things that have been in my drafts f o r e v e r


tbh its not finished but i had to post it :)))))

okie to start we will begin with bradley will simpson

i thought id ease you in with a lovely smile bc holy moly u fine

i think someones been doin the marrajuanna





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soratori42  asked:

So, are you allowed to tell us the phonology (phonetics??, idk) of Irathient, Castithan, and Indojisnen? And if so, could you please tell us- you've mentioned the sounds in the languages, but I've never actually seen them all written out (plus it might help all the people trying to figure out all the letters/symbols and what they stand for) Anyway, thanks (in advance I guess)

Okay, before getting into this, to all hellbug seekers, this post is a hellbug eligible post! If you would like a hellbug, please reblog this post by 5 pm ET next Thursday, when episode 204 of Defiance will air! Also, from now on, reblogs and retweets count separately (it was too much trouble to go through and figure out which Twitter accounts belonged to which Tumblr accounts so they only got counted once. If you’re concerned about someone getting two chances to win, go create a one-off Twitter account and retweet the tweet associated with this post).

Anyway, the phonology of all three languages? Detailing the phonology of one language would take ages, if you mean everything (which may or may not include the sound changes that produced the modern language). If I think I understand your meaning, though, you’d like the romanization systems and their phonetic equivalents? I can do that, though this will still be a long post.


The Castithan phonetic inventory is pretty vanilla, compared to other things. As a language that’s been around for a while, though, it’s just been worn down. The romanization system should be fairly straightforward for English speakers. The following consonants are pronounced like their IPA equivalents:

p, b, t, d, k, g, f, v, s, z, h, m, n, l, w

The following sounds have different pronunciations from their equivalent IPA symbol:

r [ɾ], y [j], j [dʒ]

The following digraphs are used to represent single phones:

ch [tʃ], th [θ], dh [ð], sh [ʃ], zh [ʒ], ny [ɲ], ng [ŋ], ly [ʎ]

Many non-palatal sounds can be palatalized, and these are spelled with a following y. The sequence [ŋɡ] is always spelled ngg.

The vowels are: a [ɐ/ɑ], e [e], i [i], o [ɔ], u [u]. Pronunciation will vary by actor, though.

Other things to keep in mind with Castithan is that, for example, a palatalized r becomes zh at the beginning of a word, and a labialized r always becomes w (similar change turns l into y and w in the same environments). Stressed short i becomes ye and stressed short u becomes wo. Voiceless consonants voice intervocalically when they’re singletons unless they were old emphatics (so Datak actually has two old emphatics in his name).

Regarding phonotactics, Castithan used to allow no codas whatsoever. In sequences like vyengga, the word for “six”, the old pronunciation would have been [ˈvi.ᵑɡa], as the old language had a series of prenasalized stops. The prenasalized stops dropped out at the beginning of a word (hence Datak’s name, which used to be [ˈⁿdai.t’a.k’ɔ]), and the nasals became codas elsewhere. In addition, short vowels dropped in unstressed syllables between voiceless consonants (thus, shtako began its existence as [si.ˈtaː.k’ɔ]). When fricatives follow stops, they’re a part of the same syllable, thus a usual past tense, like fanupsa “ate” would be [ˈ].

Then there’s a bunch of other stuff. The writing system is tough to figure out, because any single sound can be spelled about a dozen different ways, depending on where it is in the word.

Stress is generally on the first syllable, but can appear on any of the first three syllables of a root. The stress system followed the old system which had long vowels which affected length (along with geminates).


Irathient has a couple phonological quirks that make it fun. To start with, the following sounds are spelled the same as their IPA symbols in the Irathient romanization:

p, b, t, d, k, g, f, v, s, z, h, r, l, w, m, n

The following digraphs are used to represent single phones:

gy [ɟ]/[j], th [θ], sh [ʃ], ny [ɲ], ng [ŋ]

As with Castithan, the sequence [ŋɡ] is spelled ngg.

The vowels of Irathient are: a [a], e [ɛ], ei [e], i [i], o [o], u [u], ai [ai], ǝ [ǝ] (capitalized as Ǝ).

