thoracic vertebrae

Requested by @keeganwj

Bewear the Ides of March!

Julius Caesar was stabbed by the Roman Senators, not hugged. Yet, if the ancient senators were actually Bewears, hugging Caesar would have been equally effective as a method of assassination. According to the Pokédex, Bewear has a habit of hugging its trainers…to death. So today, let’s figure out how this might happen.

The human spine, also known as the vertebral column, is a vital part of our skeleton and nervous system. It is made up of 33 different bones called vertebrae, separated from each other with intervertebral discs. The first seven (colored in red) are called cervical vertebrae and are located in your neck. The middle twelve bones in your back (in blue) are called the thoracic vertebrae. The lower back (in yellow) consists of the lumbar vertebrae. The last 9 vertebrae (5 in green / 4 in pink) are fused together and form the sacrum and the coccyx, or your tailbone.

It’s not easy to break a spine; the discs between each vertebrae are made of squishy cartilage that is specifically designed to absorb shock and prevent your back from breaking. The segmented nature of the vertebrae allows the back to bend in several directions, also to avoid breaking by being flexible. Not to mention the walls of muscle that surround it. 

For death to occur, the individual vertebrae need to shift dramatically so they damage the nerve that runs through the middle of them. Typically, spinal-injury deaths are related to the phrenic nerve, which connects your brain to your lungs and allows breathing to happen. Several arteries also run through the vertebral column, and if they are pinched or crushed it can result in a stroke.

Of course, how much force needed to break a spine depends on whose spine you are crushing: children have more delicate spines than adults, and so on. However, it also depends on where on the spine you are crushing. The neck (cervical spine), for example, requires a force of 3,000 Newtons (roughly 700 pounds) to fracture. But Bewear doesn’t strangle its victims, it hugs them – so Bewear is attacking the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Various studies find the absolute limit for lumbar vertebrae to be about 1600 Newtons (360 pounds) of force.

This is surprisingly reasonable. Boxers and professional martial artists’ punches have been documented over 4,000 Newtons (900 pounds), and kicks can exceed 9,000 Newtons (2,000 pounds). Squeezing is a little different, since it is pure muscle work instead of a forward thrust, and human grip strength at its strongest is about 150 pounds. So you might not be able to crush a spine with your bare hands, but can Bewear crush a spine with its bear hands?

Probably. This shouldn’t come as a surprise, but most animals are stronger than humans in terms of muscle exertion. Some chimpanzees have been shown to be eight times stronger than humans. This is mostly because of the way we use our muscles: humans have developed a lot of control. We can finely tune our muscles, precisely control our finger movements, only using certain muscle fibers at one time. This saves us energy in many ways: you don’t have to use your entire bicep to lift up a pencil, like you might when you’re lifting weights. Other animals don’t have this control: It’s all or nothing for them. Physically, the way their muscles activate prevents them from having the fine control that we have. In other words, Bewear is incapable of giving a small hug. It can only give big, spine crushing squeezes.

Bewear’s hugs must deliver a force of 1600 Newtons (360 pounds) in order to break a trainer’s vertebral column.

German vocabulary #3: Skeleton

Originally posted by horrorandhalloween

  • das Skelett - skeleton
  • der Schädel - skull
  • der Kieferknochen - jaw
  • das Schlüsselbein - collar bone
  • das Schulterblatt - shoulder blade
  • das Brustbein - breastbone
  • der Oberarmknochen - humerus
  • der Brustkorb - rib cage
  • die Rippe - rib
  • die Elle - ulna
  • der Mittlhandknochen - metacarpal
  • die Speiche - radius
  • das Becken - pelvis
  • die Kniescheibe - kneecap
  • der Oberschenkelknochen - femur
  • das Schienbein - tibia
  • das Wadenbein - fibula
  • der Mittelfußknochen - metatarsal
  • die Wirbelsäule - spine
  • die Halswirbel - cervical vertebrae
  • die Brustwirbel - thoracic vertebrae
  • die Lendenwirbel - lumbar vertebrae
  • das Steißbein - tailbone
  • das Gelenk - joint
  • der Knorpel - cartilage
  • das Sehnenband - ligament
  • der Knochen - bone
  • die Sehne - tendon

boys with collarbones (✿◠‿◠)

boys with clavicles (◕‿◕✿)

boys with spines (。♥‿♥。)

boys with patellas (≧◡≦)

boys with phalanges (◑‿◐)

boys with thoracic vertebrae (✿ ♥‿♥)

He said we weren’t supposed to have met;
I said no two people ever are.

He said he’s annoying because he sleeps with his whole body wrapped around me;
I said I just can’t sleep without spreading my limbs out in every direction.

