this day in prince history

10th February 1840 - Queen Victoria's Wedding Dress

As many people know, it is said that Victoria started the trend of wearing a white coloured dress on your wedding day. However, not many know  how complicated the journey was that had it come to be.

In the early of planning her wedding, Lord Melbourne suggested that she might wear her royal robes of state, as she mentions in her diary -


They talked about me wearing my robes, but I thought not.


She made it clear that her wedding was not like others of the time, where it was all for advancement and gain, with no thought of romantic preference. Her wedding was a personal affair; she was marrying for love.

In the end, Victoria would design her own dress, as well as her bridesmaids’ dresses. She had her dress made entirely of British materials, as was well publicised at the time. This was a political move, as she was showing to foreign powers just what her country had to offer and that she was still representing Britain.  The silk was woven in Spitalfields, East London and the lace was handmade in Devon.  Finally, the outfit was sewed together by Victoria’s own dressmaker, a Mrs Bettans, with the pattern being destroyed afterwards to prevent the dress being replicated.

The finished garment would include a bodice, the waist pointed over a full, pleated skirt with full puffed sleeves and a round neck, all made of Spitalfields white silk satin. The train was immense, measuring 18 feet and edged with orange blossom spays (orange blossom being a symbol of fertility). Orange blossom would feature a lot on her person, as her wreath above her veil (which was 12 feet long) was made of it and it trimmed her dress.  She also wore matching satin shoes (see two above), and a blue sapphire brooch at her breast which was a wedding gift from Albert. In her diary, on her wedding day of the tenth of February 1840, she described her whole outfit as thus -


I wore a white satin dress, with a deep flounce of Honiton lace, an imitation of an old design. My jewels were my Turkish diamond necklace & earrings & dear Albert’s beautiful sapphire brooch


Victoria did not wear her actual wedding dress for the whole day, as when she returned to Buckingham Palace after the service and wedding breakfast she withdrew to change into ‘a white silk gown trimmed with swansdown and a white bonnet with orange flowers’, an outfit very similar to her original ensemble.
Years later, Victoria would allow her favourite daughter Beatrice (who would be one of the queens few close companions in her widowhood) to wear her wedding veil at her own wedding in 1885 (see photograph below). She would be the only daughter of Victoria allowed this special privilege. In addition later still, Victoria would be buried wearing her lace veil, in 1901

Featured Image Emily Blunt as Victoria on her wedding day, The Young Victoria 2009
Sources -
Becoming Queen, Kate Williams
Historic Royal Places
Photograph #3 by Daily Mail

anonymous asked:

I see that you use "prince of hell" warlock in a lot of your tags, what does that mean?

oh my god this is kind of embarrassing because my feelings about this are so intense. like i’m not even sure i can fully articulate what it’s genuinely about but i will try. also book spoilers.

Warlocks always have a demon for a father and Magnus’s father in particular was revealed to be Asmodeus, one of the seven princes of hell and a fallen angel. It’s the reason he’s so powerful and since Asmodeus erased someone’s entire life as if it were nothing, it’s likely why Magnus has a particular talent for memory spells. We also see Magnus activate a witchlight at one point, which normally only responds to Shadowhunter (angel) blood.

And yet it was used more for relationship drama than anything, even though Magnus going through the centuries believing that he has the purest form of demon blood is a huge deal for his character. He’s clearly ashamed of it. Plus, what does having something so similar to angel blood mean for him? We’re told time and again that he’s powerful, that he has all this rich heartbreaking history, but we only get glimpses of it at best. What happened after he killed his human father after nearly being drowned? I mean, he was six or something and literally the first time he used his magic was to burn a man alive. How did he end up in Spain all the way from Indonesia? Did someone bring him to the Spiral Labyrinth? Magnus says Silent Brothers took him in, but that only appears in deleted pages of CoA; in CoB he simply calls them “churchmen.” How did he discover Asmodeus was his father? What was their conversation the first time he summoned him? What is even Magnus’s birth name before he took this one? A name, by the way, that unlike other warlocks speaks not of mourning or solitude (Loss, Fell, Fade, Gray) but of pure destruction, which says everything about what Magnus thinks of himself and his origins.

