thermophilic

Laguna Roja, Chile. It looks as if a giant had emptied a bucket of red paint on this plateau in the unpopulated mountains of the Parinacota volcano region in northern Chile.The blood-red water that collects in the Laguna Roja has a temperature of 40–500 C (104–1220 F). The vivid colour is due to thermophilic red algae that thrive at these high temperatures. Bernhard Edmaier

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Velvet Ants

The Mutillidae are a family of more than 3,000 species of wasps whose wingless females resemble large, hairy ants. Their common name velvet ant refers to their dense pile of hair, which most often is bright scarlet or orange, but may also be black, white, silver, or gold. Black and white specimens are sometimes known as panda ants due to their hair coloration resembling that of the giant panda. They are known for their extremely painful stings, hence the common name cow killer or cow ant. However, mutillids are not aggressive and sting only in defense. Only female mutillids are capable of inflicting a sting. In addition, the actual toxicity of their venom is much lower than that of honey bees or harvester ants. Unlike true ants, they are solitary, and lack complex social systems.

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What about thermophilic humans tho, the ones who intentionally play in volcanic water or death-grip a hot mug of *whatever* or just sit in patches of sun or by the ship equivalent of a radiator, like ‘human, are you aware that scans indicate this has dangerously high levels of thermal radiation?’ and the human is just 'but it feels good’

Think near-boiling water is too hot to support life? Think again. The geysers and hot springs of Yellowstone National Park host an array of thermophillic, or heat-loving, microorganisms that can tolerate temperatures as high as 175 degrees Fahrenheit. These bacteria, along with other microorganisms like archaea, create the vivid color palettes of some of Yellowstone’s famed springs and geysers, like the Grand Prismatic Spring pictured here.

The blue center is the heart of the spring, where nearly boiling water makes it impossible for anything to survive, resulting in a startlingly blue hue. As the temperature dips farther out from the hot spring’s superheated center, though, more and more kinds of bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms are able to endure. The different rings of color emanating from the steaming epicenter represent different microbial communities that call the spring home.

The most heat-tolerant cyanobacteria dominate the still-extreme temperatures in the yellow-colored ring, while the outer, orange layer hosts an array of organisms that can’t stand the heat quite as well as their neighbors. The colors of these rings also change in response to the time of year and other environmental factors. The cooler outer rings, meanwhile, form ecosystems of their own, hosting flies, mites, spiders, and other animals. Ephydrid flies feast on the bacterial communities and lay their eggs there, while predators like wolf spiders and parasites such as mites are drawn here because of the presence of the flies.

Find out about more amazing species thriving in exceptional environments in the special exhibition Life at the Limits, open now through January 2016. 

Watch on the-earth-story.com

southcoastgeo #travertine Tuesday! Travertine is formed when hot geothermal waters flow through layers of limestone, dissolving and then depositing the calcium carbonate in spectacular fountains. This example has been colored in oranges and browns by thermophilic algae and is from the Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park. 

anonymous asked:

Hey as a fellow Lucifer fan i was wondering if you could recommend any good deckerstar fanfiction, i feel like I've already sucked ao3 dry and read everything twice but i'm hoping to still find some hidden gems that can tide me over until season 3 decides its going to stop playing games and actually give us some decent content

Thank you for asking, Anon.  I can recommend sooooo many!  Please know that this list is not comprehensive.  I recommend starting on page 96 of the AO3 Lucifer vault and working your way forward.  Aside from the obligatory “read my stuff, too!” here are some suggestions. 


Some of these are well-known and it’s quite likely you’ve already read them if you’ve “already sucked AO3 dry.”  Some of these, though, are a bit older, so you may not have found them.  So….



The entire Devil’s Trap series from

@elenacalderas

 

http://archiveofourown.org/series/663677

Chloe finds out about Lucifer, and they end up together; it was, after all, the will of God. Now that the Devil and the cop are a team in mutual possession of all the facts, what will change and what won’t?  

I’ve read the various pieces in this series so many times I’ve lost track.  I think Thermophillic Bacteria piece so far, but the entire thing is wonderful.



Where The Devil Hides from EllanaSan

http://archiveofourown.org/works/10879389

AU for “The Weaponizer”. After killing Uriel, Lucifer loses control. Maze calls the only person who can tame the big bad devil…  

“Big bad Devil,” indeed.  I love Luci-powers, especially when they’re barely reined in.



