the university of north carolina at chapel hill

Meet America’s #NewAstronauts

We’re so excited to introduce America’s new astronauts! After evaluating a record number of applications, we’re proud to present our 2017 astronaut class!

These 12 new astronaut candidates were chosen from more than 18,300 people who submitted applications from December 2015 to February 2016. This was more than double the previous record of 8,000 set in 1978.

Meet them…

Kayla Barron

This Washington native graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy with a Bachelor’s degree in Systems Engineering. A Gates Cambridge Scholar, Barron earned a Master’s degree in Nuclear Engineering from the University of Cambridge.

She enjoys hiking, backpacking, running and reading.

Zena Cardman

Zena is a native of Virginia and completed a Bachelor of Science degree in Biology and Master of Science degree in Marine Sciences at The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Her research has focused on microorganisms in subsurface environments, ranging from caves to deep sea sediments.

In her free time, she enjoys canoeing, caving, raising backyard chickens and glider flying.

Raja Chari

Raja is an Iowa native and graduated from the U.S. Air Force Academy in 1999 with Bachelor’s degrees in Astronautical Engineering and Engineering Science. He continued on to earn a Master’s degree in Aeronautics and Astronautics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and graduated from the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School.

He has accumulated more than 2,000 hours of flight time in the F-35, F-15, F-16 and F-18 including F-15E combat missions in Operation Iraqi Freedom.

Matthew Dominick

This Colorado native earned a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering from the University of San Diego and a Master of Science degree in Systems Engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School. He graduated from U.S. Naval Test Pilot School.

He has more than 1,600 hours of flight time in 28 aircraft, 400 carrier-arrested landigns and 61 combat missions.

Bob Hines

Bob is a Pennsylvania native and earned a Bachelor’s degree in Aerospace Engineering from Boston University. He is a graduate of the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School, where he earned a Master’s degree in Flight Test Engineering. He continued on to earn a Master’s degree in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Alabama.

During the last five years, he has served as a research pilot at NASA’s Johnson Space Center.

Warren Hoburg

Nicknamed “Woody”, this Pennsylvania native earned a Bachelor’s degree in Aeronautics and Astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and a Doctorate in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from the University of California, Berkley.

He is an avid rock climber, moutaineer and pilot.

Jonny Kim

This California native trained and operated as a Navy SEAL, completing more than 100 combat operations and earning a Silver Star and Bronze Star with Combat “V”. Afterward, he went on to complete a degree in Mathematics at the University of San Diego and a Doctorate of Medicine at Harvard Medical School.

His interests include spending time with his family, volunteering with non-profit vertern organizations, academic mentoring, working out and learning new skills.

Robb Kulin

Robb is an Alaska native and earned a Bachelor’s degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Denver, before going on to complete a Master’s degree in Materials Science and a Doctorate in Engineering at the University of California, San Diego.

He is a private pilot and also enjoys playing piano, photography, packrafting, running, cycling, backcountry skiing and SCUBA diving.

Jasmin Moghbeli

This New York native earned a Bachlor’s degree in Aerospace Engineering with Information Technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, followed by a Master’s degree in Aerospace Engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School.

She is also a distinguished graduate of the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School and has accumulated mofre than 1,600 hours of flight time and 150 combat missions.

Loral O’Hara

This Texas native earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Aerospace Engineering at the University of Kansas and a Master of Science degree in Aeronautics and Astronautics from Purdue University.

In her free time, she enjoys working in the garage, traveling, surfing, diving, flying, sailing, skiing, hiking/orienteering, caving, reading and painting.

Frank Rubio

Frank is a Florida native and graduated from the U.S. Military Academy and earned a Doctorate of Medicine from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.

He is a board certified family physician and flight surgeon. At the time of his selection, he was serving in the 10th Special Forces Group (Airborne).

Jessica Watkins

This Colorado native earned a Bachelor’s degree in Geological and Environmental Sciences at Stanford University, and a Doctorate in Geology from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

She enjoys soccer, rock climbing, skiing and creative writing.

After completing two years of training, the new astronaut candidates could be assigned to missions performing research on the International Space Station, launching from American soil on spacecraft built by commercial companies, and launching on deep space missions on our new Orion spacecraft and Space Launch System rocket.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

#🙌🙌🙌: How Chris Suggs Got Into His Dream School

To read about more inspiring students like Chris, follow the hashtags #BetterMakeRoom and #CollegeSigningDay on Instagram and post your college acceptance story. Use (#🙌🙌🙌), thanking your three biggest inspirations, for a chance to be featured on Instagram.

