thoracic vertebrae

Requested by @keeganwj

Bewear the Ides of March!

Julius Caesar was stabbed by the Roman Senators, not hugged. Yet, if the ancient senators were actually Bewears, hugging Caesar would have been equally effective as a method of assassination. According to the Pokédex, Bewear has a habit of hugging its trainers…to death. So today, let’s figure out how this might happen.

The human spine, also known as the vertebral column, is a vital part of our skeleton and nervous system. It is made up of 33 different bones called vertebrae, separated from each other with intervertebral discs. The first seven (colored in red) are called cervical vertebrae and are located in your neck. The middle twelve bones in your back (in blue) are called the thoracic vertebrae. The lower back (in yellow) consists of the lumbar vertebrae. The last 9 vertebrae (5 in green / 4 in pink) are fused together and form the sacrum and the coccyx, or your tailbone.

It’s not easy to break a spine; the discs between each vertebrae are made of squishy cartilage that is specifically designed to absorb shock and prevent your back from breaking. The segmented nature of the vertebrae allows the back to bend in several directions, also to avoid breaking by being flexible. Not to mention the walls of muscle that surround it. 

For death to occur, the individual vertebrae need to shift dramatically so they damage the nerve that runs through the middle of them. Typically, spinal-injury deaths are related to the phrenic nerve, which connects your brain to your lungs and allows breathing to happen. Several arteries also run through the vertebral column, and if they are pinched or crushed it can result in a stroke.

Of course, how much force needed to break a spine depends on whose spine you are crushing: children have more delicate spines than adults, and so on. However, it also depends on where on the spine you are crushing. The neck (cervical spine), for example, requires a force of 3,000 Newtons (roughly 700 pounds) to fracture. But Bewear doesn’t strangle its victims, it hugs them – so Bewear is attacking the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Various studies find the absolute limit for lumbar vertebrae to be about 1600 Newtons (360 pounds) of force.

This is surprisingly reasonable. Boxers and professional martial artists’ punches have been documented over 4,000 Newtons (900 pounds), and kicks can exceed 9,000 Newtons (2,000 pounds). Squeezing is a little different, since it is pure muscle work instead of a forward thrust, and human grip strength at its strongest is about 150 pounds. So you might not be able to crush a spine with your bare hands, but can Bewear crush a spine with its bear hands?

Probably. This shouldn’t come as a surprise, but most animals are stronger than humans in terms of muscle exertion. Some chimpanzees have been shown to be eight times stronger than humans. This is mostly because of the way we use our muscles: humans have developed a lot of control. We can finely tune our muscles, precisely control our finger movements, only using certain muscle fibers at one time. This saves us energy in many ways: you don’t have to use your entire bicep to lift up a pencil, like you might when you’re lifting weights. Other animals don’t have this control: It’s all or nothing for them. Physically, the way their muscles activate prevents them from having the fine control that we have. In other words, Bewear is incapable of giving a small hug. It can only give big, spine crushing squeezes.

Bewear’s hugs must deliver a force of 1600 Newtons (360 pounds) in order to break a trainer’s vertebral column.

boys with collarbones (✿◠‿◠)

boys with clavicles (◕‿◕✿)

boys with spines (。♥‿♥。)

boys with patellas (≧◡≦)

boys with phalanges (◑‿◐)

boys with thoracic vertebrae (✿ ♥‿♥)

He said we weren’t supposed to have met;
I said no two people ever are.

He said he’s annoying because he sleeps with his whole body wrapped around me;
I said I just can’t sleep without spreading my limbs out in every direction.

He said he didn’t believe in the idea of a soul;
I said that when the universe draws him back out of his body
To return him to the stars,

His mind will flow like mercury from the base of his neck;
But beneath that his soul will rise slowly
From every thoracic vertebra.

He wrote me a love poem eleven days after we first spoke;
I tattooed the word “reckoner” on his arm.

He said in his poem that he wanted to be the ship and the sea and the wind all at once;
I said he was a very good writer.