The Steadiness of Small Things from @grymwolfen

http://archiveofourown.org/works/9594035

Recently resurrected, Lucifer stumbles back to Chloe’s hospital room with the antidote formula. Amenadiel stands his ground. Trixie somehow sees matters more clearly than the grown-ups–even the celestial ones. A missing moment from the winter finale, “A Good Day to Die.“ 

This is so beautiful and immersive.  My head swam right along with Luci returning from hell.



And There Was Light from

@ariaadagio

http://archiveofourown.org/works/12233841/chapters/27794010

Post-S2 finale.  When Lucifer Morningstar is found half dead in the desert, Chloe Decker is determined to find out why, but the more she pushes, the more he pulls away. 

I’ve gushed about this rather non-stop.  Shameless fangirl here.

 


Damnatio Memoriae from IceQueen1

http://archiveofourown.org/works/7497159/chapters/17040165

Chloe tries to solve the riddle that is Lucifer Morningstar. Dan even manages to help. When mysterious ritualized killings start showing up, Chloe suspects Lucifer may know more than he lets on. Problem is, she doesn’t know what she thinks she does. Eventual Lucifer Whump. 

Supernatural Luciferness!  I love this.  Poor Lucifer, but the characterizations in this are wonderful



Beginner’s Guide to Caring for Your Fallen Angel from SueBob99

http://archiveofourown.org/works/8839888

Could caring for a fallen angel be for you?Fallen Angels can be a trying bunch. Anyone dealing with one on a daily basis is probably in over their heads. Luckily there’s this guide to help… 

This is really short but funny as Hell.



Ultima Necat from @titconao3 and mrsdecaesteker

http://archiveofourown.org/works/10616313/chapters/23478297

Going on after the worst happens. 

Do not read this in public…or on your phone at work (like I did).  You will cry.  This hurts a lot but it’s so beautiful.

 


The Sinister Kid from

@fearthespork

http://archiveofourown.org/works/6168745

Chloe Decker has a stalker. Lucifer deals with him in a way only the Devil can. 

Sporky doesn‘t step out the smut lounge often, but she does, oh Hell yes.  One heaping helping of Protective!Lucifer, please.  This delivers…in spades.



High for This from

@burningupasunjusttosayhello

http://archiveofourown.org/works/6243373

After the events of Wingman, Lucifer and Chloe share more than shots. 

I love a solicitous Lucifer.



Take Its Meaning From The Nobler Part from grasssea

http://archiveofourown.org/works/6827803

Lucifer on Chloe and the evolution of lust, which- like all things- gets inevitably complicated and more difficult to deal with.(In his defense his experience with delayed or non-existent gratification is limited.) 

Stream of consciousness Lucifer POV.  The rhythm of this is really neat.

Long Theory: The “Evolution” of Gems

Alright, folks. I know I haven’t been as active as I’ve promised. Truth is, especially since Steven Universe has become so monstrously popular, it’s hard to hold up a blog devoted to pushing theories that I haven’t seen anywhere else, since I tend to see most decent theories everywhere at this point. Perhaps it’s time for a rethinking of that premise, but I still don’t think my work would be anything other than redundant if all I ever did was parrot and repost already-popular theories. That, and tumblr’s frequent technical errors and hurtles on my end, can be very disheartening.

That said, today I have something a little out of the ordinary for you all. Rather than a “theory” in the strictest sense– taking an educated guess at the intentions of the showrunners– this is going to be a bit of a diversion into self-indulgent territory, to inspire me to at least contribute something after all these months.

I’ve always been very fond of science fiction, especially the creative field of speculative biology– the hypothesizing of organisms as they might exist in ecosystems alternate to our own. As such, I’ve decided to write a speculative look at the Gem Homeworld, and a sort of hypothetical natural history of how a group of entities like Gems could arise in our own universe.

If that’s not what you’re here for, then keep on scrolling. If that sounds interesting to you, though, please enjoy.


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3dspacejesus  asked:

21!!