He said he didn’t believe in the idea of a soul;
I said that when the universe draws him back out of his body
To return him to the stars,

His mind will flow like mercury from the base of his neck;
But beneath that his soul will rise slowly
From every thoracic vertebra.

He wrote me a love poem eleven days after we first spoke;
I tattooed the word “reckoner” on his arm.

He said in his poem that he wanted to be the ship and the sea and the wind all at once;
I said he was a very good writer.

He said I asked people questions because I really wanted to know the answers;
And I said no one had ever known me this well.

In Ancient Peru, Archaeologists Find Rare Spinal Condition And Possible Inbreeding

An extremely rare condition of the spine, in which an extra lumbar vertebra is present, was recently discovered in nearly one-fifth of burials in an ancient Peruvian cemetery. Could this inherited genetic condition be the result of inbreeding?

Research at the Moquegua Valley site of Rio Muerto, a cemetery associated with Tiwanaku and dating to 500-1100 AD, was presented at last week’s American Association of Physical Anthropologists conference by Sara K. Becker of the University of California, Riverside and her colleagues. They found 14 cases of sixth lumbar sacralization – both the presence of an extra bone in the lower back and the fusion of that bone with the sacrum at the back of the pelvis.

While normal human anatomy includes 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, and 5 lumbar vertebrae, it is not uncommon to have an extra bone, to lack a bone somewhere in the spinal column, or to see a slight difference in arrangement of the vertebrae. Read more.

anonymous asked:

Hey, so my character is a 7-year-old child who falls down from a height (7m/23ft) and ends up breaking her neck. Could she end up with tetraplegia? As access to any kind of healthcare services would take more than 5 hours, is it possible that she might die? Also, how would you go about diagnozing that with minimal equipment? Thank you so much for your help beforehand!!

Hey there nonny! Yes, a fall from 7m/23ft could definitely break a neck, and a broken neck can definitely cause tetriplegia! 

Here’s the sitcherino. Tetraplegia is total or partial paralysis of all four limbs. That means that any spinal cord injury above T1, the first thoracic vertebra, can cause tetraplegia. Observe: 

[Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

As you can see, any injury between C1-C7 would cause tetraplegia. 

However, there’s a catch. You asked about the character dying. That’s definitely possible too, for a number of reasons.

First, the actual trauma. A fall of more than twice the character’s height is likely to cause significant bleeding, and if there’s no help for 5 hours as you said, they’re likely to go into shock and possibly die even if it’s unrelated to the paralysis

Second, there’s a saying: “C5 stays alive.” The nerves that control the diaphragm exit the spinal cord at C5, which means that injuries above that level cause paralysis of the respiratory muscles – and, thus, death. 

So for your character to survive their fall, I would suggest lowering the height of the fall to, say, 4m (12′+-), and putting the injury in the C6-C7 area. The character will have some use of their hand, but not a lot; if you search through the archives for the name Tom you’ll get an idea of what life with such an injury might be like. 

In terms of diagnosing it, it’s fairly simple – the character won’t be able to use their arms or legs, or feel stimulus below the top of their chest. They might lose consciousness for a period of time around the fall, too. 

Most important for their care will be keeping them warm – the body will dilate blood vessels below the level of the injury, which means they’ll lose a lot of heat in the 5 hours until help arrives. 

I hope this was useful!! 

xoxo, Aunt Scripty


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SasuHina: Children

This is a topic I wanted to discuss for a while. I saw many people giving their opinions on it, and while the ideas are unique, I feel as though I’ve taken an approach to it that not many others have. I credit a lot of this to @narunerd as she’s the one who made all of this possible, having a lovely interpretation of Sasuke that made me think,” Hey, what about babies?” So without further ado …

Kekkai Genkai - What it can & What it can’t:


SasuHina children are undeniably beautiful, no matter how an artist interprets them. Raven-haired children with snub noses and sharp eyes - but it’s the colour and look to those eyes that seem to be up to the most debate. While it’s easy enough to pick between black or blue hair, the eyes are not so simple. My take on it is one I haven’t seen represented in fan art, except for one picture I found once … and I have over 200 pictures of my ship saved.

  • The left eye possesses the Byakugan. It is white, with a lavender tint, as is the dominant colour demonstrated by the Hyūga Clan when not activated. When it is activated, it takes on the same form as any other Hyūga’s - bulging veins and a more prominent pupil, the lavender tint fading.
  • The right eye possesses the Sharingan. It is black, onyx, coal or whatever you want to call it. When activated, it is red, with tomoes equivalent to the power of the user (a maximum of three). Mangekyou Sharingan will take on an individual appearance unique to the user.

