this day in 1942, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed executive
order 9066 which allowed the military to relocate Japanese-Americans to
internment camps. A climate of paranoia descended on the US following the attack on the naval base at Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan, which prompted the US to join the Second World War. Americans of Japanese ancestry became targets for persecution, as there were fears that they would collude with Japan and pose a national security threat. This came to a head with FDR’s executive order, which led to 120,000 Japanese-Americans being rounded up and held in camps. The constitutionality of the controversial measure was upheld by the Supreme Court in Korematsu v. United States (1944). Interned Americans suffered great material and personal hardship, with most people
losing their property and some losing their lives to illness or the
violence of camp sentries. The victims of internment and their families eventually received
an official government apology in 1988 and reparations began in the
1990s. This dark episode of American history is often forgotten in the narrative of US involvement in the Second World War, but Japanese internment poses a stark reminder of the dangers of paranoia and scapegoating.
March 21, 2015 - Harry trying to see Louis while singing. And no, he’s not looking at Liam because Liam then looks at Louis. He then sticks his tongue out at the camera because he knows it was caught on tape but doesn’t care.
On this day in 1935, the world famous dog Hachikō died. Hachikō was a dog
from Japan who became famous worldwide for his extraordinary loyalty to
his owner - Hidesaburō Ueno. Ueno was a professor at the University of
Tokyo, and each day Hachikō would greet him at Shibuya Station when he
returned from work. One day in May 1925, Ueno did not return. He had
suffered a cerebral hemorrhage and died, so he never met Hachikō at the
station that day. However, every day for the next nine years, Hachikō
waited at the station, appearing precisely when the train was due.
Hachikō attracted the attention of many people, including one of Ueno’s
former students who published articles about the dog. The Japanese
considered his loyalty and faithfulness to his master an example of
family loyalty for all to follow. On this day in 1935, Hachikō was found
dead on a street in Shibuya; he had died from terminal cancer and
worms. His legacy lives on, with a bronze statue of him erected at
Shibuya Station and many films made about his life.
“A woman who was maritally raped at 12 went through a horrendous body-damaging birth at 13, had to marry no less than four times, because of politics and the need to survive, and spent half her life fighting for the freedom and return of her only son.
A woman who believed having a lot of money was God’s way of using you to help the poor and less fortunate, who took in the homeless, cared for the sick, who allowed anyone to eat and drink at her table at Christmas, who threw the best parties that food made the table groan with the weight of it.
A woman who was an advocate of other women, giving money so poor women could get married, defending and helping Cecily when she married against the king’s wishes, protected her granddaughter from being maritally raped as she was.
A woman who was intelligent and helped found colleges at Cambridge and Oxford, who translated books from French into English, who supported and funding the development of the printing press, who encouraged the access of knowledge and reading to all.
A woman who was smart enough to make alliances where others hadn’t, who secretly communicated with Elizabeth Woodville for an outcome that benefited them both, who continued to fight for her son even when everything was taken from her. [And a woman who by all accounts got along well with her daughter-in-law.]
A woman who survived the constant political upheaval throughout her life, survived an attainder of treason, survived changing of kings, survived a horrific birth, survived being parted from her son, survived seeing loved ones die around her, including her own beloved son.
A woman who is now portrayed in popular culture as a multiple murderer, a borderline sociopath, and a mean-spirited over-ambitious religious nut.” (x)
day in 1692, three women were brought before local magistrates in Salem
Village, Massachusetts, thus beginning the infamous Salem Witch Trials. The
women were Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne and Tituba and all three had been accused
of witchcraft after local girls began experiencing strange fits. Given the lack
of medical knowledge at the time and the preponderance of beliefs in the
supernatural, witchcraft was the only logical explanation for their condition.
The accused women matched the description of the stereotypical witch: Good was
a beggar, Osborne rarely went to church and Tituba was a slave of different
ethnicity. The women were interrogated by magistrates John Hathorne and
Jonathan Corwin and Tituba eventually confessed to witchcraft, claiming Good
and Osborne were her co-conspirators. The three were then sent to jail; Osborne
died in jail, Good was hanged and Tituba (as a useful confessor) was kept alive
and eventually released after the trials ended. The initial interrogation was
followed by many more accusations of witchcraft throughout the village and the
surrounding area, fueled perhaps by local rivalries, poisoned grain or just
mass fear. The manhunt resulted in 19 ‘witches’ being hanged, one pressed to
death and hundreds more imprisoned in horrendous conditions. The event is a
famous example of mass hysteria and has become a cautionary tale for religious
extremism and false accusations.
Today marks 400 years since the death of the Bard. William Shakespeare, an English poet and playwright, authored 37 plays and over 150 sonnets. His works are some of the most widely quoted and performed productions in the world, and he is credited with creating over 1,700 words and phrases in the English language.
↳ 29 May 1660 AD ‘Oak Apple Day’ - Restoration of the monarchy in England. From Pepys diary “Parliament had ordered the 29th May, the King’s birthday, to be for ever kept as a day of thanksgiving for our redemption from tyranny and the King’s return to his Government, he entering London that day.”
