglots, it is better to pick ONE really good course or book to follow, and focus on mastering the material within. If you try to split your time between too many resources or books or websites, you’ll quickly become overwhelmed. Some books/courses/series I recommend that can commonly be found for all languages are: Teach Yourself, Assimil, Duolingo, Linguaphone, and Pimsleur among others. You can always use one of those while you keep searching for more resources, but resist the temptation to dig into multiple books at once.

6. Use an SRS to learn vocabulary/grammar - SRS’s (Spaced Repetition Systems) are my bread and butter when it comes to memorization. Put simply, they are tools for spending your studying time more efficiently, and they warrant an entire post by themselves. Rote memorization is for the birds, so use a spaced repetition system such as Anki, Supermemo, a Leitner Box, or Memrise to avoid wasting your time. (Use Anki. Just use Anki. You’ll thank me later.)

7. Don’t translate - I used to learn vocabulary and grammar using English translations, but you’ll soon find that it’s only useful to an extent as your vocabulary gets bigger and you start running out of unique ways to translate synonyms. A more robust approach to flash card creation can be found in the book “Fluent Forever” by Gabriel Wyner, which I would definitely recommend reading. The short version is: use pictures instead of English translations for picturable words, for more abstract words and grammar concepts, use example sentences with cloze deletion cards (easy to create using Anki. seriously, just use anki.)

8. Speak the language! - Probably the only thing I actually learned from He Who Shall Not Be Named (anyone who’s been in the polyglot community for longer than 30 seconds knows who I’m talking about.) It seems simple but you should really speak the language as much as you can straight from the beginning. “But how can I speak the language if I’m not fluent or if I’ve just started?” Simple, use what you know, and do whatever it takes to make yourself understood. It really doesn’t take much, maybe 100 words or so (a day’s worth of work if you’re dedicated) to start to be able to put sentences together. Learning phrases is even better for this. For this reason, a phrasebook (Lonely Planet is a popular choice) is a worthy investment.

9. Immerse yourself as much as possible! - Watch TV, read books, nespapers, and articles, and listen to music in your TL. Get yourself used to being around the language. Ideally, you’d be able to move to the country or region where the language is spoken and truly immerse yourself, but for many total immersion can be either unrealistic or overwhelming. It’s totally possible to give yourself enough contact with the language and even create a 100% immersion environment all from the comfort of your home. The important thing is to have contact with the language and get used to being around it. This is where you’ll pick up on the rhythms of the language, tonality, intonation, all that good stuff. More importantly, it will get you used to how FAST people talk.

10. Keep looking for things you don’t know. - This is probably the best advice I could give anyone. There are things out there that you don’t even know you don’t know, so the best thing to do is to keep surrounding yourself with new facts, new vocabulary, new grammar structures, etc. If you’re looking for a new course/book, look for one that seems like it has a lot to teach you. Don’t rehash things you already know, it’s a waste of time. This is the basic principle of SRS’s, don’t review until you forget. Going back over concepts you already know is pointless and it contributes to “plateau syndrome” (when it feels like you’re not making any progress in your TL). Review what you need to, when you need to, only so long as you need to. Learning one new concept is worth more than going back over two you’ve already mastered.

11. HAVE FUN - The road to fluency is long. Like super long, I can’t stress this enough. You may not be fluent in 3 months, a year, two years, maybe even 5 years. It all depends on how much time you are willing to spend on the language and to a VERY VERY SMALL DEGREE how talented you are. The important thing is to not rush it and enjoy the experience. If you’re not having fun, modify your goals and your approach until you are.

This is nowhere near everything I have to say, but it’s a start. These are just some things I wish I had known when I started studying languages. So if it helps at least one person well hey that’s enough for me. :D

Helsinki? More like Hellsink...nah. Just hell. -- a thorough guide to surviving FS events

Every seasoned, semi-seasoned, or completely bland figure skating fan has a love-hate relationship with figure skating competitions. With the fast approaching final events of Worlds 2017, here are some methods to spare yourself from the pain that is following figure skating:

  • Never livestream. When you inevitably do so anyway because you’re terrible at following instructions, be sure to have an EMT on standby for your upcoming heart palpitations.
  • Study up. Figure skating is a complex sport with many rules and procedures. It is highly beneficial to understand the ins-and-outs of it, so that in situations where your favorite athlete gets a point deducted because he started his program three seconds late, it will all make sense to you.
  • Stay hydrated. Figure skating fans are known to maintain abnormally high levels of sodium during competition season. Drinking plentiful amounts of water counters how salty you will become.
  • Prepare tissues. For me personally, the rate at which my nose and eyes water triples when I watch figure skating events. This is because I am allergic to ISU bullshit. 
  • Sharpen your pitchforks. ISU judges may be complete nonsense, but the scores they choose are all that matter in the end. In cases where they overstep their Bullshit BoundaryTM, it is important to destress yourself by immediately heading to the venue of the event and threaten to burn down their houses. 
  • Have backup destressors. In the case that you are poor as all hell and cannot afford a pitchfork, be sure to have some other, non-figure-skating-related tool to allow yourself to purge your emotions. Mine, for example, is a lineup of internet tabs that include: pictures of goodlooking and capable Asian men, videos of goodlooking and capable Asian men, social media of goodlooking and capable Asian men, and a Chinese drama in which everyone suffers (just like the ISU should).
  • Ditch figure skating. In the end, you will discover that the emotional turmoil is not worth it. Instead, actively participate in United States politics. Because even that shit’s less corrupt than the ISU.

Happy April Fool’s Day!


Zakka Embroidery presents designs that are an elegant blend of Japanese and Scandinavian style

Zakka Embroidery: Simple One- and Two-Color Embroidery Motifs and Small Crafts
by Yumiko Higuchi
Roost Books
2016, 192 pages, 8.3 x 0.6 x 5.9 inches, Paperback
$14 Buy on Amazon

I’m a sucker for fiber arts. I only ever had a passing interest in embroidery and basically did all of my needlework embellishments freehand and on-the-fly. But since hitting the embroidery thread jackpot at a yard sale last summer, I’ve been inching slowly closer to learning the actual craft. Zakka Embroidery was exactly what I needed.

Yumiko Higuchi first draws in readers with a collection of beautiful embroidery motifs (shot clearly and up close so that you can practically feel the stitches on the muslin) with corresponding projects. All the motifs are garden/nature inspired and only use one or two colors of thread. This was a huge selling point for me, as I am not naturally drawn to overly colorful designs and have a hard time figuring out what goes well together (outside of gray and dark gray). The projects range from sweet, floral clutches and satchels, to baby items, to home decor. There are a lot of great gift-projects in this book. The second half is a thorough, photographically illustrated guide to embroidery techniques, and then the actual embroidery and project patterns.

Because many of the projects in this lovely little book do involve sewing, it’s good to have some basic sewing skills to fully utilize it. But don’t let that stop you! You can easily embroider these motifs onto pre-made garments (some projects actually call for this), tea towels, or accessories. You could even make these tiny gardens into your classic wall-hanging, but I think one of the nicest things about this book is that everything is intended to be actually used, worn, and appreciated in action.

– Marykate Smith Despres

March 27, 2017


under the cut, you’ll find a thorough guide to bandom rp. i realized my old one wasn’t actually very detailed, so i made this obnoxiously lengthy so that all of the bases were covered. i included how everything works, some common trends, and a few opinions on certain things for your viewing pleasure. if you’re a rp group, feel free to link to this page on your main. give a like or reply if you find this helpful! this was made in the spirit of my old slasher rp (screams) being revamped. if you have any questions that weren’t answered here, let me know, and i’ll elaborate where necessary. 

Keep reading
The Political Patient
Surviving Crohn's disease in Donald Trump's America

A new blogger has entered the arena!!

Friends, this blog is full of really high-quality and spoonie-centered information on current events in American healthcare. Original essay posts are carefully researched and annotated.

To get you started, check out this thorough guide to health insurance terminology, both general and specific to the ADA and healthcare debate.


An awesome and really thorough guide to traveling in Japan with a disability

Whitemoore House

You don’t go out after dark. That had been one of the inn’s rules since it opened in the late 19th century. Built beside a wide swath of marshland, it was large, beautiful, and sitting on a precarious edge. During daylight hours, paths were easy enough to see and enough signposts had been erected that finding one’s way to and from Whitemoore House wasn’t much of a challenge. After nightfall, however, shadows had a way of obscuring signs and swallowing light, pathways got tangled and lost underfoot, and one misstep was all it took to end up in one of the bogs. And once you were in, there was almost no getting out.