Source(s)?: Third Databook, P.351, Masashi Kishimoto - (Source A)

Q. What happens to the eyes of a baby who has Hyūga and Uchiha blood?

A. The right eye will have Sharingan. The left eye will have Byakugan! (laughing)


The prospect of SasuHina children is amazing, yes, but what exactly are those kids capable of? The answer to that would be - a heck of a lot. If you want a ‘pure’ Uchiha, turn away now, because the ideas I believe in are a whole new clan that may well overthrow their predecessors, both Hyūga and Uchiha.


With two eyes, a Byakugan user is capable of near 360 degrees vision, with a blind spot above the first thoracic vertebra. For a SasuHina child, this would be different, however - as they have only one Byakugan, it’s pure logic that their vision would then be spliced in half. This means that SasuHina children have:

  1. 180 degrees vision on their left side. A blind spot, I speculate, would be very close to the original, only more towards the left. Truthfully, it could be anywhere behind them so long as it’s on the left (as it’s 180 degrees, they wouldn’t see the right anyway).
  2. A range of vision that is largely unaffected, down to natural ability and talent. It is likely that they’ll be highly capable to start with judging by their mother Hinata’s ability to see targets 20 kilometres away.
  3. Magnification would be unaffected, as well as the ability to use infrared to distinguish clones from a real person. *
  4. They would still be able to see chakra and the chakra pathway system, but would have to angle themselves to see all 361 tenketsu. Face to face, they would only be able to see half the system as they have 180 degrees vision, not 360.
  5. The ability to spot genjutsu would be largely unaffected, so long as the affected person is within their (Byakugan) sight. The effectiveness shouldn’t be altered.

Source(s)?: Naruto Wikipedia, Naruto (Anime)

*3. Naruto - Episode 149, Team 8 and Naruto are sent on a mission to locate a bikōchū, an insect that is capable of tracking scents. Hinata uses her Byakugan to magnify in on trees and shrubbery, searching for it.


  1. Like with the Byakugan, the Sharingan would enable the child to see the chakra of somebody else.
  2. By watching their target’s movements, they would be able to copy most jutsus being performed so long as they are within capability. *
  3. Able to suggest thoughts and actions to a target through means of eye contact, or even take control of the victim. This can also be performed on more than one person at a time.
  4. Also through eye contact, the user would be able to enter another person’s conscious, in order to see memories, extract information forcefully etc.

Source(s)?: Naruto Wikipedia, Naruto (Anime); Naruto (Manga)

* 2. Naruto - Episode 12, Kakashi is seen using his implanted sharingan to copy Zabuza’s techniques. A single, implanted eye, meaning that with just one eye, it is possible to act on this aspect of the Sharingan.

  Balancing Factors: Sharingan & Byakugan

  • Both the Sharingan and the Byakugan are able to see, analyse and keep up with (so long as the user is capable) fast-moving objects or motions. As there is not a huge difference in skill here, there would be little to no hindrance, and therefore the two do not clash with one another.
  • If a person was to attack them through their right side, the Sharingan would be able to - upon eye contact - potentially paralyze that person, stopping their advances and giving the user enough time to step away and re-evaluate if they don’t wish to go in for a kill, or knock-out blow.


  • With both the Byakugan and the (Mangekyou) Sharingan, the user experiences strain after prolonged usage and chakra drainage. Having only one of each eye causes even more pressure to these individual powers, and therefore means the user will be able to conserve less chakra while using them, and so have to limit their time utilizing the abilities more so than any pure Hyūga or Uchiha.
  • If a user has Mangekyou Sharingan, it is likely that they will not be able to activate both kekkai genkai at the same time for extended periods, as the Mangekyou would consume a larger amount of chakra than the Byakugan (being the evolved form of the Byakugan’s equivalent, the Sharingan). It means that oftentimes, the Byakugan could be left without another power to balance it during the heat of battle, rendering the user weak. This can, however, be improved with training to increase chakra levels and consumption rates.
  • The Hyūga style of combat would be affected due to the half-Byakugan vision of a SasuHina child. Standing face to face with another, approximately only half of that person’s 361 tenketsu would be visible to the wielder, so that for all 361 tenketsu to be within sight, the child would have to be at a constant angle. This demands a need for acute sense of direction and a specific training program that’ll enable them to get a grip on the motions, which may take years to properly develop. Flexibility would also become a necessity, or if not flexibility, pin-point accuracy alongside good memory skills to remember where their desired striking point is located.