21. Brainstorm the design of a planet terraformed purely for artistic purposes.

Something I’ve daydreamed about for a long time: a planet that’s tidally locked with its sun in the same way that our moon is tidally locked with Earth – that is, the same side of it faces the sun at all times. The planet would have one scorched side of perpetual daylight, one frozen side of perpetual darkness, and in between, a thin band of twilight that could potentially support life.

I looked it up today and it turns out this type of planet has a name – they’re called eyeball planets, and they might look like a bit this:

This article (which is also the source of the above image) has some speculative models about how the weather and climates might work. The glaciers on the dark side would melt as they approached the twilight region, forming rivers that would all run in the same direction, lightward. As they flowed further towards the scorched side, they’d boil and evaporate, generating steam, which would eventually drift darkwards, possibly clustering as clouds on the planet’s dark side.

As for the ecology – on the dark end of the twilight region, you’d have lifeforms adapted to darkness and cold. Animals with thick fur coats and big eyes, foliage with very dark leaves to capture the scant sunlight. If I was terraforming this region, I’d definitely seed this area with bioluminescent animals – it’d be dark enough that they could use their luminescence for signaling and communication (attracting mates, warding off predators, luring in prey) in the same way that deep-sea creatures do on Earth.

As you followed the rivers lightwards, the life would be more adapted for warmth and sunlight. You’d first find plants that were adapted to only catching the long evening rays of light – they’d mostly absorb in the red region (assuming the atmosphere scattered light similarly to how Earth’s does). Further on, the sunlight would grow stronger and more golden, like Earth in the early evening, and you might have enough light to sustain forests. These might be dense cloud forests, trapping water vapor as it drifts darkwards.

(pictured: Monteverde Cloud Forest, Costa Rica)

Even futher lightwards, the environment would become hot and arid, and as the rivers began to steam away, you might end up with some sort of fog desert. You could probably grow thermophilic algae in the near-boiling water, and select for the ones that produce spectacular colors.

(pictured: Grand Prismatic Spring in Yellowstone Park, USA.)

I’m not sure if I’m allowed to grow sapient life on this planet, or if an ethics committee would stop me or something – but if sapient beings did evolve on this planet, their languages would include “lightwards” and “darkwards” as cardinal directions. Their early religions would likely all be dualistic, with a Deity Of Light And Fire and a Deity Of Darkness And Ice. They wouldn’t be able to use water routes for trade, since all the rivers run lightward and eventually boil away, so they’d have to become good at land navigation and crossing rivers perpendicular to the current. Also, it might take a long, long time for civilizations on opposite sides of the world to come into contact with each other.

The Late Heavy Bombardment, Don Dixon

In those circular seas—craters, now cradles—lives are lived. Microbes teem in slimes and biofilms, clogging big hot baths with their tiny bodies, chemosynthesizing and reproducing because this is what they do. It’s all there is to do. The unrelenting violent rain of comets and asteroids might remelt the surface of the Earth, and, if future generations are to survive the onslaught, to pass on genetic material so that someday an artist might paint this moment and a poet might pen some corresponding words, these thermophiles must do what they do best—survive.

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A Galaxy Far, Far Away → [35/∞] Sullust

A Trailing Sectors Outer Rim thermophile planet at the crossroads of the Rimma Trade Route and the Silvestri Trace. Like Mustafar, Sullust’s primary geographic makeup is magma: under the gravity of Sullust’s two moons, the lava flows and ebbs like tides and cools into multicolored rainbow rock formations where the Sullustan species build their homes. Nien Nunb and Ten Numb, Resistance and Rebel Alliance pilots, came from Sullust.

Bel Paese

A Italian cheese whose name means “beautiful country” it is a soft, sweet, mild and fast ripening cheese.

8 litres. Whole milk.
1.25 ml. Thermophilic culture
2.5 ml Calcium chloride.
2.5 ml. Liquid rennet.