In short, the entire concept of him being the son of a Prince of Hell represents everything I wanted and nothing I ever got. That tag is purely about my extreme thirst for Magnus being Magnus. Not the guy who’s one half of a ship, not a glittery warlock with a great fashion sense, but Magnus Fucking Bane, the man who understands exactly who he is and what he’s capable of, who loves with all of his heart and would prefer to tell stupid stories about how he was totes BFFs with Julius Caesar but who will not hesitate to fuck your shit up if you mess with his people and when he’s done, his eyeliner will not have a single smudge. It is for Magnus lounging at his nightclub like a king. It is for Magnus carving his history and tainted birthright into his own name, but still clinging to the belief that he’s human and a good man.

National Book Lovers Day!!!

Yay!!!

Originally posted by giovanna-giuliano


Originally posted by bohemianromance123


Originally posted by sis-reyis

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On this day in music history: August 5, 1989 - “Batdance” by Prince hits #1 on the Billboard Hot 100 for 1 week, also topping the R&B singles chart for 1 week on August 12, 1989. Written and produced by Prince, it is the fourth #1 Pop and sixth R&B chart topper for the Minneapolis, MN born singer, songwriter and musician. Prince becomes involved in the “Batman” film project after being shown a rough cut of the film by director Tim Burton, who had been using “1999” and “Baby I’m A Star” as temporary music tracks while editing the film. Cancelling a scheduled vacation, Prince flies back home to Minneapolis and begins writing music for the film. Within a month, the artist composes eight new songs (only few make the final cut) for the film. The track “Batdance” is a song collage (featuring pieces of the songs “200 Balloons” (Batdance’s non-LP B-side), “The Future”, and “Electric Chair”) written and recorded overnight, using samples of dialogue from the film. Though it is not included in the film, the song is brilliantly utilized to market both the film and album. Released as a single on June 9, 1989, it is an immediate hit. Entering the Hot 100 at #53 on June 17, 1989, it rises to the top of the chart seven weeks later.  The song is accompanied by an elaborately staged music video directed by Albert Magnoli (“Purple Rain”) and choreographed by Barry Lather (Janet Jackson, Tiffany). The clip features Prince in dual roles as himself and as a character called “Gemini”, half representing The Joker and the other half representing Batman, with the name being a nod to Prince’s own astrological sign. The music video earns an MTV Video Music Award nomination for Best Video From A Film in 1990. The single is also released as a 12" with extended remixes by Mark Moore of S-Express (Batmix) and William Orbit (Vicki Vale Mix). That 12" is reissued on Record Store Day on April 22, 2017, replicating the original sleeve design. Due to Prince having to sign over his publishing rights to his “Batman” soundtrack music to DC Comics, the company that owns the Batman franchise, “Batdance” has not appeared on any other Prince albums or compilations since the release of the soundtrack album. After many years, clearances are finally obtained from DC, and the single edit of the song is included on the posthumous compilation “Prince 4Ever” in November of 2016. “Batdance” is certified Platinum in the US by the RIAA.

15th October 1839 - Diary Entry’s - Victoria And Albert Become Engaged


Transcription of the entry for the 15th October 1839 in Queen Victoria’s journal. This was the day that Victoria proposed to the love of her life, Prince Albert, at Windsor Castle.

Saw my dear Cousins return safely from hunting. Wrote letters, & saw Esterhazy. — At about ½ p. 12, I sent for Albert, who came to the Closet, where I was alone, & after a few minutes I said, I thought he must be aware why I wished him & his brother to come here, & that it would make me too happy if he would consent to what I wanted (that he should marry me). We embraced each other over & over again & he was so kind & so affectionate.

To feel I am loved by such an angel as Albert, is too great a happiness to describe, & I really felt it was the happiest & brightest moment in my life, which made up for all I had suffered & endured. I cannot say how I adore him & I shall strive to make him feel as little as possible the great sacrifice he is making. I told him I realized it was a sacrifice, which he would not allow. I then spoke of the great necessity of keeping our engagement a secret, excepting to his father, Uncle Leopold & Stockmar, to whom he said he would send a courier next day, also explaining that the marriage would have to be as early as the beginning of February. I asked Albert to fetch Ernest, which he did, & the latter congratulated us both warmly, & seemed very pleased, I feel the happiest of human beings.