Now, there is a variant romanization system I used for the scripts, because they can’t accept the character “ǝ”. For that system, aa represents [a] and a represents [ǝ]. I switched away from that system for the official romanization I use for my dictionaries specifically because of Rockne O’Bannon. Rockne didn’t like double a’s for some specific reason that I didn’t quite get (something have to do with Farscape). That’s the only reason I would’ve ever tried to push a crazy character like “ǝ” on non-linguistically-savvy users. The a/ǝ spellings remained and were being used until Brian Alexander recommended I switch to Final Draft, the software writers use to write scripts. Final Draft is great, but has almost no Unicode support whatsoever (fans of Game of Thrones will know this as the reason that I always screw up long vowels in High Valyrian, as Final Draft doesn’t support the characters ā, ē, ī, ō or ū—and you can forget about ȳ). In order to fix the problem, I went back to the aa/a system for scripts, since Rockne was no longer involved with the show and could no longer object. Thus an inconsistency was born. In Unicode-compliant interfaces, I try to maintain a/ǝ.

Though there is a somewhat even distribution of sounds in Castithan, the same is not true of Irathient. F, for example, is used only in borrowings, and is a non-native sound. V is an allophone of w which only occurs before the back vowels u and o. The sound p is a native Irathient sound, but it actually doesn’t occur very much (it’s kind of like [ð] in English: not many words have it, but some very high frequency words do). Both ei and ai are diphthongs that occur in their own right (and, actually, o, which comes from old [aw], [ǝw], [al] and [ǝl] sequences), but ei and o are special because they’re the reflexes of e and a respectively before nasal codas. Thus, if an Irathient was pronouncing the name Amanda, it’d probably come out Amonda. Finally, ǝ also has a limited distribution. It occurs as an epenthetic vowel in certain circumstances, and features in certain paradigms (e.g. nouns that end in a consonant take a plural in -ǝ), but generally doesn’t occur in stems.

Otherwise, you can build up pretty much any type of syllable. If a consonant cluster is unpronounceable, a ǝ will be inserted. Any consonant can be geminated, and the distinction can be used semantically (e.g. thesu “distance” vs. thessu “time”). Aside from what’s already been mentioned, terrible things happen to vowels ahead of a coda l or w. It’s also worth remembering that there are two s’s and two z’s in the writing system (one s came from an old [ts], and one z came from an old [dz]. Modern sh also came from an old [tʃ]).

Stress is almost always on the second-to-last syllable. When it isn’t, a schwa is usually involved. Stress can’t appear on ǝ, and, if there’s space, also can’t appear on the syllable before ǝ.


Indojisnen is what the IPA would be if it were discovered in the Votanis solar system (in fact, I assume it was. I’d like to build an Indojisnen IPA font one day). It accommodates any borrowed sound, but its native sounds are as follows (these consonants are pronounced as their equivalent IPA values):

p, b, t, d, k, g, f, v, s, z, h, l, m, n

The following sounds have different pronunciations from their equivalent IPA symbol:

r [ɾ], y [j], j [dʒ]

The following digraphs are used to represent single phones:

ch [tʃ], sh [ʃ], zh [ʒ], ny [ɲ], ng [ŋ], ly [ʎ]

As with Castithan and Irathient, the sequence [ŋɡ] is spelled ngg.

The vowels of Indojisnen are: a [ɑ], e [ɛ], ey [e], o, [ɔ], ow [o], i [i], u [u]. Any non-high vowel can pair with any high vowel to form a diphthong.

Indojisnen stems tend to be monosyllabic, and tend to be heavy. A diphthong (including old sequences of [ai] and [au] which became e and o) counts as heavy. A word can also end with the consonants tk or n. Syllables can end with many more consonants than that, but those three sounds or a vowel are the only sounds that can end a word of Indojisnen. For certain nouns, you can see evidence of a word formerly ending with dg or m, and for certain nouns and verbs you can see evidence of a former s, but those sounds no longer occur at the end of a word. Internally, a syllable can end with any single consonant.

In the middle of words, a number of rules end up shaving words down a bit. For example, nasal-stop sequences get simplified to just nasal, and many diphthongs are simplified to monophthongs, outside of the first two syllables. Otherwise, words get super long.

Stress is almost uniformly on the first syllable of a word in Indojisnen. The only time where stress is on the second syllable of a word is when the first syllable is short and the second is heavy (either because it has a diphthong or a non-final coda consonant).

So, there you go! That’s not everything, but it’s a good piece. Hope that answered your question.


And, again, if you would like to win a free hellbug, please reblog this post! You can also retweet the tweet associated with this post. You have until 8 pm ET July 10th when episode 204 of Defiance airs on Syfy. Again, if you win, you’ll need to give me a mailing address so I can send you the hellbug, but otherwise, that’s all there is to it! There was a 1 in 83 chance for winning the first hellbug. Interested to see how it’ll work out this time. And, again, this is the second of five total chances to win a hellbug this season. Best of luck!

UPDATE: The second hellbug has been won and claimed by mister-floppy! Stay tuned for another chance to win next Thursday!