Keep reading

Foraging sounds very tempting but there are obviously a lot of safety concerns. I did a bit of research and this is what I’ve found as far as safety guidelines: 

  • Don’t pick anything you’re not 110% sure you’ve identified correctly. For me it would pretty much just be the white clover. Maybe the Queen Anne’s lace because its appearance being so similar to poison hemlock means there are tons of extremely thorough guides to identifying it.
  • Don’t pick anything growing close to a road. Plants there can absorb exhaust fumes and leaked gasoline. Same principle applies to more polluted urban areas.
  • Don’t pick anything from a lawn unless you can verify that it hasn’t been treated with pesticides, weedkillers, and other toxic chemicals. Best to stick to your own lawn so you can be 100% certain. Lots of common weeds are edible, so this is actually a fairly good alternative to using weedkillers.
  • Don’t pick anything in an area that dogs were likely to have been in. Again, avoid lawns and also areas near sidewalks. You can get parasites from anything contaminated by dog waste - or cat waste, for that matter.
  • Avoid plants that look damaged. Blackened, spotted, or otherwise decaying plants are a sign that something has contaminated the environment. This isn’t your grocery store or farmer’s market with discounted bruised apples; anything wild that looks bad has serious potential to be bad.
  • Wash and cook everything. A lot of guides will list plants that can be eaten raw in salads, but unless you’re an expert forager you should stick to only eating your plants cooked. If you follow all the other safety guidelines listed here, cooking the plants should be your last measure of guaranteeing the safety of your food. Stick to commercial greens for your salads; it’s not worth the risk.

Other concerns: 

  • Be mindful of potentially damaging the environment where you’re foraging. Try to take only small fractions of each plant so as not to kill off the local population (unless it’s, say, a weed on your property and you don’t mind it not coming back the next year). Also be aware that sometimes just walking through an environment can be damaging. Footfall can degrade the topsoil and harm more delicate ground plants.
  • Never forage on someone else’s property without express permission. This should go without saying. It’s illegal, so unless you’re starving and willing to risk criminal convictions, don’t do it.
Step-by-step guide to obtaining insurance coverage for top surgery! • /r/ftm

My friend made this incredibly thorough guide to navigating insurance re: top surgery after a tedious, months long battle with insurance involving multiple appeals to overturn a denial for coverage. The guide includes a general overview of insurance coverage and the steps you’ll need to take to start the process if you’re trying to use insurance for surgery as well as sample letters you can use if you need to appeal a denial.

A lot of effort was put into this guide and the intention is to help as many folks as possible. Please use and share this guide as needed! And if you have any feedback or suggestions, please feel free to contact the email listed in the guide. All feedback and suggestions are welcomed, the goal is to make this guide accessible to as many folks as possible!

Super useful resource.



In order to celebrate my favorite ship of all the ships I have, I’m going to make another post of fanfictions recommendation. It’s been a long time since the last time I made them, so this one is going to be verryy veryy loooong? XD XD 

There are some warnings tho hehe:

  2. There might be a high possibilities that I post the fic that I already post before
  3. I’m being lazy ass to remind you guys which one is rated PG-17, PG-13, etc etc XD XD (but I guess mostly are rated, or at least have mild smut hehe)
  4. Probably will make a rec post about author, soon, hopefully tho hehe. 
  5. Remind me if there’s any mistake.



Part I / Part II / Part III / Part IV

MBTI Book Tag

Tagged by @starry-ni-te - and thanks! First time doing one of these tag things.

1. First things first, what is your MBTI type?

I’m recently decided it’s most likely INTJ. It took some thorough reading of the guides on @mbti-notes.

2. When did you learn to read?

Can’t say for certain. Probably 5-6. I actually struggled with it for a while and was put in some extra help courses. Never appreciated reading until about 4th grade.

3. What languages can you read in?

Fluently?? Just English. I’ve taken a bit of French, so while I can read some of it, it wouldn’t be enough for me to call myself capable. A wee bit of Latin is in there too for having taken it for the year my school would offer it.

4. What books are you currently reading or most recently read?

This one is laughable. I’m currently reading one, The Bell Jar, but I’m listening to about four more. I don’t care what some people believe, listening to a book is absolutely valid. The information is retained just as well and I can actually get shit done in the meantime - it’s all a matter of preference. Anyway, I’m on my way through The Handmaid’s Tale by Margaret Atwood, Silent Child by Sarah A. Denzil, The Hobbit by Tolkien, and Flat-Out Love by Jessica Park. I feel like I could explain some reasoning behind a couple of those, but I’ll leave you wondering.

