Dictionary of dead language complete after 90 years - BBC News
A full dictionary of the extinct language of ancient Mesopotamia has been completed after 90 years of work.

Assyrian and Babylonian - dialects of the language collectively known as Akkadian - have not been spoken for almost 2,000 years. The entire dictionary costs $1,995 (£1,230; 1,400 euros), but is also available for free online - a far cry from the dictionary’s low-tech beginnings.

Babylonians Tracked Jupiter with Fancy Math, Tablet Reveals

BERLIN — For a text that may rewrite the history of mathematics, it looks rather sloppy.

The brown clay tablet, which could fit in the palm of your hand, is scrawled with hasty, highly abbreviated cuneiform characters. And, according to science historian Mathieu Ossendrijver, it proves that the ancient Babylonians used a complex geometrical model that looks like a rudimentary form of integral calculus to calculate the path of Jupiter. Scientists previously thought this mathematical technique was invented in medieval Europe.

“It sounds minute for a layperson, but this geometry is of a very special kind that is not found anywhere else, for instance, in ancient Greek astronomy,” Ossendrijver said. “It is an application in astronomy that was totally new. Thus far everybody thought Babylonian scholars only computed with numbers.” Read more.
This ancient Babylonian map of Jupiter just changed history as we know it
You're looking at the foundations of modern calculus.
By Bec Crew

Analysis of an ancient codebreaking tablet has revealed that Babylonian astronomers had calculated the movements of Jupiter using an early form of geometric calculus some 1,400 years before we thought the technique was invented by the Europeans.

This means that these ancient Mesopotamian astronomers had not only figured out how to predict Jupiter’s paths more than 1,000 years before the first telescopes existed, but they were using mathematical techniques that would form the foundations of modern calculus as we now know it.

“This shows just how highly developed this ancient culture was,” historian Matthieu Ossendrijver from Humboldt University in Germany told Maddie Stone at Gizmodo. “I don’t think anybody expected something like this would be discovered in a Babylonian text.”

Continue Reading.

anonymous asked:

You know that astrology hs nothing to do with how the f**k you look like?!?!?!! if your family is ugly you for sure will have bad luck too. stop being so ignorant ya tumblr astrology blogs

Listen. I’m not going to personally attack you but I want to make this clear to everyone: The relation between astrology and physical appearance is not a tumblr astrology thing. William Lilly wrote about it in his book Christian Astrology, which is from 1647. Nicholas Culpeper wrote about it in Opus astrologicum, which is from 1654. And those are just the earliest works I know. Ancient Babylonian astrologers probably knew more about astrology than we do know, most of the knowledge was simply lost.

This is what Lilly wrote on Jupiters influence on the body:

He signifies an upright, straight, and tall stature; brown, ruddy and lovely complexion, of an oval or long visage, full and fleshy, high forehead [….] strong proportioned thighs and legs,…

And this is what Culpeper wrote:

Jupiter represents a man tall of stature, of a brown muddy complexion, an oval visage, high forehead […] great thighs, great well-proportioned legs,…

Yes, genetics obviously make up a big part of what we look like. But our social/cultural environment also makes up a big part of our personality. Still, the astrological archetypes are universals independent of that.

Ellen Degeneres and Abraham Lincoln are both Aquarius Suns who are Sagittarius Dominant

Brittany Snow and Ashlee Simpson are both Neptune Dominant. Brittany has Pisces Sun and Moon, Ashlee has a Pisces Ascendant.

These two are Mercury Dominant with Virgo Ascendant:

Katy Perry and Kris Jenner are Scorpio/Pluto Dominant. Katy has Scorpio Sun, Moon and Ascendant and Kris has Scorpio Sun and Ascendant! (she did have several surgeries though so I’m not sure whether that made her look more or less like Katy)

Lets not forget the oddly amphibian/frog-like face of all these venus Dominant men:

And the typical pixie face of female Gemini/mercury types, as shown here by Carey Mulligan and @astrolocherry 

I want to research this more deeply again now because its really interesting lol


MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN — The Writing’s on the Wall,

 According to Biblical history in the Book of Daniel, the Babylonian King Belshazzar once hosted a large feast while the city of Babylon was under siege by the Medes and Persians in 539 BC. The Babylonian Empire had previously conquered the Kingdom of Judah and Israel, and the Hebrew people were in exile.  During the feast, King Belshazzar and his court were using treasures taken from the Hebrew Temple as decorations, drinking vessels, and dinnerware.  Suddenly, in the midst of the feasting, the hand God appeared from the sky, and wrote in large Hebrew letters upon the wall, “MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN”. Belshazzar has his diviners and magicians attempt to read and interpret the writing, but they cannot.  So Belshazzar sends for the Prophet Daniel.