  • With the Sharingan, it is possible to temporarily paralyze another person. This would provide free access to the target’s tenketsu, and render them unable to resist a Hyūga-style assault, effectively closing or opening any points in the body that the user desires.
  • Through the Byakugan’s ability to use infrared in order to distinguish clones from the real person, the user would then be able to focus their attention on the main target, trapping them in genjutsu, suggesting thoughts and actions or other assaults that the attacker wishes to inflict.
  • If in the position of interrogating another, the Hyūga-Uchiha would be able to attack the tenketsu of the captured prisoner, disrupting the flow of chakra and weakening the other significantly so that they can then use their Sharingan in order to forcefully extract information via plundering their victim’s memories.

(General) SasuHina Genetics:

This here is a little section that I’m typing up so a later point that I make will have a reference for you to look to. See, Kishimoto does say that SasuHina children would have both the Sharingan and the Byakugan - but there is no proof to say that eye colour and bloodline limits are correlated. They could be coded for by separate genes (though I believe this is unlikely, as Kishimoto stated that he had forgotten to give Boruto and Himawari white eyes, meaning that Himawari - with her byakugan - really should have had her mother’s eyes).

The basic rule of eye colour is that darker hues (more melanin) tend to be dominant over lighter hues (less melanin). Green eyes are dominant over blue eyes, and both blue and green eyes are recessive to brown eyes. 

White Eyes - The proof that white eyes are dominant over brown eyes comes from Kaguya’s relationship with Tenji, as the latter had brown eyes, a trait which their children did not share and instead bore their mother’s white eyes.

Black Eyes - We can assume that black eyes are dominant due to the fact that Sarada had black eyes over her mother’s green eyes.

As the Sharingan and the Byakugan are supposedly equal in ability - excluding their respective power-ups - it would seem that when the two phenotypes are presented (as the kekkai genkai), a co-dominance would be established leading to the two most dominant eye colours to be present in what is known as Heterochromia Iridis, the difference of colouration in the irises.

- Thank you to the lovely biologist known as @watchingthewind for helping me out with this portion!

More Information:

Surely that must be it, you’re probably thinking. But in fact, the story doesn’t stop there - there’s still more to know, things that I believe you may find quite interesting.

  • If you take another look at Source A, you may notice something interesting about the question. Looking closely, you’ll see that it asked not specifically of Sasuke and Hinata’s children - but of any baby with Hyūga and Uchiha blood in them. This means that any child descended from the couple, whether that be their direct children or their great grandchildren, would (most probably, with little to no doubt) have the same eyes as their own kids. My basic explanation of eye colour genetics also supports this theory, though exceptions may well be made.
  • Although a child with only one Sharingan eye may not have access to certain Mangekyou Sharingan abilities that require a pair (such as the Susanoo), it is absolutely possible for them to gain the evolved form. The Mangekyou is obtained through the trauma of loss, not necessarily having to murder a close one yourself.
  • There is no guarantee that the child will ever activate their Sharingan, and could therefore be considerably weaker than any pure Hyūga or Uchiha for years or - possibly - their entire life. As unlikely as it is, there is a chance that no strong emotional event would ever occur (whether that be positive or negative), so that the optic nerves would never be triggered and the kekkai genkai will remain dormant.

So that’s it, really! Will there be mistakes in this, or factors that I didn’t consider? Most likely, as I’d rather save them for another time. All in all, this is really just a blog post circulated around the question of ‘what if?’ and nothing more. It’s my take on SasuHina children and no-one is obliged to drop their interpretations if they don’t wish to. This is, again, just how I see them and if you were to judge based on my research as well as my logic, contrary to popular belief, these children wouldn’t be Sues. I struggled to think more of advantages than disadvantages! (Maybe I’m just a negative person though) - I hope you enjoyed reading this and if you found it pretty intriguing, tell others. It’d be nice to hear constructive feedback on this. With no more delay, I’ll publish this. Happy SasuHina Month!

Many thanks - Yumina


Het axiale skelet - the axial skeleton

OsseousHet skelet; het geraamte – the skeleton
Oshet bot; het been – the bone
Ossa de botten; de beenderen – the bones

Craniumde schedel – the skull

Os frontalehet voorhoofdsbeen – the frontal bone
Ossa parietalia de wandbeenderen – the parietal bones
Ossa temporalia de slaapbeenderen – the temporal bones
Os occipitale het achterhoofdsbeen – the occipital bone
Os sphenoidalehet wiggebeen – the sphenoid bone
Os ethmoidalehet zeefbeen – the ethmoid bone

Ossa zygomaticade jukbeenderen – the cheekbones
Os maxilla de bovenkaak – the upper jaw
Ossa nasalia de neusbeenderen – the nasal bones
Ossa lacrimalia de traanbeenderen – the lacrimal bones
Os vomerhet ploegschaarbeen – the vomer
Ossa palatinade verhemeltebeentjes – the palate bones
Conchae nasales inferioresde onderste neusschelp – the inferior nasal concha
Os mandibulade onderkaak – the lower jaw