5. Name 3 books you never finished:

Yikes. Even if I’m half-way through a book and groaning about how dumb the plot is or how the characters are lacking, I can’t entirely abandon it. I always find myself having learned something not to do. So maybe I’ll put it down, intending to return to in the future. However… Wild Wastes by Randi Darren. I’m putting that series down for good. Started like a decent apocalyptic novel with an aloof, edgy protag and quickly disintegrated into an unexpected harem heavy porno.

6. What are your favorite books from childhood?

Percy Jackson and the Olympians made my life as a child. The books showed me reading was a great way to live the impossible.

7. What are your current favorite books?

Ugh, a dreaded question. I can’t decide between books that made me laugh throughout the whole thing or ones that actually made me fear for the characters. It’s hard to firmly put my finger on one, but The Winner’s Curse trilogy by Marie Rutkoski had something so beautiful about the writing and world building. And then the dilemmas going on between her characters had me pulling out my hair in frustration – in a good way.

Multiple Choice (bold as many as apply to you & add your own choice if you must)

8. Your favorite genres:

Mystery/Sci-fi/Chick Lit/Young Adult/Horror/Nonfiction/Memoirs/Dystopias/Poetry/Self-Help/Historical Fiction/Fanfiction/Realistic Fiction/Biographies.

9. Your opinion on rereading books:

I do it all the time/It has to be a really good book/I can’t stand it/I  haven’t done it since I was a child/I only reread my favorite sections.

10. How long does it take you to read one book on average?

1 to 3 days/a week/a few weeks/about a month.

11. How do you typically read?

Every opportunity I get, in transit, while waiting, etc./Before bed/On the go by audiobook/When I can truly relax/When I remember to.

12. How many books do you typically read in a year?

None or 1/About 1 to 3/Maybe 4 to 10/At least more than 10/ At least 50/ Too much. I can’t keep track.

13. For school assigned books, what type of student are/were you?

I read all the books in detail/I read all but sometimes skimmed/I nearly read all, I may have skipped a few because they were too boring/I only read the interesting ones/There’s a reason why Sparknotes was made!

Tagging: @dethnira, @vasterthanthecosmos, @dulcetlips, @galacticlust

Japanese Phonemes and Phones

You’d be surprised how hard it is to get a straight answer on how many phonemes exist in Japanese. Most of the time, what you get are the phones of Japanese, which, of course, are quite different. Today we’ll try to settle the question once and for all:

If you’ve ever seen a Kana chart, then you’ve seen the Gojuuon, of the 50 sounds. This in itself gives us a really great starting point to finding the answer.

(Courtesy of

From here, we can guess that there have to be at least 5 vowels and 9 consonants, assuming that the solo ん and な,に,ぬ,ね, and の use the same /n/.

/k/ /s/ /t/ /n/ /h/ /m/ /y/ /r/ /w/ ||  /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/

But wait, there’s more! 

We also know that Japanese voices various columns, through the dakuten, those being the ゛marks you see after a kana.

With the dakuten, you get voiced /k/ /s/ and /t/; and you also get a voiced bilabial plosive of /p/, which is what /h/ was once upon a time. So we have /g/ /z/ /d/ and /b/. And we also have the handakuten, which is the ゜you sometimes see after the kana starting with /h/, which make /h/ into /p/. 

/k/ /g/ /s/ /z/ /t/ /d/ /n/ /h/ /b/ /p/ /m/ /y/ /r/ /w/ ||  /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/

But wait, there’s more!

We also have the phenomenon of palatalization, which is represented by the ゃゅょ you can see after き,ぎ, し, じ, ち, に, ひ, び, ぴand み, effectively making digraphs.

For the sake of simplification and, we will call these digraphs /ky/ /gy/ /sy/ /zy/ /ty/ /ny/ /hy/ /by/ /py/ and /my/. This does not correspond with the romanization system we use, but that’s okay. When we’re just transliterating, we’re not terribly concerned about phonemes as such.

Okay, so here’s our answer

/k/ /g/ /ky/ /gy/ /s/ /sy/ /zy/ /z/ /t/ /ty/ /d/ /n/ /ny/ /h/ /hy/ /b/ /by/ /p/ /py/ /m/ /my/ /y/ /r/ /w/ ||  /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/

24 consonants, and 5 vowels. (We’ll eventually concede them an extra nasal phoneme, but let’s pretend all non-fontal nasals are the same.)