Daniel interprets the writing, “Number, number, weighed, and divided”. While cryptic, the meaning of it is simple.  Belshazzar’s days are numbered, the Babylonian Empire has been weighed and found wanting, and the empire will be divided among the invaders.  The next day the Medes and Persians breeched the walls of Babylon, Belshazzar is killed, and the empire fell.  MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN.

Neo-Assyrian Carnelian Apotropaic Pazuzu Amulet, 8th-7th Century BC

In Assyrian and Babylonian mythology, Pazuzu was the king of the demons of the wind, brother of Humbaba and son of the god Hanbi. He also represented the southwestern wind, the bearer of storms and drought. Pazuzu was invoked in apotropaic amulets, which combat the powers of his rival, the malicious goddess/demon Lamashtu, who was believed to cause harm to mother and child during childbirth. Although Pazuzu is, himself, considered to be an evil spirit, he drives and frightens away other evil spirits, therefore protecting humans against plagues and misfortunes.

Pazuzu is often depicted as a combination of diverse animal and human parts. He has the body of a man, the head of a lion or dog, talons of an eagle, two pairs of wings, a scorpion’s tail, and a serpentine penis.

Babylonian Astronomers Described Jupiter’s Motion

“ BERLIN, GERMANY—Historian of science Mathieu Ossendrijver of Humboldt University, using the texts from three published and two unpublished cuneiform tablets from the British Museum, realized that the Babylonians calculated the position of the planet Jupiter with geometrical methods between 350 and 50 B.C. It had been thought that Babylonian astronomers used only arithmetical methods, and that such geometrical computations were not carried out until the fourteenth century. 

Ossendrijver had been studying four tablets with texts that describe trapezoids when Hermann Hunger of the University of Vienna brought him a photograph of a fifth, uncatalogued tablet that does not describe a trapezoid, but does describe an astronomical computation that is mathematically equivalent to the others, and can be assigned to Jupiter. “The crucial new insight provided by the new tablet without the geometrical figure is that Jupiter’s velocity decreases linearly within the 60 days. Because of the linear decrease a trapezoidal figure emerges if one draws the velocity against time,” Ossendrijver explained in a press release. “It is this trapezoidal figure of which the area is computed on the other four tablets.””

Clay Tablet Reveals Ancient Babylonians Used Calculus to Track Jupiter 1,500 Years before Europeans

A new analysis of a set of ancient clay tablets has revealed that ancient astronomers of Babylonia used advanced geometrical methods to calculate the position of Jupiter – a conceptual leap that was previously thought to have occurred in 14th century Europe.

Read More…
This Babylonian Astronomy Text Changes History
More than a thousand years before the first telescopes, Babylonian astronomers tracked the motion of planets across the night sky using simple arithmetic. But a newly translated text reveals that these ancient stargazers also used a far more advanced method, one that foreshadows the development of calculus over a thousand years later.
By Maddie Stone

Babylonians using a method from calculus?

Ancient cultures couldn’t *possibly* be advanced. The Enlightenment was the only time humankind developed methods of rigorously investigating the world. Right?

(Clue: No. This is sarcasm)


“Her hands are stained with flesh and blood.” (TCL 6 49 r.13-29)

This incantation includes a common magical element: a deity showing how to solve a problem, so the petitioner can follow their example.  In this case, the demoness Lamashtu is diverted from her bloodlust by equipping her to be an ordinary woman rather than a monster.


She is furious, she is fierce, she is divine, she is dazzling —
        and she is a she-wolf, the daughter of Anu!
Her feet are talons [1]; her hands are unclean;
        her face looks like the face of a savage lion.
She rose up from a reed-thicket,
        her hair hanging loose, her panties cut away.
She travels the tracks of cattle; she follows the tracks of sheep.
        Her hands are stained with flesh and blood.
She enters through the window;
        she slithers in like a snake.
She moves in and out of houses.

Keep reading

Plimo asked Rebbi:  If one has two heads, on which one should he place his tefillin? Rebbi responded: Either go into exile or accept excommunication.  Meanwhile, a man came to the academy saying that he just begotten a two-headed son and wanted to know how much must be given to the priest for the redemption of the first-born.
—  Babylonian Talmud, Menachot 37a

The Hidden Geometry Ruling The World

Princeton Architectural Press reissues Bruno Munari’s Square, Circle, and Triangle books.

Munari unpacks how mathematicians, designers, architects, and artists have used shapes from ancient times to today. In doing so, he demystifies why our environments look like they do.

The square is the finest expression of a spatial idea complete in itself,“ Munari writes. "It’s structural possibilities have helped artists and architects of all generations and styles by giving them a harmonic skeleton to which to apply an artistic construction.” The shape was used as a basis for Babylonian cities, he reveals, and Egyptians used it to lay the groundwork for their art. The organic growth of shells follows a logarithmic spiral, which is derived from a square. A silver square was even worn during the Dark Ages because it was believed to ward off the plague.

full article on Fastcodesign