Ernest then said to me how perfect his brother was, & we talked so comfortably & happily together, till past 1, when I sent them off, & Ld Melbourne came to me. After talking of some appointments, I said I must tell him that I had got well through the interview with Albert, & that he had said he would let no one perceive that anything between us had taken place, — that he seemed very happy, as well as his brother, though the latter observed he was the only looser by our marriage, as his brother had always been everything to him. Ld M. remarked “You will now be able to do much more what you like.” He also said that Ld John Russell’s only wish was that I should be happy, which I answered I had not a doubt of. Talked of whether I should make Albert a Peer or not, but certainly Royal Highness.

We discussed the Household he would require to have & of taking the Pce of Wales’s Household, (formed in 1783) as a guide, as well as those of Queen Mary’s husband Philip of Spain, & Pce George of Denmark, &c. The necessity there was for Albert’s taking precedence of all the Princes, as my Husband. — Lunched with Mama & my dear Cousins, & afterwards wrote. At 4 I walked out with them, Ld Melbourne, Ly Tavistock (who with Ly Caroline Barrington, has came into waiting today) & the other ladies. We walked down to Adelaide Cottage & back. — Wrote to Uncle Leopold, Uncle Ernest, & Stockmar, about my great happiness, & then wrote my Journal. — Our dinner party was the same with the exception of Esterhazy, Uxbridge, & his girls & Alvensleben, & with the addition of Ld John Russell, & Miss Lister. Ernest led me in, & I sat between him & Ld Melbourne.

Ernest talked to me a good deal of dearest Albert, — his great excellence & steadiness, of his never having been in love before, which he justly observed was a great deal for a young man. When we were sealed after dinner, I had my precious Albert beside me, & Ld M. joined us. Ernest played at Chess & Albert & I played at “Tactics”. We stayed up till ¼ p. 11.

youtube

So… I made a thing.

Edit: I feel the need to add that I had this song on repeat for a week straight before I even began making this wonderful creation. It was all I listened to for a whole day at work….. I’ll never get it out of my head now….

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On this day in history, 8th of June 1376, Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales died at Westminster Palace, aged 45.

Edward of Woodstock was the eldest son of King Edward III and Philippa of Hainault, and the father of King Richard II of England. He was the first Duke of Cornwall (from 1337), the Prince of Wales (from 1343) and the Prince of Aquitaine (1362–72). Edward served as a symbolic regent for periods in 1339, 1340, and 1342 while Edward III was on campaign. He was expected to attend all council meetings, and he performed the negotiations with the papacy about the war in 1337. He also served as High Sheriff of Cornwall from 1340–1341, 1343, 1358 and 1360–1374.

He was called “Edward of Woodstock” in his early life, after his birthplace, and since the 16th century has been known in popular culture as the Black Prince. He was an exceptional military leader, and his victories over the French at the Battles of Crécy and Poitiers made him very popular during his lifetime. In 1348 he became the first Knight of the Garter, of whose order he was one of the founders. In 1361 Prince Edward married his cousin and childhood sweetheart Joan of Kent, granddaughter of Edward I and coutess of Kent in her own right. The marrige proved to be happy and loving one.They had two sons from this marriage, Edward (died at the age of 6) and Richard (future Richard II) Both sons were born in France, where the Prince and Princess of Wales had taken up duties as Prince and Princess of Aquitaine.From his marriage to Joan, he also became stepfather to her 4 children from the previous marrige to sir Thomas Holland.

Prince Edward seemed to have good health until 1366. It was not until his campaign in Spain to restore Don Pedro the Cruel to the throne of Castille that he became ill.On this expedition, his army suffered so badly from dysentery that it is said that one out of every five Englishmen would not return home. Prince Edward contracted an illness on this expedition that would ail him until his death in 1376. It is widely believed that he contracted amoebic dysentery but some argue against the likelihood that he could sustain life with a ten-year battle with dysentery. Other possible diagnoses include edema, nephritis, cirrhosis or a combination of these.