He said I asked people questions because I really wanted to know the answers;
And I said no one had ever known me this well.

In Ancient Peru, Archaeologists Find Rare Spinal Condition And Possible Inbreeding

An extremely rare condition of the spine, in which an extra lumbar vertebra is present, was recently discovered in nearly one-fifth of burials in an ancient Peruvian cemetery. Could this inherited genetic condition be the result of inbreeding?

Research at the Moquegua Valley site of Rio Muerto, a cemetery associated with Tiwanaku and dating to 500-1100 AD, was presented at last week’s American Association of Physical Anthropologists conference by Sara K. Becker of the University of California, Riverside and her colleagues. They found 14 cases of sixth lumbar sacralization – both the presence of an extra bone in the lower back and the fusion of that bone with the sacrum at the back of the pelvis.

While normal human anatomy includes 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, and 5 lumbar vertebrae, it is not uncommon to have an extra bone, to lack a bone somewhere in the spinal column, or to see a slight difference in arrangement of the vertebrae. Read more.

boys with collarbones (✿◠‿◠)

boys with clavicles (◕‿◕✿)

boys with spines (。♥‿♥。)

boys with patellas (≧◡≦)

boys with phalanges (◑‿◐)

boys with thoracic vertebrae (✿ ♥‿♥)

These ungrateful muhfuckas don’t deserve a Shield reunion until A.) folks stop acting like Seth didn’t LITERALLY wrap a steel chair around Dean and Roman’s thoracic vertebrae (like there is 0 continuity there and that’s terrible storytelling), and B.) people stop disrespecting Roman to no end only to cum on command whenever a Shield revival is suggested.

This is gonna be confusing and fun, are you ready? 

To start with, there’s been a lot of discussion and disagreement on what being uphill actually means. The only thing that people can agree on is that the withers have nothing to do with it. This is because those long bony processes at the top of the thoracic vertebrae that make up the withers have nothing to do with the angle of the spine underneath. The actual angle of the spine isn’t criteria for judging this either, because it will always come out downhill, that’s just how horse skeletons work. 

Some people say that uphillness should be determined by measuring from the lowest vertebra to the lumbosacral joint, or the fifth vertebra to the lumbosacral joint, or the first vertebra to the top of the femur, or the elbow to the stifle, or any number of other weird formulas. 

I don’t know anything about this horse, but I’d eyeball him as level to very slightly downhill. Let’s see what all these different methods say with some (very quick and approximate) lines!

Well, that wasn’t conclusive at all. This horse is either extremely downhill, slightly downhill, or slightly uphill. Elbow-to-stifle is closest to my assessment, but I don’t think that method could be accurately applied to all horses due to differing hip conformation. 

What I personally do instead is to visualize how the horse would look when collected. How easily could it flex at the lumbosacral joint? How far under would the hind legs reach? What would the back look like then? Uphill movement is more important and easier to see definitively than uphill conformation. 

The Best of Destiel Fanfiction

For @mylovelyasylum, in no particular order, here are my very favorite Destiel Fanfics, compiled after doing basically nothing but read Destiel fic for two solid years. Enjoy.

Named by RC McLachlan

Jesus Christ is dead. Somehow, that isn’t the worst part of Dean’s week.

This is, in my not so humble opinion, the best canon fic that was ever written in this fandom.

Ad Astra by Nhixxie

One day Cas says, “Stars died for you, Dean Winchester”, against ruffled hair perched atop sun kissed skin and sleepy eyes.

Dean stirs, moving to spread his palms against the contour of Cas’ back, tips of fingers languidly strumming the indentations of his spine. One, two, three, four, he counts, the closest he could get to scientifically studying the anatomy of the human body.

“Is this some physics crap again?” He frowns with eyes closed.

Cas smiles softly. “Far from it.”

Dean’s fingers play at the base of his back, ninth thoracic vertebrae, Cas notes.

“Then tell me all about it.”