Columna vertebralis de wervelkolom; de ruggengraat – the spine

Vertebratus – de wervel – the vertebra
Os atlas de atlas – the atlas (C1)
Os axis de draaier – the axis (C2)
Vertebrae cervicales de halswervels – the cervical vertebra (C1-7)
Vertebrae thoracicae de borstwervels – the thoracic vertebra (T1-12)
Vertebrae lumbales de lendenwervels – the lumbar vertebra (L1-5)
Os sacrum het heiligbeen – the sacrum (S1-5)
Os coccygis het staartbeen – the tailbone (Co1-4)

Thorax de ribbenkast; de borstkas – the rib cage

Costa de rib – the rib
Costae spuriaede valse ribben – the false ribs (rib 8, 9 and 10)
Costae fluctuantes de zwevende ribben – the floating ribs (rib 11 and 12)
Cartilago costalis het ribkraakbeen – the costal cartilage
Sternumhet borstbeen – the breastbone

boys with collarbones (✿◠‿◠)

boys with clavicles (◕‿◕✿)

boys with spines (。♥‿♥。)

boys with patellas (≧◡≦)

boys with phalanges (◑‿◐)

boys with thoracic vertebrae (✿ ♥‿♥)

What is in a Tail?

Macropus rufus

By John Wible

Those with pet dogs or cats at home are familiar with what a mammal’s tail can do. It acts as a counterbalance for your cat in executing amazing leaps and bounds. It is used for communication, more so by your dog, expressing a broad range of emotions by its action or lack thereof. Cows and horses use their tails to swat flies. Some mammals have a prehensile tail, which acts like a fifth appendage and is used in grasping, supporting, or in the case of a spider monkey even swinging from a tree branch. For marine mammals (whales, seals, and walruses), the tail is the major propulsive organ for swimming. 

But what is in a tail? Your back is made of a series of small bones stacked together called vertebra (plural is vertebrae). This is the reason why animals with vertebrae, such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, are called vertebrates. A typical mammalian back shows five regional variants or types of vertebrae. These are neck (cervical) vertebrae supporting the head, thoracic vertebrae anchoring the ribcage, lumbar vertebrae with the abdomen, sacral vertebrae with the pelvis, and caudal vertebrae with the tail. These five types are readily distinguished from each other, with their structure reflective of their function and position within the spine or vertebral column. A back walks a delicate balance between two seemingly incongruent functions—strength to provide support and flexibility to allow movement. It is the battle between these that in bipeds like us often ends in back pain.

Regarding the numbers of vertebrae in different regions, the most stable is the neck, with the vast majority of mammals having seven cervical vertebrae. Even the giraffe with its incredibly long neck has the same number of cervical vertebrae as you and me. However, the numbers in the other regions differ considerably across mammalian species, with the thorax between 11 and 23, lumbar between two and eight, and the sacrum between one and nine. But it is the tail that wins the prize with a range between two and 49! The red kangaroo, Macropus rufus, pictured above has a vertebral count from head to tail of seven cervical, 13 thoracic, six lumbar, two sacral, and 21 caudal. 

But wait a minute. Some mammals, including us, do not have tails. Why isn’t the range for caudal vertebra between zero and 49. The fact is that even tailless mammals have some very reduced caudal vertebrae. In the case of humans, our “tail” is composed of three to five greatly reduced caudal vertebrae that are collectively referred to as the coccyx (Greek for cuckoo, from the resemblance of these bones to this bird’s beak).

How should I end my tale? Given our penchant for world records, I would be remiss if I did not announce the winner of the living mammal with the highest number of caudal vertebrae at a whopping 49. It is the aptly named long-tailed pangolin, Phataginus tetradactyla, from West Africa (the tags in the photo above are attached to the hind foot, giving you some idea of tail length). It is one of the eight species of pangolins or scaly anteaters found in parts of Africa and Asia. It is the most arboreal of the pangolins, the reason why its tail is prehensile, and a good swimmer to boot. Pangolin scales are made of keratin, like your fingernails, and provide protection from predators and prey (they feed on biting social insects). Sadly, the scales are also a reason why pangolins are critically endangered as they are used in traditional medicine practices.

John Wible, PhD, is the curator of the Section of Mammals at Carnegie Museum of Natural History. John’s research is focused on the tree of life of mammals, understanding the evolutionary relationships between living and extinct taxa, and how the mammalian fauna on Earth got to be the way it is today. He uses his expertise on the anatomy of living mammals to reconstruct the lifeways of extinct mammals. John lives with his wife and two sons in a house full of cats and rabbits in Ross Township.

Her heart was racing fast and there was nothing she could do about it. Her palms were sweaty and sticky. Her breathing was uneasy and she was trying her best to calm herself down, but she was failing miserably at it.