In his will the prince had directed that he should be buried in the middle of the chapel of Our Lady Undercroft, in a marble tomb, ten feet away from the altar. The chapel of Our Lady Undercroft was the chapel which the prince had founded in accordance with the Pope’s mandate giving him permission to marry Joan of Kent, his cousin. It was a moving tribute to the love the prince felt for his wife that he wished to be interred in the chapel which commemorated their marriage. In the ceiling of the chantry chapel there can still be seen a carved stone boss of a woman’s head, with her hair in a netted fret, which was a popular fashion at the time. It is the largest human face among the ceiling bosses, and clearly represents Joan, although it is not known when it was placed there.

Edward died one year before his father, becoming the first English Prince of Wales not to become King of England. The throne passed instead to his son Richard II, a minor, upon the death of Edward III.xx

pictured:1. Tomb effigy of Edward, Prince of Wales in Centurbury Cathedral,Kent, England 2.Chapel of Our Lady Undercroft 3. Ceiling boses repesenting Joan of Kent (most probably)

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On this day in music history: September 14, 1993 - “The Hits/B-Sides” by Prince is released. Produced by Prince, it is recorded at The Record Plant in Sausalito, CA, Alpha Studios in Burbank, CA, The Record Plant in Los Angeles, CA, Sunset Sound Recorders, Hollywood Sound, Ocean Way Recording Studios, Capitol Studios in Hollywood, CA, Monterey Sound Studios in Glendale, CA, Kiowa Trail Home Studio, Galpin Boulevard Home Studio, Paisley Park Studios in Chanhassen, MN, Lake Minnetonka Home Studio in Minnetonka, MN, The Warehouse in St. Louis Park, MN, First Avenue in Minneapolis, MN, Washington Park Warehouse, Flying Cloud Drive Warehouse in Eden Prairie, MN, and Olympic Studios in London from October 1977 - January 1993. The fifty-six track career spanning compilation covers Prince’s output from 1978 until 1993, plus five new and/or previously unreleased songs. Discs 1 & 2 (“The Hits 1” and “The Hits 2”) are sold separately, but the third disc containing rare non-album B-sides is only available with the full set. Prince’s former road manager Alan Leeds writes the liner notes for the set. The set is issued by Warner Bros after they refuse to release the album “Goldnigga”, the debut album by his band the New Power Generation (Prince releases the album on his own NPG Record label in July 1993). The label had wanted to issue a greatest hits compilation in 1991, but the project was put on the back burner when Prince gives them the “Diamonds And Pearls” album instead. There is also an accompanying hour long video compilation released the same day titled “The Hits Collection” (initially released on VHS and LaserDisc only, later issued on DVD on June 8, 1999), featuring thirteen music videos with twelve classics and the video for the new track “Peach”. “The Hits/B-Sides” peaks at number nineteen on the Billboard Hot 100, and is certified Platinum in the US by the RIAA.

June 26, 2015

Prince Fielder hits his 300th career home run when he goes deep to right field off Mark Buehrle in the first inning of the Rangers’ 12-2 loss to Toronto at the Rogers Centre. The Rangers first baseman’s milestone shot makes him and his dad, Cecil (319), only the second father/son combo to hit 300-plus homers, joining Bobby and Barry Bonds.
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On this day in history (June 30th, 1478) the long awaited heir of The Catholic Monarchs, John of Aragon and Castile, was born at Seville.

After giving birth to infanta Isabel in 1470, Isabella did not conceive until 1475 - when she miscarried of a male fetus. It took her another three years to get pregnant again - not without the help of Ferdinand’s personal physician, Llorenç Badoç, who gave her special medicaments.