Now let’s figure out the phones.

In a perfect world, one would have one phone for one phoneme. But that’s really never the case. Fair warning, phonetics is a hotly debated topic, so if you talk to 5 different people, you’ll get 5 different answers.

The crossed out phonemes are the ones that we won’t worry much about because they do not have allophones.

/k/ /g/ /ky/ /gy/ /s/ /sy/ /zy/ /z/ /t/ /ty/ /d/ /n/ /ny/ /h/ /hy/ /b/ /by/ /p/ /py/ /m/ /my/ /y/ /r/ /w/ ||  /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/

Allophones are two phones that correspond to the same phoneme under different distributions. You’ll see what I mean in a minute.

Distribution refers to the surroundings of a phone, i.e. what comes before and after it. Depending on it’s distribution, the sound a phoneme is will change. For example, take the words “house” and “Hugh.” Notice how the /h/ changes from an open sound to a constrained sound. The sound changes because of what’s coming in front of it, it’s distribution.

In Japanese, the most important factor in phoneme distribution is what comes after it, meaning, in most cases, what vowel comes after the consonant. There are three instances where what comes before the phoneme is important: /g/, and /u/ and /n/.


The easiest case to talk about is /u/, because everyone becomes savvy to this very quickly.

Let’s take two anime names: “Uzumaki” and “Sasuke.” Note that those two middle /u/’s are pronounced different. In the first case, it’s pronounced; and in the second it isn’t. 

When /u/ is between two voiceless consonants, it is silent.

Let’s look at once more case, that of verbs: “desu,” “kimasu,” “korosu.” Here /u/ is also silent. But if you look at verbs such as “kiku” and “naku,” the /u/ is pronounced.

In final position, if preceded by /s/, /u/ is silent.

In the case of /g/, this is a dialectical thing, but it’s common enough to talk about. (I’d even say that it’s exaggerated in some instances where people are trying to speak clear, Standard Japanese.)


With /g/, there is a chance it will turn into the velar nasal: [ŋ]

[ŋ] is the same sound that Spanish’s “ñ” represents. It’s the same /n/ in sing. 

You’d be surprised by how difficult it is to pin down when this phenomenon happens. It has probably changed a lot in the past 50 years. We have heard from people who learned Japanese 30 years ago that it’s supposed to be a posh feminine thing, but we’ve heard audio of men doing it all the time. Just keep in mind that it does happen.


There seems to be some consensus that the /n/’s in な, に, ぬ, ね, and の are all the same. It’s the alveolar nasal [n].

In the case of ん, where the thing following it is not a vowel, it will assimilate in position according to the features of the consonant. If it’s followed by a vowel, however, it will be [n], which is why we’ll try to keep it one phoneme. (Some linguists believe that this is actually a nasalized vowel, but we cannot quite see it.)

The most famous case of this kind of assimilation happening is with the word 先輩 (せんぱい/senpai), where it is pronounced with an [m], “sempai.” [m] is the bilabial nasal, and [p] is a bilabial plosive.  

The same thing happens with velar consonants [k] and [g]. 産休 (さんきゅう/sankyuu) will be pronounced as our friend [ŋ].

In cases where it is at the end of the sentence, it will be pronounced as the uvular nasal [ɴ].

When /n/ precedes a bilabial consonant, it is [m].

When /n/ precedes a velar consonant, it is [ŋ].

When /n/ is in final position, it is [ɴ].

In all other cases, /n/ is [n].


/r/ is another famous case. This is a case of two allophones having “equal distribution,” i.e. you can exchange one for another and you’ll never really have a problem.

/r/ is both a flap and a lateral. To put it colloquially, you can pronounce either as an r or as an l. Some people have developed rationales for when a consonant is pronounced either as an the flap [ɾ] or as the lateral [l], but there is a lot of inconsistency between them.


There exist a couple of variations with /h/ (and aspirations with certain plosives), but the one case we need to talk about is when /h/ precedes /u/.

The tendency is to place /h/ generally in the glottal area, so the glottal fricative [h]. 

Before /u/, /h/ can be pronounced as a bilabial fricative [ɸ], the labiodental fricative [f], or the glottal fricative [h].

The standard pronunciation, to our understanding, is [ɸ], but the others are heard. 