If I had to pick a single absolute favorite Destiel fic, this would be it. It is absolute poetry. Everything Nhixxie writes is perfect. 

March Stalkers Mighty by Whit Merule

When Dean was a kid, before he figured out that you didn’t talk to things that didn’t look human, he used to escape during the summers down to this old orchard down by the great Wall, where nobody else went. And there was another boy he’d meet there, a boy with wings who never said a word. 

Absolutely amazing, epic-length story based on Beowulf and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.

Theodicy by manic_intent

As before, as now, as it will be again, the first significant Act of Creation by God shall be to forge l'hosif-or, his best-beloved, the Morning’s Star, the one who shall bring the seeds of light into dark places and fan them to flame.

This will fuck you up.

Vena Amoris and Other Old-Fashioned Bullshit by pyrebi

In which angelic marriage bonds are apparently stupidly easy to trigger, Cas wages multidimensional war in Heaven, Dean can’t catch a break like ever, Sam rather enjoys being a dick, love saves the day, and nobody consummates anything.

If you want something short and hilarious, this is it.

The (Mostly Accidental) Courtship of Dean Winchester by tuesday

Angelic marriage rites were never intended to go quite like this.

Hilarious and beautiful, from the s4-6 era of fic writing, which were particularly excellent in my opinion. Grouped with the previous, as they’re similar concepts. 

A Beginner’s Guide to Communing With The Dead by suspiciousflashlight

Dean is pretty sure he’s going completely, certifiably insane. Sure, he hasn’t started wearing all his clothes inside out, and he still showers on a regular basis (anyways, that’s not crazy, just a little eccentric); but there’s no getting around the fact that he just threw away his life, his career, and his reputation by dragging out his mom’s old necromancy book and summoning a Class AForbidden Entity to his attic. A cranky one, too. With horrendous bed-head.

Absolutely fantastic urban fantasy.

An Exercise in ‘Worthless’ by beastofthesky

Wherein Dean makes a hefty living as a tattoo artist who owns the space next to Gabriel’s cafe. Sam attends the local university. When Gabe’s cousin comes to live with him while starting grad school at Sam’s university, Dean thinks for sure that all his negative karma’s coming to bite him in the ass because Cas clearly has a thing for Sam. No one would ever choose him over Sam. That’s just logic.

Punk!Dean is my lifeblood okay.

All The Way by Cadignan

Castiel spends the first two weeks of college in much the same way he spent the previous years: alone with his books. He’s fine with it—he enrolled in college to learn, after all. Then in his first chemistry lab, he has the bad luck of being paired with snide, good-for-nothing Ruby, and the further misfortune of sitting behind Dean Winchester, the world’s most beautiful distraction. Ruby catches Castiel staring at Dean and makes him an offer.

I have reread this so many times. Excellent college au, and it’s really made by Cas’ friendship with Ruby and the other side characters. 

Equinox by Luchia

In which Castiel is the weird time-traveling freak who just might be the love of Dean Winchester’s life.

This is another one I have reread so many times. 

Okay, Cupid by orange_crushed

“The dating thing?” Dean frowns. “Online dating is for weirdos. Robots. Dudes hanging out in their basements.”

“You hang out in your basement.”

“I have an air hockey table down there,” Dean says, icily.

Honestly I have reread this more than any other. And that is saying a lot. The best friends-to-lovers oneshot basically ever.

Gran Fury by orange_crushed

They sit in silence and Castiel passes him the bottle. There’s not much left to say. Sam takes a gulp and it burns going down, like the cheap shit it is. He holds the bottle up against the light. He can see the Fury through it, distorted like a funhouse mirror. She’s a tomb but Sam loves her. Loves everything that’s left.

"To the end of the world,” he says.

“To the end of the world,” says Castiel.

If you ever feel like reading 5k and bawling your eyes out, this fic is for you. It’s a Pacific Rim AU, and it is the saddest and most beautiful oneshot I’ve ever read. Note the tags and warnings. 