It is what Peggy K. Liss. wrote about this occurrence in her book:

In March, a letter from an agent of Juan of Aragón to Fernando conveyed a general atmosphere of expectation and the widespread hope that the royal child would be a boy: ‘It is good, Your Excellency, for here is the most grave and grand matter of Spain, and nothing is more necessary or desired.…’ The hope was fulfilled. On the morning of June 30,1478, Isabel gave birth to a son and heir. Present as the child was born was a midwife and, by royal order, numerous courtiers and city officials, for it was a state occasion and there was to be no question that the child was the queen’s. Court and city celebrated for three days and nights. That Isabel’s second child was male crowned the successes of those years and was widely interpreted as a sign from God of his approval, and of yet greater victories to come.

Seville resounded with fiesta. On July 9, the baptismal procession made its way from the palace to the cathedral through thronged streets, the prince nestled in brocade cloth in the arms of his well-born nurse, Maria de Guzmán, the mule she rode flanked by eight councilmen bearing staffs of office and wearing great cloaks of black velvet ‘provided by the city.’ Alvaro de Stúñiga, the late great rebel, walked directly behind. Three of the queen’s pages strode along at the head of the procession. One held a gold jar, another a gold cup; the third, carrying the customary candle, baby cap, and money offering on a tray, was “so small that he bore the tray on his head, holding on to it with both hands.” All the nobles at court accompanied child and nurse, on foot; so did many knights and other people. Silver crosses gleamed above, and trumpets, hornpipes, and sackbutts played ceaselessly.

The prince was baptized Juan in the cathedral, ‘very triumphantly.’ That observation was made within the description of those proceedings by a new chronicler of a new sort, Andrés Bernáldez, a militant Andalusian chaplain much less concerned with political relations, much less critical of anyone both orthodox and powerful than Isabel’s earlier chroniclers could on occasion be; Bernáldez exuded a crusading patriotism. Officiating at the baptism was Seville’s archbishop, Pedro González de Mendoza, chief among courtiers. The godparents were the constable, Benavente, Nicolò Franco, the papal legate, and Leonor de Mendoza, duchess of Medina Sidonia.
A second procession, even grander, took place a month later, on August 9, when the queen went ‘to present the prince to the temple as was the custom of Holy Mother Church. She had waited until then as was also customary, for a woman was not to enter a church after childbirth until “being purified of her blood.’ Fernando led the way on a small silver-grey horse. He was opulently regal, wearing heavy brocade lined in gold and trimmed in gold and black velvet, and a broad hat also lined in cloth of gold. (It was sweltering midsummer in Andalusia; little wonder that Fernando reputedly said that all he wished to his enemies were winters in Burgos and summers in Seville.) At the center of that procession rode Isabel, dressed in brocade shimmering with pearls, mounted high upon a white trotter, its saddle of gold encrusted with more gold and with silver. Accompanying her on foot were most of the city’s council and many nobles. The constable, Haro, held the right-hand bridle rein of her horse; Benavente held the rein on her left. The infant prince, again swathed in brocade, also rode, carried by his nurse upon a mule with a saddle of velvet. Musicians kept pace, playing trumpets and hornpipes and many other instruments.

For how much Isabella loved all her children, it is clear John was the apple of her eye. Again, the qoute from Peggy K. Liss.:

She centered much affection and her dynastic hopes on her son and heir, Juan. She paid great attention to his education and did not stint on his court, his activities, his clothing, and his retinues, nor on his participation in court pageantry and festivities. He was given his own household and there waited upon as befitted a great prince, with exact protocol maintained from rising to retiring. A hierarchy of servants made a ritual of dressing and undressing him; grandes attended him. She attached to his household her own mentors: Gonzalo Chácon, now known as el viejo—the old one—and whose grandson of the same name was one of Juan’s companions, and Gutierre de Cárdenas as Juan’s mayordomo mayor and contador. Juan’s tutor, Diego de Deza, who had taught theology at Salamanca, was a nephew of yet another of her longtime comptrollers, Rodrigo de Ulloa. She arranged her son’s daily routine. Each morning there were prayers with Deza, then mass, then lessons. Since Juan particularly enjoyed music, she would often send to him during his daily two-hour rest period her music master and four or five choirboys, and he would sing with them, tenor. He was given his own musicians as well and he owned and played a number of instruments, among them the first Spanish claviorgano, a combination of organ and plucked string instrument, made by one Mofévrez, a Muslim grandmaster from Zaragoza; it was a present from his half-brother, young Alfonso de Aragón, archbishop of Zaragoza, Fernando’s son.
Yet Juan’s health was always delicate. Isabel had his diet and regimen carefully monitored. Each morning doctors visited and he reported to them on how he had slept, and on his digestion and bodily functions. Münzer, indicating physical disability, wrote of having saluted the prince in Latin and of Juan’s understanding it but ordering Deza to reply for him since, said Münzer, he suffered from a weakness of the lower lip and tongue that impeded his answering plainly. Isabel spoke of her son as ‘my angel’, and had him sent treats considered good for digestion: strawberry conserves, lemon blossom candies, other sugared sweets, and jars of quincemeat from what she referred to as ‘Valencia del Cid.’
Juan’s upbringing tells a good deal about Isabel. One of his pages later recalled that in his education the queen had cared as much for letters as for other abilities and, above all, for virtue. Manly virtue included proficiency in arms. Juan was given a master of arms, and the prince slept with a sword at the head of his bed and was instructed in its use. His father had knighted him before Granada. His mother had even earlier provided as companions for him ten knights, five mature, five young, ‘a species of colegio.’ One, who had fought at Granada, dedicated to the boy a translation into Castilian of Caesar’s commentaries, avowedly to convey that arms would not benefit him without good counsel. Juan corresponded with the humanist Marineo Sículo and with the poet Juan del Encina, who adjudged him as learned in sciencia as in empire. Juan was, that is, raised in the atmosphere then permeating the royal court and compounded of a fervent and militant piety, a resurgent chivalry, and a rising vogue for humanistic classicism.
Isabel gave much thought to Juan’s education, designing what she conceived to be the ideal upbringing for a Christian prince. She followed principles akin to those of the Siete Partidas and the mirrors of princes as though glossed by current usages and humanist studies, but their essential 
base and hers was orthodox religion. That unusual attention to his education and her ideas about what constituted it were reflected in a treatise written by a courtier close to her, Alonso Ortiz. Ortiz composed the work as a dialogue between the queen and Cardinal Mendoza. Surely echoing her own concerns, the principal question the treatise raised was how to achieve the spiritual health of the prince; the answer it gave was through learning good habits in childhood. In that treatise, Mendoza presents a highly traditional Christian rationale with some humanistic overlay. Thus he cites a Christian Platonist and somewhat Pythagorean understanding of purification in stating that the stars incline us and the wiles of the demons push us toward vices, that original sin infected everyone, corrupting the flesh and weighing on the soul; that the flesh submitted to the influence of the stars but the will remained free, subject only to God, yet needed instruction in order to gain wisdom. Training in will power, he explained, would develop natural abilities and correct bad inclinations; it could purify. Accordingly, he advised an education consonant with the stages advocated by Plato and Aristotle, an education leading to virtue both moral and intellectual, and so to the happy mean. Virtue and vice he declared within human power, life a pilgrimage toward blessedness and bliss, toward the eternal life of which Saint John speaks. That dialogue was itself a guide for a prince’s education, as it simply assumed much of what such guides had heretofore customarily stated, that the monarch’s spiritual health was the same as the common good. Taking for granted the importance of the prince, it concentrated on this specific prince’s personal development in wisdom, justice, moral qualities, and high character. In passing it revealed a good deal about humanistic education as understood at the Spanish court in the 1490s.