Cool 18% saturated brine
Simple brine solution
Cheese wax (optional)
Draining container
Cheese mat
Tomme mold
Ripening container

* Sterilize all equipment. Prepare a draining container by placing a rack inside. Then place a cutting board on top, following by a cheese mat then the mold.
* Over a medium heat, warm the milk to 42C or 108F , stirring gently to avoid any scorching. Remove from the heat.
* Sprinkle the culture over the surface of the milk and let it stand for approx 5 min to rehydrate. Then use a skimmer in an up and down motion to gently draw the culture down into the milk without breaking the milks surface.
* Dilute the calcium chloride in 50ml / ¼ cup of cool water, adding to the milk with the same up and down motion.
* Dilute rennet in 50ml / ¼ cup of cool water. Add to the milk, using the same up and down motion until well blended. Cover and let set for 30 min, maintaining a temp of 42C /108F.
* Check for a clean break, if necessary let it set for an extra 10 or 15 min or until you get a clean break. Then use a long bladed knife and a skimmer to cut the curd into 10mm / 3/8inch pieces. Let stand for 5 min.
* Using the skimmer and maintaining the temperature, stir the curds for 20 to 30 min or until shrunken and beginning to mat. Let settle
* Using a measuring cup, dip of the whey from the top of the pot until you get to the surface of the curds.
* Gently ladle the curds into the mold. Place the lid on the mold. Then put in a draining container with the lid on, to keep the cheese warm. Let it drain for 6 or 7 hours , flipping it each hour. The cheese should be firm enough to handle but still soft.
* Remove cheese from the mold and place in the 18% brine solution for 6 hours. Turning over at the 3 hour mark.
* Remove from the brine and pat dry with a clean lint free towel. Then put onto a clean cheese mat and pop it into ripening container and ripe at 4 to 6C / 40 to 42F and 80 to 90 % humidity. Turning it every second day, removing any whey collected on the bottom of the container, paper towel helps with this. After 10 days a slimy coating will begin to form on the surface of the cheese.
* Wash the cheese twice a week with a cloth dipped in the simple brine solution, to keep the rind clean. After 3 weeks remove the cheese from the draining container, clean the cheese by wiping it with the brine soaked cloth and dry it thoroughly.
* Wrap it foil and store in the refrigerator. You can also coat it in 2 or 3 layers of cheese wax and continue to ripening for 2 to 6 weeks longer for more flavour development.
* Should make a kg / 2lbs.

Yesterday I got back from a trip to Yellowstone where I had the opportunity to take photos of some really interesting microorganisms! The beautiful coloration of the Morning Glory pool here is due to billions of thermophilic (heat-loving) organisms. The first of these were discovered in 1965, living happily in the park at temperatures around 82 to 88 degrees C, and about a year afterwards a particularly important one was isolated–Thermus aquaticus. Two decades later, T. aquaticus would serve as the source of Taq polymerase, the heat-resistant enzyme that made it possible to rapidly copy DNA through PCR, revolutionizing molecular biology.

How do microorganisms survive at temperatures like that? Their main challenge is keeping their structures from coming apart, so many have cell membranes and proteins with higher levels of molecular bonding than usual. Their DNA often has more guanine and cytosine than adenine and thymine–this is because G and C stick together with three hydrogen bonds, while A and T only use two.

These organisms also may account for the possibility of damage by having multiple chromosome copies on hand and cleaning up mRNA (which is ‘read’ by cellular machinery to make proteins) quickly, before it has the chance to start getting messed up. If temperatures get really bad–above what an organism likes–many produce heat shock proteins. These work as molecular chaperones, making sure that other proteins fold correctly and don’t assume forms that aren’t functional.

It’s worth noting that these organisms are thought to be similar to early forms of life, especially because many deal with additional challenges that were found in ancient environments, such as high pressures, high salt content and lack of oxygen. In this way, they can serve as a neat window to the past.

Photo is mine, information is from here.

Requested by @pokecrettes

The human body temperatures is, on average, 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (or 37 degrees Celsius). Many animals have different ranges. Goats, for example, have a normal range about 102 degrees Fahrenheit (40° C) while some lizards are best as low as 75 degrees fahrenheit (24° C). Some lava pokémon, such as Magcargo or today’s Heatran, have a body temperature significantly higher than that.

Heatran, for example, is a fire-steel type. According the the pokédex, it is made of rugged steel, but is partially melted in spots because of its own body heat. Steel is a combination of iron and other metals, usually carbon. By mixing iron with other metals, steel forms a stronger, more resistant, less corrosive material. It depends on the mixture, but steel typically melts around 1370 degrees Celsius (2500° F). However, steel will start to deform or “soften” at 538 degrees Celsius (1,000° F). This means that if Heatran’s steel is deformed because of its heat, its body temperature must be at least 1000°F.