/w/ is a dying phoneme. There originally existed four Kana for it (which can still be heard in the Iroha poem): わ, ゐ (wi), ゑ (we), and を. Now only two are in use: わ and を; and を is dying out. If it were not for its functional use, for clearly marking the accusative case particle, it would be gone as well.

We bring up /w/ because there are those who pronounce the /w/ before /o/ and those who don’t. Both seem to be fine, though some may claim that this is an abnormality known as hypercorrection, where a sound is produced unnaturally for the same of some kind of regularity (this is common in cases of assimilation, such as pronouncing the final /s/ in “rings” as an [s] and not as a [z]). 

Regardless, there is an older generation that did learn to pronounce を with the /w/.

When /w/ precedes /o/, it can either be silent or pronounced.

/t/ /d/ /s/ /z/

These four consonants undergo a similar transformation before /i/.

The consensus is that they become post-alveolar affricates.

/t/ before /i/ becomes [tɕ]

/d/ before /i/ becomes [dʑ]

/s/ before /i/ becomes [ɕ]

/z/ before /i/ becomes [ʑ]

It’s worth noting here that the palatal phonemes that /ty/, /gy/, /sy/, and /zy/ have these very same phones.

Then, in the case of /t/ and /d/, when they precede /u/, they become affricates, but alveolar and not post-alveolar, so [t͡s] [d͡z].

/t/ before /u/ becomes [t͡s]

/d/ before /u/ becomes [d͡z]

And that, friends, covers most of everything. 

There are some things involving loanwords and nuances, such as /s/ remaining [s] before /i/ and there being a [v] and not just a [b], but that’s secondary to all this.

Zutter Analysis

so originally i wasn’t going to write anything about zutter because i didn’t think i had that much to say about it but i accidentally wrote a bunch while discussing it with jiyong-oppar so here we are lol. this isn’t a thorough guide through the song or a line by line analysis like what i would normally do, it’s more just a small collection of ideas i’ve had about zutter. anyway let’s start!

Keep reading

codydiceyeah  asked:

Do you by any chance know what books would be best for learning the magical and medicinal properties of herbs, plants, and flowers? Like real and good sources? I keep seeing ones that just look hokey.

I had Scott Cunningham’s book for a while, but while it has its magical uses it’s simply not reliable for developing a <i>materia medica</i> for the modern age. 

Recommending books about herbs-as-medicine is a dicey business, because in the US, at least, the American Medical Association maintains a pretty hard lock on the business of diagnosis and prescription for its doctors.  So, remember that this is a hard line that should not be crossed.  

One of the ancient standards, of course, is Nicholas Culpepper’s Complete Herbal, which dates to the middle of the 1600s.  There are modern editions which update the book with modern herbs — but be sure you get an edition which clearly identifies old recipes and new.

C.F. Leyel is another reliable name: The Magic of Herbs was originally published in 1926, and it’s good enough that it’s been reprinted without changes since then; my edition dates to 1961. 

Rosemary Gladstar has a number of books out; I have her Medicinal Herbs book, which I find is excellent.

If you want to have an appropriate understanding of HOW to use herbs (on yourself, because diagnosing and treating others is a really hard-line No-No), then the Traditional Healer’s Handbook by. Hakim G.M. Chishti is a thorough guide to the Unani Tibb system of medicine, which itself is the ‘modern’ descendant of the medicine of Avicenna — Unani Tibb means “the medicine of the Ionians”, that is, the Greeks.  It’s based on the four-humours theory of medicine, which means that by studying Unani Tibb in conjunction with herbal medicine, you’re bringing your magic of four elements — fire, air, water, and earth — into alignment with your understanding of herbs.  And, of course, Culpepper’s information about which herbs are connected with which planets, elements and astrological signs will then make sense.  

If you want to begin to understand alchemical processes and herbs, then Frater Albertus’s, The Alchemist’s Handbook on the manufacture of alchemical ingredients includes as its first few chapters the making of vegetable spagyrics, which is the intensification of herbal medicine into super-powered ingredients.  Robert Bartlett, in Real Alchemy: A primer of practical alchemy, goes over similar ground before delving into the manufacture of metallic medicines.  For those who don’t want to go beyond the vegetable alchemy, The Celtic Golden Dawn by John Michael Greer contains a complete course in vegetable alchemy — the making of spagyrics, and the making of alchemical salts — as part of its larger training course for druids.