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On this day in music history: August 4, 1984 - “Purple Rain” by Prince & The Revolution hits #1 on the Billboard Top 200 for 24 weeks, also topping the R&B album chart for 19 weeks on July 28, 1984. Produced by Prince, it is recorded at First Avenue in Minneapolis, MN, Sunset Sound in Hollywood, CA, The Record Plant in Los Angeles, CA, and The Warehouse in St. Louis Park, MN from August 1983 - March 1984. The recording of the soundtrack album to the highly successful film begins with the recording of the tracks “I Would Die 4 U”, “Baby I’m A Star” and the title track, which are all recorded at a live benefit performance at the First Avenue nightclub in Minneapolis, also marking guitarist Wendy Melvoin’s live debut appearance with the band. “Let’s Go Crazy” is cut in The Revolution’s rehearsal space after Prince asks engineer Susan Rogers to take his home recording studio equipment out of his private residence and install it at The Warehouse. The remaining tracks are recorded in regular studios over the next couple of months, with the live recordings receiving some overdubbing and sweetening. Like the film, the soundtrack album is an enormous success, spinning off five hit singles including “When Doves Cry” (#1 Pop and R&B), “Let’s Go Crazy” (#1 Pop and R&B) and the title track (#2 Pop, #4 R&B). It wins two Grammy Awards (Best Rock Vocal Performance By Duo Or Group and Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture or TV Special), and an Academy Award for Best Original Song Score in 1985. “Purple Rain” is certified 13x Platinum in the US by the RIAA, and is inducted into the Grammy Hall Of Fame in 2011.

Diary Entry - 10th February 1840 - The Wedding Of Victoria And Albert


The entire transcript from Queen Victoria’s diary of her wedding day.

Slept well & breakfasted at ½ p. 9, before which Mama came, bringing me a nosegay of orange flowers, & good Lehzen gave me a dear little ring. — Wrote my Journal & saw Ld Melbourne. — Had my hair dressed & the wreath of orange flowers put on my head. My wreath & veil were worn, according to the rough sketch. — Saw my precious Albert alone, for the last time as my Bridegroom, & he fetched in Uncle & Ernest for a moment. — At ½ p. 12 I set off, dearest Albert having gone before, & Mama & the Dss of Sutherland went with me in the carriage. I wore a white satin dress, with a deep flounce of Honiton lace, an imitation of an old design. My jewels were my Turkish diamond necklace & earrings & dear Albert’s beautiful sapphire branch. I never saw such crowds as there were in the Park, & they cheered most enthusiastically.

When I arrived at St. James’s Palace, I went into the Dressingroom arranged for me, where my 12 young Train Bearers were waiting, dressed all in white with wreaths of white roses in their hair which had a very pretty effect. I waited a little while till Albert’s Procession had moved into the Chapel. I then went with my Train Bearers & Ladies into the Throne Room, where my Procession was formed, Ld Melbourne, in his fine new Dress Coat, bearing the Sword of State, with Ld Uxbridge & Ld Belfast, on either side of him, walking immediately before me. Queen Anne’s Room was full of people, ranged on seats one above the other, as also the Guard Room, & all along the staircase, — all very friendly. The Procession looked beautiful going downstairs, & along part of the Colour Court, which was all covered in, & full of people, who were most cordial. The Flourish of Trumpets ceased, as I entered the Chapel, when the organ began to play.

At the altar, on my right, stood my beloved Albert, Mama being on my left, as also Uncles Sussex & Cambridge & Aunt Augusta; on Albert’s right stood the Queen Dowr then, Uncle Ernest, Ernest, Aunt Cambridge, with little Mary, George & Augusta’s Pss Sophia Matilda. Ld Melbourne with the Sword of State, stood close to me. The Ceremony was very impressive & fine, yet simple, & I think ought to make an imperishable impression, on every one who promises at the altar to keep the vows he or she have have made. Albert repeated everything very distinctly. I felt so happy when he placed the ring on my finger. As soon as the Service was over, the Procession retuned as it came, with the exception, that dearest Albert led me out! The applause was very great, coming through the Colour Court. Ld Melbourne, good man, was quite affected during the Ceremony & at the applause.

We all, went back into the Throne Room where the signing of the Register took place. We then went into the Closet, the Royal Family waiting with us there, whilst the Ladies got into their carriages. I gave all the Train Bearers, as a souvenir, a small eagle brooch in turquoises. Returned alone, with dear Albert, to Buckingham Palace. The crowd was immense & & cheered us warmly & heartily. In the Hall, which was full of people, they cheered us again & again. The Green Drawingroom & Throne Room were filled with persons of rank, even numbers of Children being there. I went with dear Albert into my Dressing Room & we sat down on the sofa there & talked together till it was time to go down to the Wedding Breakfast. All the Company was assembled when we went into the Drawingroom, Albert leading me in, my train being carried by 3 Pages, Cowell, little Wemyss & dear little Byng.

