The sun, Earth, and many other planets are surrounded by giant magnetic bubbles.
Space may seem empty, but it’s actually a dynamic place, dominated by invisible forces, including those created by magnetic fields. Magnetospheres – the areas around planets and stars dominated by their magnetic fields – are found throughout our solar system. They deflect high-energy, charged particles called cosmic rays that are mostly spewed out by the sun, but can also come from interstellar space. Along with atmospheres, they help protect the planets’ surfaces from this harmful radiation.
It’s possible that Earth’s protective magnetosphere was essential for the development of conditions friendly to life, so finding magnetospheres around other planets is a big step toward determining if they could support life.
But not all magnetospheres are created equal – even in our own backyard, not all planets in our solar system have a magnetic field, and the ones we have observed are all surprisingly different.
Earth’s magnetosphere is created by the constantly moving molten metal inside Earth. This invisible “force field” around our planet has an ice cream cone-like shape, with a rounded front and a long, trailing tail that faces away from the sun. The magnetosphere is shaped that way because of the constant pressure from the solar wind and magnetic fields on the sun-facing side.
Earth’s magnetosphere deflects most charged particles away from our planet – but some do become trapped in the magnetic field and create auroras when they rain down into the atmosphere.
Mercury, with a substantial iron-rich core, has a magnetic field that is only about 1% as strong as Earth’s. It is thought that the planet’s magnetosphere is stifled by the intense solar wind, limiting its strength, although even without this effect, it still would not be as strong as Earth’s. The MESSENGER satellite orbited Mercury from 2011 to 2015, helping us understand our tiny terrestrial neighbor.
After the sun, Jupiter has by far the biggest magnetosphere in our solar system – it stretches about 12 million miles from east to west, almost 15 times the width of the sun. (Earth’s, on the other hand, could easily fit inside the sun.) Jupiter does not have a molten metal core like Earth; instead, its magnetic field is created by a core of compressed liquid metallic hydrogen.
One of Jupiter’s moons, Io, has intense volcanic activity that spews particles into Jupiter’s magnetosphere. These particles create intense radiation belts and the large auroras around Jupiter’s poles.
Ganymede, Jupiter’s largest moon, also has its own magnetic field and magnetosphere – making it the only moon with one. Its weak field, nestled in Jupiter’s enormous shell, scarcely ruffles the planet’s magnetic field.
Saturn’s moon Enceladus transforms the shape of its magnetosphere. Active geysers on the moon’s south pole eject oxygen and water molecules into the space around the planet. These particles, much like Io’s volcanic emissions at Jupiter, generate the auroras around the planet’s poles. Our Cassini mission studies Saturn’s magnetic field and auroras, as well as its moon Enceladus.
Uranus’ magnetosphere wasn’t discovered until 1986 when data from Voyager 2’s flyby revealed weak, variable radio emissions. Uranus’ magnetic field and rotation axis are out of alignment by 59 degrees, unlike Earth’s, whose magnetic field and rotation axis differ by only 11 degrees. On top of that, the magnetic field axis does not go through the center of the planet, so the strength of the magnetic field varies dramatically across the surface. This misalignment also means that Uranus’ magnetotail – the part of the magnetosphere that trails away from the sun – is twisted into a long corkscrew.
Neptune’s magnetosphere is also tilted from its rotation axis, but only by 47. Just like on Uranus, Neptune’s magnetic field strength varies across the planet. This also means that auroras can be seen away from the planet’s poles – not just at high latitudes, like on Earth, Jupiter and Saturn.
Does Every Planet Have a Magnetosphere?
Neither Venus nor Mars have global magnetic fields, although the interaction of the solar wind with their atmospheres does produce what scientists call an “induced magnetosphere.” Around these planets, the atmosphere deflects the solar wind particles, causing the solar wind’s magnetic field to wrap around the planet in a shape similar to Earth’s magnetosphere.
What About Beyond Our Solar System?
Outside of our solar system, auroras, which indicate the presence of a magnetosphere, have been spotted on brown dwarfs – objects that are bigger than planets but smaller than stars.
There’s also evidence to suggest that some giant exoplanets have magnetospheres. As scientists now believe that Earth’s protective magnetosphere was essential for the development of conditions friendly to life, finding magnetospheres around exoplanets is a big step in finding habitable worlds.
I noticed some people saying that JJ shouldn’t be on this cover, and that it should instead be Otabek.
Quick disclaimer : I’m not trying to drag Otabek down (I actually really like him) nor to play a “who’s better”game. I just want to point out some things.
I think people tend to overrate Otabek’s impact in the anime. Not only did he arrive pretty late, but his impact was really local. He helped Yuri achieve his growth toward Agape. That’s it. And even then, he’s not responsible for the full growth of Yuri. It was an accumulation of events, and his friendship with Otabek was the last piece that helped him reach it.
I’m sure he’s going to get more development and to be shown as a more fleshed-out and impactful in the next-season, but it’s not the case yet. His only impact is on Yuri. He’s not a trial for others skaters, as most are just only discovering him (the “dark horse” of the GPF).
On the contrary to JJ.
Like it or not, JJ is a key character in the series that you can’t erase so easily.
Right from his introduction, he’s shown as “the skater with the most momentum”, and right from ep 9 we see Yuri modifying his jumps in order to beat him. In the last episodes, his presence put a pressure on at least Yuuri and Yuri, who both change their programs and jumps compositions in order to beat him (we don’t see for the other skaters, but it’s not impossible his presence put extra pressure on them too).