How stupid, she thought.

They have only met their eyes during dinner at the Great Hall and she was feeling as if a thousand pixies were having a party in her stomach. It was utterly ridiculous and Marlene hoped no one noticed her mad state of mind.

Nobody did solely because nobody knew Sirius and her were a thing - she wasn’t quite sure what they were, but they were something, surely. Although, it has been only a few months since they started their on-and-off affair, it seemed she was getting too attached to the grey-eyed-boy. As soon as she realised that, of course, she tried to stop it. She stopped talking to him, avoided seeing him, tried her best not to look at him during the few classes they had together - Merlin bless Gryffindor and Slytherin’s rivalry that kept them apart most of the time.

What she didn’t expect, though, was that all her effort would be useless as her heart would still beat faster every time she saw him, her hands would get all shaky and pathetic, her head would spin hopelessly.

Marlene had to give up eventually. And she did.

She gave up trying to push him out of her life and gave up trying to keep her heart in the middle mediastinum, at the level of thoracic vertebrae T5-T8 and let it go straight to Sirius’ hands. She didn’t mind it, though. Because all the time all she could think about was him. His eyes, his hair, his hands, his beard, his arms, his legs, his cock, his cheeks, his eyelashes, his existence.


She’d lost it.

Her mind was long gone alongside her heart and even though Marlene has always been the tough one, who swore to herself she would never fall in love with anyone, she was completely, madly and undeniably in love with Sirius Black.

He made her feel like she has never felt before. Every time Sirius and Marlene were together she felt as if they could make the whole world explode with just a kiss and she knew, she was absolutely sure, she would let it burn to ashes and wouldn’t even give a damn about it as long as he didn’t let her go. And it wasn’t as if they they were any kind of cheesy lovers, no. Their love was all about their bodies, all about their hands touching and their lips kissing and their mouths gasping for air. They were always craving for each other’s touch and it was practically impossible to make them keep their hands to themselves when they were alone.

But it couldn’t be called passion or anything else, so she called it love.

This is gonna be confusing and fun, are you ready? 

To start with, there’s been a lot of discussion and disagreement on what being uphill actually means. The only thing that people can agree on is that the withers have nothing to do with it. This is because those long bony processes at the top of the thoracic vertebrae that make up the withers have nothing to do with the angle of the spine underneath. The actual angle of the spine isn’t criteria for judging this either, because it will always come out downhill, that’s just how horse skeletons work. 

Some people say that uphillness should be determined by measuring from the lowest vertebra to the lumbosacral joint, or the fifth vertebra to the lumbosacral joint, or the first vertebra to the top of the femur, or the elbow to the stifle, or any number of other weird formulas. 

I don’t know anything about this horse, but I’d eyeball him as level to very slightly downhill. Let’s see what all these different methods say with some (very quick and approximate) lines!

Well, that wasn’t conclusive at all. This horse is either extremely downhill, slightly downhill, or slightly uphill. Elbow-to-stifle is closest to my assessment, but I don’t think that method could be accurately applied to all horses due to differing hip conformation. 

What I personally do instead is to visualize how the horse would look when collected. How easily could it flex at the lumbosacral joint? How far under would the hind legs reach? What would the back look like then? Uphill movement is more important and easier to see definitively than uphill conformation. 

These ungrateful muhfuckas don’t deserve a Shield reunion until A.) folks stop acting like Seth didn’t LITERALLY wrap a steel chair around Dean and Roman’s thoracic vertebrae (like there is 0 continuity there and that’s terrible storytelling), and B.) people stop disrespecting Roman to no end only to cum on command whenever a Shield revival is suggested.

The Best of Destiel Fanfiction

For @mylovelyasylum, in no particular order, here are my very favorite Destiel Fanfics, compiled after doing basically nothing but read Destiel fic for two solid years. Enjoy.

Named by RC McLachlan

Jesus Christ is dead. Somehow, that isn’t the worst part of Dean’s week.

This is, in my not so humble opinion, the best canon fic that was ever written in this fandom.

Ad Astra by Nhixxie

One day Cas says, “Stars died for you, Dean Winchester”, against ruffled hair perched atop sun kissed skin and sleepy eyes.

Dean stirs, moving to spread his palms against the contour of Cas’ back, tips of fingers languidly strumming the indentations of his spine. One, two, three, four, he counts, the closest he could get to scientifically studying the anatomy of the human body.

“Is this some physics crap again?” He frowns with eyes closed.

Cas smiles softly. “Far from it.”

Dean’s fingers play at the base of his back, ninth thoracic vertebrae, Cas notes.

“Then tell me all about it.”

