make female gametes (ova) and secrete female sex hormones (oestrogen and
progesterone). Medulla with blood vessels, cortex and follicles. Each follicle
consists of an immature egg called an oocyte. Cells around the oocyte are
called follicle or granulosa (squamous or cuboidal), or theca cells (connective
uterine tubes, uterus and vagina.
ovaries, and internal ducts.
labia (major and minor), vulva, clitoris, mons pubis.
sequence of events that produces ova. Each cell has 2 sets of chromosomes (1
maternal, 1 paternal) and is said to be diploid.
egg development: 1. Primordial follicle (1 layer of squamous-like follicle
cells surrounding the oocyte), 2. Primary follicle (two or more layers of
cuboidal granulosa cells enclose the oocyte, theca also builds), 3. Secondary follicle
(has fluid-filled space between granulosa cells that coalesces to form a
central antrum), 4. Tertiary follicle (most mature follicle which bulges from
surface of ovary), 5. Ovulation (ejection of oocyte from follicle), corpus
luteum (ruptured follicle after ovulation, endocrine function continues).
females: starts prenatally, maximum amount of follicles at 7 months,
suspended til puberty, first meiosis concluded at ovulation, second meiosis
only occurs at fertilisation.
thick walled organ in the pelvis, anterior to the rectum and posterosuperior to
the bladder. Body is a major portion of the uterus. Fundus is the rounded
region superior to the entrance of the fallopian tubes. Isthmus is the narrowed
region between the body and cervix.
composed of 3 layers: permetrium (outermost serous layer), myometrium (middle
layer, interlacing layers of smooth muscle), endometrium (mucosal lining of
narrow neck projecting into vagina.
secrete mucus that covers the external orifice and blocks cervix during
has numerous uterine glands that change in length as endometrial thickness
changes. Stratum functionalis: undergoes cyclic changes in response to ovarian
hormones, and is shed during menstruation. Stratum basalis: forms new
functionalis after menstruation ends, does not respond to ovarian hormones.
elastic, thin-walled muscular tube lying between the bladder and the rectum,
and extends from the cervix to the exterior of the body. Provides a passage way
for birth, menstrual flow and is the organ of copulation.
mons pubis, vestibule (labia major and minora), urethra, vagina, clitoris,
glands (Bartholin, skene).
erectile, crura, prepuse. Bulb of the vestibule. Small and sensitive, located
at top of the vulva just above the urethra and vaginal opening. Provides pleasure
series of events associated w the maturation of an egg correlated to 28 day
menstrual cycle. Follicular phase (days 1-14) is the period of follicle growth. Luteal phase
(days 14-28) is the period of corpus luteum activity. Ovulation occurs midcycle
occurs when ovary wall ruptures and expels the secondary oocyte. Mittelschumerz
is a twinge of pain sometimes felt at ovulation. 1-2% of ovulations release
more than one secondary oocyte which, if fertilized, results in twins.
phase: after ovulation the ruptured follicle collapses, granulosa cells
enlarge, and along w internal thecal cells, form the corpus luteum (which
secretes progesterone estrogen and inhibin). If pregnancy does not occur, the
corpus luteum degenerates in 10 days, leaving a scar. If pregnancy does occur, the
corpus luteum produces hormones until the placenta takes over that role.
series of changes that the uterine endometrium goes through each month in
response to ovarian hormones in the blood. Days 1-5, menstrual phase: uterus
sheds all but deepest part of endometrium. Days 6-14, proliferative phase:
endometrium rebuilds. Days 15-28, secretory phase: endometrium prepares for
implantation of embryo.
at the time of ovulation the pH of the cervix rises (becoming more alkaline),
and cervical mucous becomes runny. Significance of this relates to fertilisation.
ovulation and menses cease entirely. Without sufficient oestrogen, reproductive
organs and breasts atrophy. Irritability to depression result, skin blood
vessels undergo intense vasodilation (hot flushes), gradual thinning of skin
and bone loss.