“My name is Chris (@chrisjsuggs), and I’m 16 years old. This fall, I’m going to my dream school, the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, so I can continue my work in public service. 2014 was probably one of the darkest times you’ve seen in my hometown of Kinston, North Carolina — nearly every other day you were seeing a shooting on the news. I knew I had to do something, and I felt like youth needed a role. So, I invited local media, our mayor, city council members and our police chief to a meeting where I presented my idea for an organization. That was the start of Kinston Teens, a nonprofit that empowers young people through service, leadership and civic engagement. My work there led me to become the youngest recipient ever of the FBI Director’s Community Leadership Award. And this past January, when the vice provost of admissions gave me a call personally telling me I was accepted into @uncchapelhill, I was overjoyed. I’m so excited to stay close to my community and continue to make a difference.

Three things I’m grateful for:

🙌 My organization, @kinstonteens. Our mission is to empower young people through service leadership, and it’s driven by my passion for my local community of Kinston. I’m committed to improving it.

🙌 Former President @barackobama and former first lady @michelleobama. They are definitely my biggest role models and always have been, throughout their entire time in office.

🙌 My parents. My mom is a teacher, and my dad works for our local government. As public servants, they have always inspired me to get involved — and stay involved.”

A spiritual orientation toward the local landscape defined the herbal practice of enslaved communities. The herbalism of southern blacks, it can be argued, expressed a sacred worldview as clearly as singing, praying, or dancing. As they gathered, administered, and taught about botanical medicines, enslaved African Americans enacted a relationship with the land that was both practical and spiritual. Antebellum black herbalism thus became not only a pragmatic resource for survival but also one of the sacred arts of slave doctoring in North America.
—  Sharla M. Fett, Working Cures: Healing, Health, and Power on Southern Slave Plantations (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002), p. 76

In the closing credits [of “Children of Men”], the Sanskrit words “Shantih Shantih Shantih” appear as end titles.[37][38] Writer and film critic Laura Eldred of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill observes that Children of Men is “full of tidbits that call out to the educated viewer”. During a visit to his house by Theo and Kee, Jasper says “Shanti, shanti, shanti.” Eldred notes that the “shanti” used in the film is also found at the end of an Upanishad and in the final line of T. S. Eliot’s poem The Waste Land, a work Eldred describes as “devoted to contemplating a world emptied of fertility: a world on its last, teetering legs”. “Shanti” is also a common beginning and ending to all Hindu prayers, and means “peace,” referencing the invocation of divine intervention and rebirth through an end to violence.[39]

I’ve officially committed to a school! 

I’m so excited to announce that I’ll be attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in the fall and joining in over 200 years of Tar Heel history. This has been my dream for so long, and I cannot contain my excitement that it’s finally happening!

Tardigrades– the micro-animals whose electron micrographs (like the one above) have done the rounds on social media for its adorable, bear-like appearance – is a famously hardly organism and is the first animal known to survive in space. Be it extreme heat, heavy radiation, high pressures and even desiccation, the “water bear” can shrug it off.

From The New York Times:

They can remain like that in a dry state for years, even decades, and when you put them back in water, they revive within hours,” said Thomas Boothby, a postdoctoral researcher from University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. “They are running around again, they are eating, they are reproducing like nothing happened.”

To determine what allowed tardigrades to survive this kind of extreme dryness, Dr. Boothby and his colleagues designed a test in which the microscopic animals were put into a humidity chamber and slowly dried out as in an evaporating pond– the tardigrade’s native habitat. They discovered that the tardigrades have special genes that create glass-like proteins that can preserve their cells during desiccation.

“The glass is coating the molecules inside of the tardigrade cells, keeping them intact,” said Dr. Boothby said. This slows down the tardigrade’s metabolism, allowing it to remain in a suspended state until it is rehydrated. When they add water, the proteins melt into the liquid, and the molecules within the tardigrade are free to carry out their functions again.

The tardigrade continues to surprise scientists and this recent discovery raises the question of whether any other animals use the same unique mechanism of protecting against desiccation. To learn more about this research into Tarigrades, read The New York Times’ article “How a Water Bear Survives, Even When It’s Dry.”

Writing Research: American Revolution

The American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America.

Starting in 1765, members of American colonial society rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them without any representatives in the government, and resisted renewed British attempts to collect duties on goods such as sugar and molasses that for many years had gone uncollected through widespread smuggling by colonists. During the following decade, protests by colonists—known as Patriots—continued to escalate, as in the Boston Tea Party in 1773 during which patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea from the East India Company. The British responded by imposing punitive laws—the Coercive Acts—on Massachusetts in 1774 until the tea had been paid for, following which Patriots in the other colonies rallied behind Massachusetts. In late 1774 the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Britain, while other colonists, known as Loyalists, preferred to remain subjects of the British Crown.