Shut Up (Put Your Money Where Your Mouth Is) by kototyph

Dean’s done some pretty stupid things, but getting drunk-hitched in Vegas to a colleague he barely knows might just take the cake. His surprise husband, Castiel, is a little weird but likable despite that, and Dean figures they’ll go back to Boston, get a quiet annulment, and go their separate ways. Six weeks later, he’s still married to one of the strangest, most genuine and definitely most dangerously lov– likable guys he’s ever known. Dean doesn’t know why or really even how it’s happening, but it’s getting harder and harder to remember that he has divorce papers to file.

The plot is literally strangers wake up married…and just kinda stay married. It is adorable as all hell and I’ve reread it loads of times. 

Rvr Ro11435 by Ferritin4

In which Castiel is a operations analyst, Dean is a grease monkey, and even though it’s set at NASA no one goes to space.

This is possibly my favorite AU characterization of Castiel, and it’s my favorite style of borderline dark humor.

Broadway Musical by Griftings

This is the day that marked the Holy and Blessed Union of Dean Winchester and Jo Harvelle.

The merging of prominent bloodlines is always a grand occurrence, but breeding pedigree hunter families like Winchester and Harvelle is something to be rejoiced. It is also something to be meticulously planned, which thankfully the Host is very good at. 

Cas isn’t a terribly good matchmaker. And this is fucking hilarious.

What Fun It All Would Be by 8sword

Nothing dies in Purgatory, but they are forever finding corpses.

-Dean and Castiel find Emma in Purgatory

Heed the warnings. This is not a happy fic. But it is amazing, and it will destroy you. And this author does what no other writer has ever really done, which is fix the canon bullshit that was the Emma plot. Check out their other stories, which also feature a lot of Emma (and Claire, before Claire was even reintroduced into the show).

ETA: I missed one! For some reason I had it tagged wrong on ao3.

This Thing Called Free Will by tracy_loo_who

Time is fluid, and Castiel can see how it will go because he can bend it on occasion.

‘In the year 2009 Anno Dean, Castiel will have existed for 63 billion, 241 million, 430 thousand, and 400 seconds on Earth without Dean. He will be cold and alone, and he will ache for his Dean.

It will not end.’

This is one of the fics that fucked me up the most. It is absolutely devastating and beautiful. And the author is one of the greatest early Destiel writers.

modifications & cybernetics

  • larynx//vocal cords: complex musculature & cartilage completely fabricated & implanted in his neck to act as a voice box capable of vibrations needed for humanoid speech.
  • shoulders//arms: due to the mammals scapula & humerus bones being situated for front hanging limbs arms were removed & placed back into cybernetic endoskeleton housings, giving him side facing shoulders akin to humanoids. reinforced at joints ( shoulders, elbows, wrists. )
  • hands: ( metacarpals, proximal phalanges, intermediate phalanges, distal phalanges ) both inside fingers were removed & reconstructed to give each hand thumbs. all phalanges (joints) are reinforced to give strength & better control of motion to all fingers to bolster object handling efficiency.
  • clavicle//manubrium//sternum: completely reconstructed to support now side facing arm joints & upright humanoid stance. 
  • spinal column ( cervical, thoracic, lumbar vertebrae ): reinforced throughout to support constant bipedal stance. 
  • pelvis//legs: similar to arms– legs were removed & placed back into relocated cybernetic endoskeleton housings at his pelvis. joints reinforced to support constant bipedal stance. ( hips, knees, ankles. )

This exercise works abs, upper body and lower body!

Flex your legs, quads and butt, keep your hips and lower ribs tucked to keep your abs engaged, sink through your shoulder blades so that your thoracic vertebrae has slight curve and isn’t hunched, and keep your shoulders down away from your ears. 

Try 4 sets, for 30-45 seconds.