I sat between Uncle Sussex & dearest Albert. He & I, drank a glass of wine with Ld Melbourne, who seemed much affected by everything. After the Breakfast, I talked to all. Little Mary behaved so well, both in the Chapel & during the Breakfast. I then went upstairs & undressed, putting on a white silk gown, trimmed with swan’s down & a bonnet with orange flowers. Albert had also gone downstairs to change his clothes. — At ¼ to 4 Ld Melbourne came to me & I shook hands with him & he kissed my hand. Talked of how well everything had gone off. “Nothing could have been better”, he said, & of the people being in such good humour; — of my receiving the Addresses from the Houses of Lords & Commons; — of his coming down to Windsor in time for dinner. Dearest Albert came & fetched me downstairs, where we took leave of Mama & drove off at about 4, — I, & Albert alone, which was so delightful.

There were immense crowds outside the Palace, which I must add, never ceased, until we reached Windsor Castle. Our reception was most enthusiastic, hearty, & gratifying in every way; we were quite deaf from the noise of the cheering. People on horseback & in gigs, driving along with us. We came through Eton where all the Boys received us most kindly, shouting & cheering. Really, I was quite touched. We only arrived at 7, followed by the Ladies & Gentlemen of the Household, & went at once to our rooms. My large Dressingroom is now our sitting room. The 3 little blue rooms are Albert’s, the next little one his Dressingroom, then comes our Bedroom & my Dressingroom. A little way off are Lehzen’s 2 rooms.

After looking over our rooms & seeing that all was right, I changed my dress, & came back to Albert’s small sitting-room, where he was sitting, wearing his Windsor Uniform coat, I had such a sick headache, that I could eat nothing at dinner, & had to remain on the sofa the rest of the evening. Dearest Albert remained sitting near me & his excessive kindness & affection gave me such a feeling of deep happiness & contentment. How can I ever be thankful enough, to have such a Husband! May God help me to do my duty as I ought & to be worthy of such blessings!

Featured Image - pen and ink sketch by Queen Victoria from her original diary entry

Sources - Queen Victoria’s Journals website

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August 22nd 1485: King Richard III dies

On this day in 1485, King Richard III of England died during the Battle of Bosworth Field, making him the last English monarch to die in battle. Before ascending to the throne, Richard served as protector of the realm for his nephew, the 12 year old King Edward V. Supposedly to protect him before his coronation, Richard had the young king and his brother lodged in the royal palace of the Tower of London. However, Edward’s claim to the throne was declared invalid and Richard claimed the throne for himself. Soon after Richard’s coronation in July 1483, ‘the Princes in the Tower’ mysteriously disappeared, leading many to believe Richard had them killed to consolidate his claim to the throne. Richard’s reign, and indeed much of that of his predecessors, was dominated by the Wars of the Roses. These wars for the throne were fought during the mid to late fifteenth century between the houses of Lancaster and York, rival factions of the royal House of Plantagenet. Richard III was a Yorkist and contributed to many of his house’s early victories in the conflict, helping ensure his brother and then his nephew’s reign. However, Richard III was destined to become the last king of both the House of York and the Plantagenet dynasty itself. He was defeated and killed by the forces of Lancastrian Henry Tudor in the Battle of Bosworth Field on 22nd August 1485, ending the Wars of the Roses and allowing Henry to become King and begin the rule of the Tudors. Richard III was buried unceremoniously at Grey Friars Church, and his remains were lost for centuries, until an excavation in 2012 found his skeleton under a car park in the city of Leicester. The subsequent renewed interest in Richard III, so maligned by William Shakespeare in the eponymous play as a murderer and “poisonous bunch-back’d toad”, was partly shaped by revisionist attempts to emphasise the positive aspects of his reign and character. In 2015, 530 years after his death, King Richard III was reburied in Leicester in a ceremony as befit a king.