This day in history- August 6, 1945 - Atomic Bomb “Little Boy” is dropped on Hiroshima from the B-29 “Enola Gay” flown by Col. Paul Tibbets and co-pilot Robert Lewis. The explosion and ensuing fireball / shockwave would kill 70,000 people instantly, and another estimated 70-90,000 would suffer or die from radiation and resulting cancers. The blast could be seen for over 100 miles. Entire neighborhoods were brought to rubble in a matter of seconds, and the shadows of people would be permanently burned into walls. Following generations of babies would be born with deformity, and flowers and plants would grow with mutations. It would take over 2 decades until the city was returned to it’s former state.
On this day in 1943, three members of the peaceful resistance movement in Nazi Germany, the White Rose, were executed. The White Rose, comprising students from the University of Munich and their philosophy professor, began in June 1942. The group secretly distributed leaflets protesting against the regime of Adolf Hitler and the war being waged in Europe, highlighting the repressive nature of the Nazi police state and drawing attention to the mistreatment of Jews. The group took precautions to avoid capture by keeping the White Rose group very small. However, on 18th February 1943, the siblings Sophie and Hans Scholl were discovered distributing leaflets by a university janitor, who informed the Gestapo. Hans and Sophie were arrested and immediately admitted guilt, hoping to avoid being coerced into implicating their fellow members of the White Rose, but after further interrogation were forced to give up the names. Four days later, the Scholls and Christoph Probst - some of the founding members of the group - were put on trial and found guilty of treason; they were sentenced to death. That same day, February 22nd, the three were executed by beheading at Stadelheim Prison. After their executions, the remaining members were arrested and killed, thus ending the White Rose resistance movement. The White Rose, alongside other groups like the Edelweiss Pirates, are an important example of Germans speaking out against Hitler’s regime, and their deaths are yet another in the litany of Nazi crimes.
“We will not be silent. We are your bad conscience. The White Rose will not leave you in peace!”
↳ 10 June 1338 AD - William Montagu, Earl of Salisbury withdraws his army after unsuccessfully besieging Dunbar Castle for five months, leaving it in the sole possession of Lady Agnes Randolph “Black Agnes”. Black Agnes is commemorated in a ballad which attributes these words to Montagu:-
“She kept a stir in tower and trench, That brawling, boisterous Scottish wench, Came I early, came I late I found Agnes at the gate.”
this day in 1947, the state of Prussia, which had existed since 1525,
ceased to exist. Prussia was a German kingdom, and in the nineteenth century
became its most powerful state, rising in strength to challenge other
established European powers. Otto von Bismarck aimed to unite all German states
under the domination of Prussia, which was achieved through the German
Unification Wars (Austro-Prussian War 1866 & Franco-Prussian War
1870-1871). As Prussia merged with Germany it lost its distinctive
identity and in 1918 the royalty abdicated and nobility lost most of its
political power. Under Nazi rule, Prussia lost its identity even more,
with centralisation policies removing its autonomy. Prussia lost some
territory in the post-war division of Germany into zones and the Western
allies sought its full abolition. This was secured in Law 46 by the
Allied Control Council, citing Prussia’s association with past
militarism as the reason. Former Prussian territory was then
re-organised. Prussia has since been vilified by Germans as a symbol of
the militarism and obedience that led to the Nazi rise to power.
Abe Sapien began his life as Langdon Everett Caul, a Victorian scientist and businessman who became involved with the Oannes Society, an occult organization who believed in life and all knowledge having come from the sea. After retrieving a strange jellyfish-like deity from an underwater ruin, Caul and the other members performed an arcane ritual that inadvertently ended with the creature’s release and Caul being turned into an ichthyo sapien. Believing him to be Oannes reborn, the society sealed the developing icthyo sapien’s body in a tube of water in the hidden laboratory beneath a Washington, D.C.. hospital until such time as he was fully formed. Forced to abandon the site by the outbreak of the American Civil War, the Society never found occasion to return for Caul, and there he stayed until he was found by workmen in November 1978. With no memory of his life before, the icthyo sapien received a new name. Abe Sapien was taken to the Bureau for Paranormal Research and Defense (BPRD) for a gruelling round of research by curious BPRD scientists, and was saved from vivisection by an empathetic Hellboy. Thereafter, Abe entered the ranks of the BPRD as a valued field agent. He first appeared in Hellboy: Seeds of Destruction (March 22, 1994).
On this day in 1811, Percy Bysshe Shelley was expelled from the University
of Oxford for publishing a pamphlet entitled ‘The Necessity of
Atheism’. Shelley is best known as a famous English poet, who was part
of a group of fellow prominent writers including his wife Mary Shelley
and Lord Byron. As well as being as being an author, Shelley was a
radical political activist who advocated non-violent protest. Having
begun study at Oxford in 1810, it is often said that he only attended
one lecture during his time there. He published several works whilst at
university, but it was his atheistic pamphlet which led to his
appearance before the College fellows and his eventual expulsion as he
refused to deny authorship. ‘The Necessity of Atheism’ argued that
people do not choose their beliefs and thus atheists shouldn’t be
persecuted. However it is unclear whether Shelley was personally an
atheist; he may have instead been an agnostic or a pantheist. Either
way, this document is an interesting insight into Shelley’s views and
shows how atheism was stigmatised in the early nineteenth century.
“Truth has always been found to promote the best interests of
mankind. Every reflecting mind must allow that there is no proof of the
existence of a Deity”