If this is too easy, there are variations we can discuss >:)

Heather Davis, “Bone Poem“

Tell me again about the slick bones
of the skull:  occipital, frontal, temporal, parietal,

and the forgiving groove of fontanels grown
stone-hard and stubborn.  Tell me about

cervical and thoracic vertebrae rising
from the lover’s lumbar curve, about clavicles

and sternum, and floating ribs falling south.
Tell me about the humerus, twisting dance of radius

and ulna, how all twenty-eight phalanges
swing open on the hand’s silent hinges.

Tell me about cane-shaped femurs, the fluted
pipe of tibia, and slender, clasping fibula,

tarsals wide and sure, and calcaneum, the calculus
of our unending path.  Tell me about the smooth bowl

of the pelvis with its high and wide iliac crests,
the sacrifice of sacrum, and coccyx, memory of tail.

Tell me again about the bony tools of the ear,
how hammer, stirrup, and anvil return to us

the sounds of our small, miraculous lives.


I’ve never seen Orphan Black before so I don’t have an opinion about the characters/plot, but it comes across my dash frequently because I follow a bunch of X Company blogs. I have seen the GIF’s of Delphine being shot and many posts about the controversy so I was curious to see if I could figure out what is going on medically. Note: I am just an undergraduate student with a background in Anatomy and Physiology and not a medical professional. I am not associated with the show in anyway either.]

It looks like Delphine was likely shot around the level of the 8th rib/T10 (the 10th thoracic vertebrae) which means the bullet would have missed the heart and likely only hit the inferior lobe (bottom) of the lung as well as the diaphragm. Since its on her right side, it would have gone right through the liver. It isn’t likely that the aorta was hit because the wound is a bit more lateral; I can’t say for sure since we didn’t see the exit wound. BUT it very well could have punctured the the inferior vena cava which brings blood from the lower body to the heart and that’s a big deal, but won’t haemorrhage as fast as a lacerated aorta since it’s a vein not an artery.

Additionally she is likely to have a pneumothorax (collapsed lung) because the air that comes in from the wound would increase the pressure in the pleural space to be greater than the air pressure in her lung.

So there’s *some* hope of survival since it’s not necessarily ~immediately~ fatal, but without efficient and effective medical care it could definitely be fatal.

Again this is all *speculation*, and I could be wrong but this is my opinion based on my knowledge of Anatomy & Physiology. TV shows obviously have a creative licence and may not be medically accurate anyway lol. I wish all the best to the Orphan Black fandom in the upcoming season, it seems like Delphine is a very popular and well liked character!

Musculoskeletal Anatomy Aides Memoires

A wee compilation of a just few helpful tips. Please feel free to add!


↑ ↑ ↑
OF Sciatic

Medial compartment = Obturator nerve
Anterior compartment = Femoral nerve
Posterior compartment  = Sciatic nerve


(This one may be a little controversial…)

Big butts are Inferior
=> Gluteus maximus is innervated by the inferior gluteal nerve


Tom Dick And Not Harry

Tibialis Posterior
Flexor Digitorum Longus
Posterior Tibial Artery
Tibial Nerve
Flexor Hallicus Longus


Thoracics look like giraffes:

Lumbars look like moose(s?)


Superficial compartment = 4 muscles
Intermediate compatment = 1 muscle
Deep compartmnt = 3 muscles
4 - 1 = 3

Superficial compartment: ‘Pass, Fail, Pass, Fail’
Pronator Teres
Flexor Carpi Radialis
Palmaris Longus
Flexor Carpi ulnaris


Mnemonics; there are SO many of these. My love of Scrubs led me always to use: 
Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle
Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Trapzium Trapzoid Capitate Hammate

(Thank you Elliot Reed)



S T O P;
Scaphoid, Trapezium, 'Ook of Hamate, Pisiform


Tendon bounderies form a 'Brevis Sandwich;’
Extensor Pollicus Longus (medial)
Extensor Pollicis Brevis
Abductor Pollicis Longus (lateral)


For my friend who read Twist and Shout first and needs some happy destiel. Here is some. Any comments I make on the fic will be in bold.