Fresh lava, for comparison, has a temperature between 1,300° F and 2,200° F. So, Heatran’s body temperature is nearly the same as its environment, since it dwells in volcanic caves. Besides needing to survive its environment, why is Heatran so hot?

For humans, it turns out 98.6° F is a perfect balance. It’s hot enough that most fungus can’t live and thrive in our body, but cool enough that it doesn’t take too much energy to upkeep the temperature. Our metabolism, which includes the process of turning food into energy, is more or less efficient depending on an animal’s body temperature. 

Here’s a graph comparing the metabolism of two animals, a mouse and a lizard. Different body temperatures are on the horizontal axis, and energy outputs are on the vertical axis. The mouse, a mammal like us, has a metabolism that works the best at around 38 degrees Celsius. A lizard, on the other hand (a cold-blooded animal), puts out less energy over all, but is efficient at a much wider range of body temperatures. A lizard could be 20° C or 30° C and not suffer much difference in energy output. A mouse on the other hand has a fairly small window.

An animal’s body temperature is all about determining that balance between health and metabolism. The fact that Heatran’s body temperature is so high may tell us a few things. Most bacteria, for example, can’t even survive at temperatures higher than 50° C (122° F). A little higher than that, about 75° C (167° F), is enough to kill most viruses like influenza. Even for the crazy thermophile bacteria that live in hot environments like ocean vents, the “world record” is 113° C (235° F). Heatran’s body temperature is at least 5 times that. Its hot body temperature means that Heatran doesn’t even need an immune system. Its body is way too hot to support most life, including the good bacteria humans have naturally that help us digest food. 

In fact, temperatures as hot as Heatran kill most life of any kind. Heatran must have some weird systems to be most efficient in those temperatures. Not to mention that he is made out of steel.

Heatran’s body temperature is around 1000°F (538° C). Heatran’s metabolism is most efficient at higher temperatures, and it does not need an immune system because the heat kills any fungus, bacteria, or virus that may want to infect Heatran.

Another part of Heatran’s entry tells us that it is capable of climbing on ceilings and walls. Insects, frogs, spiders and geckos are all known to be able to cling to smooth surfaces and walk on walls or upside down like Heatran. The secret is their feet are covered in hundreds of tiny hairs called setae.

These tiny hairs grip to small irregularities on surfaces, such as pores, small holes, or ridges. These hairs are tiny enough that when gripping into regularities like this, their molecules will interact and a small electromagnetic force called the van der Waals force kicks in. Each hair is capable of creating a force of about 6 picoNewtons, and it takes about 20.1 Newtons to keep the gecko from falling off of the wall.

Heatran weighs a bit more than your standard gecko though, at 430.0 kg (948 lbs). The pokédex tells us that Heatran digs into walls with it’s cross-shaped feet. Perhaps its feet have thousands of tiny setae like a gecko’s, or perhaps it uses its heat to its advantage. Heatran is hot enough that it could melt into the walls with its feet, making itself adhesive that way.

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Yellowstone’s Grand Prismatic is named for its brilliant colouration. The colour spectrum that ranges from deep blue to burnt red is the product of trillions of thermophiles, or bacterial microorganisms, which flourish in hot waters. Different temperatures determine the hue, and the center of the pool is sterile due to extreme heat (70 °C or 160 °F) leaving the intrinsic blue color of water.

Picture by Werner Van Steen/Getty

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I took my thermal camera to Yellowstone, because I’m just that much of a nerd.

1: Old Faithful

2: Mammoth Terraces

3: Orange Spring Mound

4: Boardwalk by Grand Prismatic Spring

5: Firehole River at Midway Geyser Basin.  The left side of the river is notably warmer than the right because of the Excelsior Geyser outflow just upstream.

6: Fumaroles

7: Hot Pool Runoff Channels

8: Clouds

9: Heat traces underneath the Firehole Lake parking lot.  It was a cold, overcast day.  A parking lot surface should not have been 40C.  This points to something interesting going on under the surface.  (It should be noted that this is not the section of Firehole Lake Drive that melted earlier this year…)

10: Temperature gradient at Whirligig Geyser in Norris Geyser Basin.  Here, the runoff from two pools joins into a single stream.  The green thermophile likes the cooler water on the left side, while the right side is hotter.