If I had to pick a single absolute favorite Destiel fic, this would be it. It is absolute poetry. Everything Nhixxie writes is perfect. 

March Stalkers Mighty by Whit Merule

When Dean was a kid, before he figured out that you didn’t talk to things that didn’t look human, he used to escape during the summers down to this old orchard down by the great Wall, where nobody else went. And there was another boy he’d meet there, a boy with wings who never said a word. 

Absolutely amazing, epic-length story based on Beowulf and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

Theodicy by manic_intent

As before, as now, as it will be again, the first significant Act of Creation by God shall be to forge l'hosif-or, his best-beloved, the Morning’s Star, the one who shall bring the seeds of light into dark places and fan them to flame.

This will fuck you up.

Vena Amoris and Other Old-Fashioned Bullshit by pyrebi

In which angelic marriage bonds are apparently stupidly easy to trigger, Cas wages multidimensional war in Heaven, Dean can’t catch a break like ever, Sam rather enjoys being a dick, love saves the day, and nobody consummates anything.

If you want something short and hilarious, this is it.

The (Mostly Accidental) Courtship of Dean Winchester by tuesday

Angelic marriage rites were never intended to go quite like this.

Hilarious and beautiful, from the s4-6 era of fic writing, which were particularly excellent in my opinion. Grouped with the previous, as they’re similar concepts. 

A Beginner’s Guide to Communing With The Dead by suspiciousflashlight

Dean is pretty sure he’s going completely, certifiably insane. Sure, he hasn’t started wearing all his clothes inside out, and he still showers on a regular basis (anyways, that’s not crazy, just a little eccentric); but there’s no getting around the fact that he just threw away his life, his career, and his reputation by dragging out his mom’s old necromancy book and summoning a Class AForbidden Entity to his attic. A cranky one, too. With horrendous bed-head.

Absolutely fantastic urban fantasy.

An Exercise in ‘Worthless’ by beastofthesky

Wherein Dean makes a hefty living as a tattoo artist who owns the space next to Gabriel’s cafe. Sam attends the local university. When Gabe’s cousin comes to live with him while starting grad school at Sam’s university, Dean thinks for sure that all his negative karma’s coming to bite him in the ass because Cas clearly has a thing for Sam. No one would ever choose him over Sam. That’s just logic.

Punk!Dean is my lifeblood okay.

All The Way by Cadignan

Castiel spends the first two weeks of college in much the same way he spent the previous years: alone with his books. He’s fine with it—he enrolled in college to learn, after all. Then in his first chemistry lab, he has the bad luck of being paired with snide, good-for-nothing Ruby, and the further misfortune of sitting behind Dean Winchester, the world’s most beautiful distraction. Ruby catches Castiel staring at Dean and makes him an offer.

I have reread this so many times. Excellent college au, and it’s really made by Cas’ friendship with Ruby and the other side characters. 

Equinox by Luchia

In which Castiel is the weird time-traveling freak who just might be the love of Dean Winchester’s life.

This is another one I have reread so many times. 

Okay, Cupid by orange_crushed

“The dating thing?” Dean frowns. “Online dating is for weirdos. Robots. Dudes hanging out in their basements.”

“You hang out in your basement.”

“I have an air hockey table down there,” Dean says, icily.

Honestly I have reread this more than any other. And that is saying a lot. The best friends-to-lovers oneshot basically ever.

Gran Fury by orange_crushed

They sit in silence and Castiel passes him the bottle. There’s not much left to say. Sam takes a gulp and it burns going down, like the cheap shit it is. He holds the bottle up against the light. He can see the Fury through it, distorted like a funhouse mirror. She’s a tomb but Sam loves her. Loves everything that’s left.

"To the end of the world,” he says.

“To the end of the world,” says Castiel.

If you ever feel like reading 5k and bawling your eyes out, this fic is for you. It’s a Pacific Rim AU, and it is the saddest and most beautiful oneshot I’ve ever read. Note the tags and warnings. 

Shut Up (Put Your Money Where Your Mouth Is) by kototyph

Dean’s done some pretty stupid things, but getting drunk-hitched in Vegas to a colleague he barely knows might just take the cake. His surprise husband, Castiel, is a little weird but likable despite that, and Dean figures they’ll go back to Boston, get a quiet annulment, and go their separate ways. Six weeks later, he’s still married to one of the strangest, most genuine and definitely most dangerously lov– likable guys he’s ever known. Dean doesn’t know why or really even how it’s happening, but it’s getting harder and harder to remember that he has divorce papers to file.

The plot is literally strangers wake up married…and just kinda stay married. It is adorable as all hell and I’ve reread it loads of times. 