I cannot stress enough, though, the advice of Paracelsus, who said that “Poison is in everything, and no thing is without poison. The dosage makes it either a poison or a remedy.”  I have read every book in this list a half-dozen times, and I’ve done a good many alchemical experiments, and made a bunch of teas and other things for myself, and I would not presume under any circumstances to assume I am a “healer”. Having the books is the first step; reading the books is the second; reading them again the third; performing the experiments and making the materiae the fourth through the four hundredth…. and then maybe you’ll be in a position to help others.  Physician, heal thyself!



By viewer (and Hank Green’s) request, this week’s video is a thorough guide to publishing a book, landing a literary agent, and getting your dreams from your word processor into the wide world! Our amazing buddy, YouTuber and bestselling writer Josh Sundquist, hosted this week. Check him out – he’s so great.

Also, many thanks to Tyler Oakley and Troye Sivan for their, uh, “cameos” in this episode…. :)

P.S. - Bonus video this week! Mike interviewed Josh on Mike’s vlog channel. Check out “Six-Pack Abs & Pick-up Lines: Josh Sundquist’s BEST ADVICE EVER!” 

companionwolf  asked:

So I have. A problem. I have my characters walking a lot as a group, and they're almost always in a line or something. Now I wouldn't be complaining, except I've noticed BC of this and some other times, I've written "they/he/she followed" a bunch of times and I don't know it's getting on my nerves. How can I convey that people are following and are caught up w the group w/o saying "followed", "walked behind", "ran after" or what over and over? ;-;

Trust your readers. If you’ve set up the scenery as you have stated, they’ll figure it out. Also, unless you explicitly state the party has split up for good, your readers will assume that it is still together, and so if two people run off to find firewood, your readers will accurately assume that, once gathering is done, they’ll rejoin the party. Overstating the obvious is something a lot of writers realize they do in their first draft, and need to correct during editing. Guilty as charged: Me. 

Think about this: Janelle and Malcolm are a couple and they are in love and they live together. You’ve established this with no doubts. One night, Janelle goes out to eat with her best friend from high school, and Malcolm goes home to visit his ailing father. Things relevant to the plot and/or the characters’ development happen. You don’t need to explicitly state that later that night, they go back to their apartment. You can have them snuggling on the couch without writing that Janelle got a ride home from the friend and Malcolm drove his car, unless of course during those trips, something critical to the characters and/or the plot happens.

Next night, our two lovebirds have a terrible argument over That Thing that has dogged their relationship all along. Malcolm goes to hang with his slacker friend from college, and Janelle goes to drown her sorrows in a club and runs into an ex – and things relevant to your characters and/or the plot are revealed. THEN, MAYBE, you might need to explain how/if they reunite, but only because you’ve created some doubt as to the stability of the relationship.

I know that’s not a perfect metaphor, but you might have noticed that every scene, every movement, every word exchanged or thought should be relevant to character development and or plot happenings. 

We just reblogged an excellent, thorough guide to writing dialogue beats earlier today that might help for when your characters are talking and walking. I’ll link again because this is one of the most important concepts to master for all writers, whether you just started writing yesterday or have 23 New York Times bestsellers. 

Guide to Split 1/1 (C) vs Switch 1/1 (D) on floor

I’ve seen this question going around so much! I feel like I should make a thorough guide (with .gifs) to help y’all out.

Okay here we have Simone and Kyla whom both have right splits.

Here we have Simone Biles doing a Switch Full in slow motion.

Simone throws her right leg forward, then turns halfway to the right opening up into a right split, then wraps in and does another half twist out to the right. This officially makes a switch full.

On the other hand we have Kyla doing a Split Full in slow motion.

Kyla throws her right leg forward like Simone, but then she turns halfway to the left opening into a right split (this motion is called a tour jete), then wraps and does another half twist out to the left. This officially makes a tour jete 1/2 or a split full.

The motion of the tour jete is a lot easier than the motion of a switch, therefore allowing you to twist quicker. This is a main reason there is a split 1.5 and only a switch full.

To sum this up, if the althete throws a leg forward, and twists towards that leg, that was a switch. If she throws a leg forward and twists away from that leg, it was just a split.

And here’s an even more detailed sum up:

Althlete throws left leg forward and does a full turn to the left, switch full.
Althete throws left leg forward and does a full turn to the right, split full.

Also vice versa in terms of direction.

Now this may not be official but this is a super easy way to tell the difference between the two. And if you have some more questions please send them in my ask box!! And note it may take some time to get the ability of being able to tell which one is which right away!!! Practice makes perfect.