1. Taking Wing:Dean frowns around the cave, his head spinning as he tries to make sense of what he’s seeing with his eyes and his echoes. The smell doesn’t hit him until he’s already staggered to his feet, claws clicking on the stone floor. It’s the scent of another bat; different than any kind he’s smelled before. It’s not exactly unpleasant, but it does strike home a realization that turns his stomach inside out. This place belongs to another bat and Dean has pretty much just basically invaded their home.

Word count: 44,312

Rating: Explicit

Author: Riseofthefallenone

My comment: This is a really cute one okay and it’s by the author who wrote Out of The Deep who is really amazing and great

2. Painted Angels: Author Castiel Novak has finally hit the big time, with a book based on his failed college relationship with a brilliant painter. He’s put all his pain behind him, but at a book signing, he comes face to face with Dean Winchester for the first time in twelve years, and the reunion doesn’t go like Cas hoped. Dean’s a broken man, with a lot of scars and secrets, shoulders weighed down by his demons and self loathing.
Cas sees a second chance with the man he’s never stopped loving, but Dean’s moved on, and is about to get married. Sam launches a “brilliant” plan to reunite his brother and his best friend, but Cas is worried it will all blow up in their faces, and he’ll go through the agony of losing Dean a second time.

Word Count: 105,637

Rating: Explicit

Author: WinJennster

My Comment: This fic was absolutely beautiful and after reading it I listened to The Scientist for like a week straight. The reading absolutely just flies by like nothing. It’s great.

3. Alpha Omega: Dean and Castiel are in their 11th year at Truman Academy – a prestigious boarding school for werewolves set in the mountains – when series of unexplained deaths occur. As the body count rises and the incidents become more frequent, the school scrambles to uncover the truth behind the mystery before it has to close indefinitely.

Word Count: 59,000

Rating: Explicit

Author: the0voice0from0above

My Comment: This is a really cute fic and was one of the first destiel ones I’ve ever read. It’s really nice for an introduction into alpha/omega fic. 

4. The Life After the Morning After: Dean and Cas get uber drunk on their last day of University. They end up married. Neither of them seem to mind.

Word Count: 17,319

Rating: Teen and Up Audiences

Author: saltyfeathers

My Comment: This fic was actually really cute and adorable and other words that are good. It’s short but worth giving a read :-)

5. A Room of One’s Own: All Dean wants is a little privacy. Cas doesn’t understand.

Word Count: 94,159

Rating: Explicit

Author: NorthernSparrow

My Comment: This fanfiction made me laugh harder than I have laughed in a really long fucking time. It was absolutely amazing and great and you should totally give it a read.

6.  Angel on the Radio: 

“Well, what’s your name mystery man?”

Dean swallowed. “I’ll tell you mine if you tell me yours,” he said with more confidence.

“Nice try, let’s just stick with ‘Angel’.”

He raised his eyebrows and retorted, “well in that case, call me 'Demon’.”

A college-AU from Dean Winchester’s pov.
Dean’s just started University, and he’s finding it hard to adjust. His only relief comes from listening to the mysterious show 'Angel’s Demons’ on KJHK radio. A show that was originally pirate but became so popular it got it’s own slot. The MC, a man known as Angel, becomes Dean’s only friend and source of refuge without even knowing he exists. When Dean finally bites the bullet and calls in, their relationship begins to grow.
Available on Tumblr, FF and LJ, GIFed and Fanarted all over the show, rave reviews and even currently being translated to Russian and Hungarian!

Word Count: 63,301

Rating: Explicit

Author: seazu

My Comment: It’s really nice if you enjoy modern day fics. It’s cute and what Cas is going through will pull on your heart strings.

7. Ad Astra- latin; “to the stars”: 

One day Cas says, “Stars died for you, Dean Winchester”, against ruffled hair perched atop sun kissed skin and sleepy eyes.

Dean stirs, moving to spread his palms against the contour of Cas’ back, tips of fingers languidly strumming the indentations of his spine. One, two, three, four, he counts, the closest he could get to scientifically studying the anatomy of the human body.