He did play a role in Yuri’s personal growth too. Yuri is just starting out his senior debuts, and as we see in the first episodes, he’s sure he’s going to win and don’t doubt of himself for one instant. He’s a sore looser and is used to win, and that’s a part of him that’s pretty immature. In order to grow, he needs to face some defeats, and having JJ beat him several times is a needed reminder in order to grow up. It also lead him to push his limits, to connect with people in order to perfect Agape, and lead him to beat a world’s record in a really elegant way. It doesn’t matter if JJ ended up self-destructing at the end, because his impact on Yuri starts since the beginning of the GP. (More on this here)
But he also impacted Yuuri. Not only did JJ’s high scores push Yuuri to change his program and attempt a quad flip AGAIN (despite not mastering it the first time) in order to have a chance to beat JJ, but JJ’s character as a whole was important, both for Yuuri and for us as spectators. One of the main difference between Yuuri and JJ seems to be the self-confidence (not even mentioning their engagements happening in the same time and their promise of a marriage upon winning gold). But it also resides in their recognition of the love that surround them. It’s clearly said in the series: for a long time, Yuuri didn’t realize how much love and support was around him, and it’s one of the main points of the anime. Yuuri discovering and accepting that love and using it to go farther. JJ does realize and accept it. He’s using it to go further. His self-love comes from the love people around him give to him, and he’s using it to go further. He’s only 19 and he’s doing a lot of things, outside of skating (when Yuuri sticks to skating and self-destruct even here). Because he feels secure in the love his relatives and fans have for him. And even when he does fail, he’s still supported and cared for. But it’s not just JJ. Yuuri too is supported and cared for when he fails, we see it from the beginning, with Minako welcoming him cheerfully at the airport. But Yuuri doesn’t realize it.
And then we have Yuuri watching JJ fails because of the pressure, and dragging a parallel with himself. He can see JJ -an overly talented young skater that everyone was expecting to win the GPF and who already won two gold medals in a row during his qualifying events- succumb to pressure and fail. Just like him. I strongly believe it helped him step back and re-think how he’s seeing himself, even more that it happens at a time of his life where he’s already growing slowly from his anxiety and self-hatred.
It’s not a coincidence if this shot :
is taking place just at the end of JJ’s FP where he managed to pull himself back up. We see Yuuri quickly tying up his skates and looking determined. Sure, he’s thinking of retiring. But remembers he planned on retiring after winning gold at the finale. Meaning that here, he’s confident about winning a gold medal. Something he couldn’t really consider last year when he blew up his performance. What we see happening with JJ in one program is what happened with Yuuri all along the anime, and they put this shot at this exact moment to underline how they are at the same point at this moment.
JJ wasn’t mean to be an antagonist, as I see it said a lot. He was here to participate to some character’s growth, and to show how everyone will recover at their own pace, and how support and love drastically help in the process (as well as accepting that love) and in loving yourself. This event helps Yuuri finalize the process we saw through the series that lead him to now be confident in his ability to win the gold medal and accept his relatives’ love.
tl;dn : JJ IS an important character, whether you like it or not. Otabek, even if full of potential, only had a minor impact in the series.
12 Spirit Work Tips for people with low spoons, or just anyone who doesn’t have as much energy at the moment.
Tip #1 -Look at the stars with them
I really love to look at the stars with my companions. It is amazing after a hectic or stressful day to just sit outside and think about nothing with my spirit family.
Tip #2 -Watch Tv
Seriously just sit down, and decide on a show together. Ro is a huge fan of Peaky Blinders on Netflix, so I always try to watch at least an episode of it when I can with him.
Tip #3 -Find a YouTuber they enjoy
Ro is a big fan of beauty gurus and Archie likes to watch horse videos with me. Hyl seems to like when I binge watch music videos. There is something for every companion on youtube.
Tip #4 -Hum to music together
I love to sing but sometimes I don’t have enough energy to. I usually just hum while laying down if I can’t sing right then.
Tip #5 -Write a story with your spirit companion as a character.
I’m currently working on a story with both Archie and Ro in it and Hyl is gonna make an appearance in one of my other story’s. For me writing is super relaxing and low energy.
Tip #6 - Draw a Doodle of them
I doodle anyways so just channeling a little energy into what my companions might look as a doodle isn’t a huge thing. (This is a bit more high energy and is only for when I feel a little better than normal.)
Tip #7 -Cuddle them
My all time freaking favorite. This is the lowest of all the energy things. Its also pretty self explanatory.
Tip #8 - READ BOOKS!!!
Can you tell I like reading with my companions? Hyl and I bond over reading literally every day.
Tip #9 -Write a letter
Pour out your feelings, hopes and dreams in this letter and then show it to them. Also one can try channeling with their companion to receive a letter from the companion.
Tip #10 -Write a poem
If you are an artistic person or like writing poems this one is for you people that are blessed with an awesome vocabulary. Also you could write one line of the poem and they can write the next line.
Tip #11 -Play Hot&Cold
Try to feel their energy and use how your body responds as a way to detect them when they are nearby. It is super easy to turn this into a fun and entertaining game.
Tip #12 -Twenty Questions
Use a twenty questions app to learn things about them that you might not ask them yourself.
Sorry if this post seemed a little lackluster. I really had to push myself to finish it… Low spoon problems. Anyways I hope someone finds this helpful. Thanks for reading.