Rvr Ro11435 by Ferritin4

In which Castiel is a operations analyst, Dean is a grease monkey, and even though it’s set at NASA no one goes to space.

This is possibly my favorite AU characterization of Castiel, and it’s my favorite style of borderline dark humor.

Broadway Musical by Griftings

This is the day that marked the Holy and Blessed Union of Dean Winchester and Jo Harvelle.

The merging of prominent bloodlines is always a grand occurrence, but breeding pedigree hunter families like Winchester and Harvelle is something to be rejoiced. It is also something to be meticulously planned, which thankfully the Host is very good at. 

Cas isn’t a terribly good matchmaker. And this is fucking hilarious.

What Fun It All Would Be by 8sword

Nothing dies in Purgatory, but they are forever finding corpses.

-Dean and Castiel find Emma in Purgatory

Heed the warnings. This is not a happy fic. But it is amazing, and it will destroy you. And this author does what no other writer has ever really done, which is fix the canon bullshit that was the Emma plot. Check out their other stories, which also feature a lot of Emma (and Claire, before Claire was even reintroduced into the show).

ETA: I missed one! For some reason I had it tagged wrong on ao3.

This Thing Called Free Will by tracy_loo_who

Time is fluid, and Castiel can see how it will go because he can bend it on occasion.

‘In the year 2009 Anno Dean, Castiel will have existed for 63 billion, 241 million, 430 thousand, and 400 seconds on Earth without Dean. He will be cold and alone, and he will ache for his Dean.

It will not end.’

This is one of the fics that fucked me up the most. It is absolutely devastating and beautiful. And the author is one of the greatest early Destiel writers.


ok so for the uninitiated

This is a paint/pinto rescue horse I saw for adoption on petfinder last year and just about died. He is a rescue who apparently flipped over in the cross ties when he was young, fracturing his second thoracic vertebrae, and making him unrideable probably forever. He’s 15 hands, blue eyes, and very sweet. I’m completely in love.

I just applied for him and now I am just waiting to see what happens aaaaaaaaahhhhh

Heather Davis, “Bone Poem“

Tell me again about the slick bones
of the skull:  occipital, frontal, temporal, parietal,

and the forgiving groove of fontanels grown
stone-hard and stubborn.  Tell me about

cervical and thoracic vertebrae rising
from the lover’s lumbar curve, about clavicles

and sternum, and floating ribs falling south.
Tell me about the humerus, twisting dance of radius

and ulna, how all twenty-eight phalanges
swing open on the hand’s silent hinges.

Tell me about cane-shaped femurs, the fluted
pipe of tibia, and slender, clasping fibula,

tarsals wide and sure, and calcaneum, the calculus
of our unending path.  Tell me about the smooth bowl

of the pelvis with its high and wide iliac crests,
the sacrifice of sacrum, and coccyx, memory of tail.

Tell me again about the bony tools of the ear,
how hammer, stirrup, and anvil return to us

the sounds of our small, miraculous lives.

This exercise works abs, upper body and lower body!

Flex your legs, quads and butt, keep your hips and lower ribs tucked to keep your abs engaged, sink through your shoulder blades so that your thoracic vertebrae has slight curve and isn’t hunched, and keep your shoulders down away from your ears. 

Try 4 sets, for 30-45 seconds.

If this is too easy, there are variations we can discuss >:)

Musculoskeletal Anatomy Aides Memoires

A wee compilation of a just few helpful tips. Please feel free to add!


↑ ↑ ↑
OF Sciatic

Medial compartment = Obturator nerve
Anterior compartment = Femoral nerve
Posterior compartment  = Sciatic nerve


(This one may be a little controversial…)

Big butts are Inferior
=> Gluteus maximus is innervated by the inferior gluteal nerve


Tom Dick And Not Harry

Tibialis Posterior
Flexor Digitorum Longus
Posterior Tibial Artery
Tibial Nerve
Flexor Hallicus Longus


Thoracics look like giraffes:

Lumbars look like moose(s?)


Superficial compartment = 4 muscles
Intermediate compatment = 1 muscle
Deep compartmnt = 3 muscles
4 - 1 = 3

Superficial compartment: ‘Pass, Fail, Pass, Fail’
Pronator Teres
Flexor Carpi Radialis
Palmaris Longus
Flexor Carpi ulnaris


Mnemonics; there are SO many of these. My love of Scrubs led me always to use: 
Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle
Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Trapzium Trapzoid Capitate Hammate

(Thank you Elliot Reed)



S T O P;
Scaphoid, Trapezium, 'Ook of Hamate, Pisiform


Tendon bounderies form a 'Brevis Sandwich;’
Extensor Pollicus Longus (medial)
Extensor Pollicis Brevis
Abductor Pollicis Longus (lateral)