“Is this some physics crap again?” He frowns with eyes closed.

Cas smiles softly. “Far from it.”

Dean’s fingers play at the base of his back, ninth thoracic vertebrae, Cas notes.

“Then tell me all about it.”

Word Count: 17,390

Rating: Teen and Up Audiences

Author: nhixxie

My Comment: You don’t even understand how absolutely breathtaking this fic is. You really, really don’t. It’s beautiful and magical and it’ll leave you literally in tears. I actually physically cried, and not because I was sad. Because it was just that fucking beautiful. 

8. When Dinosaurs Ruled the Earth: NOW COMPLETE! Dean and Sam are Paleontologists; Castiel is a writer. So none of them are quite sure why Gabriel, Castiel’s brother, is inviting them out to get a sneak peek of his newest 'nature theme park’. But their fascination with the creatures that haven’t walked the earth in 65 million years quickly turns to terror when a betrayal sends the whole island into turmoil, and when the fences come down, all bets are off.

Word Count: 68,926

Rating: Mature

Author: Mishafied

My Comment: Okay, this is really cool and awesome. It’s literally a Jurassic Park Au. DINOSAURS. In a fic. So cool.

9. On Air: Cas and Dean are radio DJs who host the second most popular morning show in Lawrence. They’ve been co-hosts for years at different stations across the country, and they own a house together out of necessity, even though they’re just friends. But for some reason, a lot of their listeners and even some of their friends and family seem to think that they’re secretly in some kind of relationship, which they’re totally not (besides that one time that totally doesn’t count). In spite of that, Dean thinks he’s got everything figured out, until an ill-fated on air game of Truth or Dare turns everything upside down (and the billboards around town aren’t helping either).

Word Count: 21,219

Rating: Explicit

Author: wincechesters (madefrommemories)

My Comment: This is an awesome, short read that’s actually based on a true story about some radio show hosts in the author’s hometown. Really cute. 

10. See The Sunrise: He didn’t know what he expected. Maybe piles and piles of gold and treasure, closely guarded by a massive scaly beast, red or blue or black and breathing fire. Maybe with wings, maybe not. Maybe it would have red eyes and maybe it would attack as soon as it saw Dean. He was expecting—well, he was expecting a dragon.
Not… this.
“This” being a young man with dark hair, too blue eyes, and a tilt to his head. He didn’t… look like a dragon. He just looked confused.
(Dean/Castiel fairy tale AU in which Dean is a prince who goes to slay a dragon, and Castiel is cursed to turn into a dragon every night.)
Written for the DeanCasBigBang 2014

Word Count: 36,818\

Rating: Teen and Up Audiences

Author(s): Carver Edlund (goshcas)Zerda

My Comment: DRAGONS. Need I say more? 

SO THAT CONCLUDES MY DEANCAS REC. Read them and tell me what you think. These are only some of my favorites, of course :-)


Alright, I’ll do my best to explain this. In all of these images the skull is to the right and the tail is to the left, and the left image is the top view and the right image is the bottom view.

•First two images are the cervical vertebrae. There should be 7 of these, including the atlas and axis, which are the very first two vertebrae and allow for side to side and up and down head movement.

•The next set are the thoracic vertebrae, and there should be 14. These are the vertebrae that connect to the ribs.

•Next set are the lumbar vertebrae, these are heavier set and there should be 6.

•Next two are the sacral vertebrae, which are fused into one, and connects to the pelvis. In these pictures you can also see the beginnings of the caudal vertebrae, or the tail. I didn’t get close ups of the whole tail because its pretty straight forward, just line them up largest to smallest.
Well okay, I hope that is helpful! If you or anyone else ever needs any reference images I’d be happy to oblige. Happy articulating!

EDIT: the vertebrae count was meant for a user asking about *raccoons*, these numbers vary between species, and caudal vertebrae can vary within a species as well.