produce sperm and lie within the scrotum. Sperm is delivered to exterior
through a system of ducts including epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory
duct and the urethra.
sex glands: empty their secretions into the ducts during
ejaculation, and include seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethral glands.
the sequence of events that produce sperm.
have 23 chromosomes, whereas humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Sperm have 3
major regions: 1. Head (contains DNA and contains hydrolytic enzymes that allow
the sperm to penetrate and enter the egg), 2. Midpiece (contains mitochondria spiralled
around tail filaments), 3. Tail (typical flagellum produced by a centriole).
by meiosis, where the number of chromosomes are halved.
the stem cells
line: primary and secondary in 2 stages of meiosis
(sertoli cells): extend from basal lamina to lumen of the tubule
that surrounds developing cells. They support spermatogenesis, providing
nutrients to developing sperm. Bound together w tight junctions forming
unbroken layer w the seminiferous tubule, dividing it into 2 compartments:
basal (contains spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes) and adluminal (meiotically
active cells and tubule lumen). The tight junctions form blood-testis barrier,
preventing sperm antigens from escaping into the blood. These are absent in
males before puberty.
head joins efferent ductules and caps the superior aspect of testis. Duct of
epididymis has stereocilia that absorb testicular fluid and pass nutrients to
sperm. Sperm becomes motile here. The epididymis contracts during ejaculation,
where sperm expels thru ductus deferens.
sac of skin and superficial facia that hangs outside the abdominopelvic cavity
at the root of the penis. Contains testicles separated by a midline septum. It
is outside the body to keep them lower than core body temperature.
lie on the posterior wall of the bladder and secrete 60% the volume of semen.
viscous alkaline fluid containing fructose, ascorbic acid, coagulating enzyme
and prostaglandins. Is a mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions. Around
2-6ml. provides transport medium and nutrients. Coagulant. Prostaglandins in
semen decrease viscosity of mucus in the cervix, stimulate reverse peristalsis
in uterus and facilitates the movement of sperm through female reproductive
tract. Sperm and seminal fluid mix in the ejaculatory duct and enter prostatic
urethra during ejaculation.
milky, slightly acid fluid containing citrate, enzymes and prostate-specific
antigen. Accounts for 30% of semen
volume. Plays a role in the activation of sperm. Enlarges with age.
glands: duct of each gland travels alongside the spongy urethra. Produces a
thick alkaline mucus which helps neutralise the urinary acid. Lubricates the
tip of the penis. 5% of semen volume.
conveys both urine and semen. Consists of 3 regions; prostatic (surrounded by
prostate), membranous (lies in the urogenital diaphragm) and penile (runs
through penis and opens to outside of external urethral orifice).
designed to deliver sperm into female reproductive tract.
urethra and 3 cylindrical bodies of erectile tissue (corpus spongiosum which
surrounds the urethra and expands to form the glans and bulb of penis, corpora
cavernosa which is bound by fibrous tunica albuginea, crura which is the
proximal end of penis surrounded by ischiocavernosus muscle and anchors the
penis to the pubic arch.
spongy network of connective tissue and smooth muscle riddled w vascular
sympathetic nerves cause reproductive ducts and accessory organs to contract
and empty their contents, the bladder sphincter muscle to constrict, preventing
the expulsion of urine, bulbospngiosus muscles to undergo a rapid series of
contractions, propulsion of semen from the urethra.
feedback inhibition on hypothalamus and pituitary gland results from rising
levels of testosterone and increased inhibin.
sex characteristics: male hormones make their appearance at puberty and
induce changes in non-reproductive organs including pubic, axillary and facial
hair; enhanced growth of chest and deepening of voice; skin thickens and
becomes oily; bones grow and increase in density; skeletal muscles increase in
size and mass.
These are my study notes from my nursing bachelor at university and the information here is not my own.