Tensions escalated to the outbreak of fighting between Patriot militia and British regulars at Lexington and Concord in April 1775, after which the Patriot Suffolk Resolves effectively replaced the Royal government of Massachusetts, and confined the British to control of the city of Boston. The conflict then evolved into a global war, during which the Patriots (and later their French, Spanish and Dutch allies) fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783). Patriots in each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism. Claiming King George III’s rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists’ “rights as Englishmen”, the Continental Congress declared the colonies free and independent states in July 1776. The Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, and proclaimed that all men are created equal. Congress rejected British proposals requiring allegiance to the monarchy and abandonment of independence. [1]

Names

  • ModernMom - Popular Baby Names in the 1700s
  • British Baby Names - Curiosities of the Seventeenth Century
  • Medieval Naming Guides - Early 17th Century English Names
  • Internet Archive - Early census making in Massachusetts, 1643-1765, with a reproduction of the lost census of 1765 (recently found) and documents relating thereto;
  • Olive Tree Genealogy - Irish Passenger Lists: 1765, no ship name, arriving from Ireland in Boston, Massachusetts
  • Trail Of Our Ancestors - Names of German Pioneers to Pennsylvania: 
    Passenger Ships’ Lists, 1750
  • USGenWeb Archives -  Names of Pioneers from the Palatinate Germany to Pennsylvania, 1754
  • RootsWeb’s Guide - Given Names in Early America
  • GIGA - Name Chronological List, 1760 - 1779

Society & Life

  • History.com - The American Revolution Begins: April 19, 1775
  • History.com - American Revolution
  • History Channel - American Revolution History (Video)
  • PBS - Liberty! The American Revolution
  • PBS - Africans in American: The Revolutionary War, Part 2
  • The History Place - American Revolution
  • The History Place - Prelude to Revolution, 1763 to 1775
  • The History Place - The American War for Independence: 1775 to 1776 Conflict and Revolution
  • University of Houston - Overview of the American Revolution
  • Library of Congress - The American Revolution
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica - American Revolution
  • U.S. National Park Service - The American Revolution
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - The American Revolution, 1763-1783
  • America’s Library - Revolutionary Period, 1764-1789
  • Coastal Heritage Society - American Revolution
  • About.com - American Revolution
  • United States Department of State - 1776-1783: American Revolution Timeline
  • United States Military Academy - American Revolution
  • British Library - The American Revolution from 1763 - 1787
  • National Endowment for the Humanities - Voices of the American Revolution
  • University of Groningen - Was the American Revolution a Revolution?
  • Independence Hall Association - Revolutionary War Timeline
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Reasons behind the Revolutionary War
  • Social Studies For Kids - Causes of the Revolutionary War
  • Mount Vernon -  Ten Facts about Washington and the Revolutionary War
  • Cracked - 5 Myths About the Revolutionary War Everyone Believes
  • Journal of the American Revolution - 7 Myths about the Boston Tea Party
  • University of Notre Dame - Revisiting America’s Revolutionary Myths and Realities
  • History Net - Debunking Boston Tea Party Myths
  • Smithsonian - Myths of the American Revolution
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill - The Colored Patriots of the American Revolution
  • The Washington Post - The American Revolution Was Not A Whites-only War
  • University of Houston - Slavery, the American Revolution, and the Constitution
  • Colonial Williamsburg -  African Americans During The American Revolution: Teacher Reference Sheet (PDF)
  • Rutgers University - African Americans in the Revolution
  • Ducksters - American Revolution: African Americans
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - African Americans and the Revolution
  • University of California, Irvine - African American Soldiers and the American Revolution
  • Colorado College - Blacks and the American Revolution
  • History Net - Black History
  • Wikipedia - African Americans in the Revolutionary War
  • National Endowment for the Humanities - The Native Americans’ Role in the American Revolution: Choosing Sides
  • Independence Hall Association -  Revolutionary Limits: Native Americans
  • History Wiz -  Native Americans and the American Revolution
  • ABC-CLIO - American Revolution, Native American Participation
  • University of Houston - Native Americans and the American Revolution
  • Prezi - Contributions of African Americans, Native Americans and Women during the American Revolution (Video)
  • PBS - Liberty! The American Revolution: Daily Life in the Colonies
  • Ducksters - Daily Life During the Revolution War
  • Independence Hall Association - The Revolution on the Home Front
  • Library of Congress - Revolutionary War: The Home Front
  • American History - Colonial Daily Life During the American Revolution
  • New York University Libraries - The American Revolution: An Everyday Life Perspective
  • ABC‑CLIO - Daily Life During the American Revolution
  • ABBE Regional Library System - The Lives of Children During The Revolutionary War (PDF)
  • Wikipedia - Children of the American Revolution
  • U.S. National Park Service - Children’s Rights and the American Revolution
  • Teachinghistory.org - Colonial Teenagers
  • The Santa Fe New Mexican Newspaper -  Fighting Spirit: Teenagers in the American Revolution
  • Google Books - The Brave Women and Children of the American Revolution
  • U.S. National Park Service -  Patriot Families’ Role in Effecting American Independence and the American Revolution’s Effect on their Family Life (PDF)
  • U.S. National Park Service -  Life during the Colonial Period and the American Revolution
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Assessing Change: Women’s Lives in the American Revolutionary Era
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Lucy Knox on the home front during the Revolutionary War, 1777
  • American Revolution - Women in the Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Women in the American Revolution
  • Journal of the American Revolution - 10 Amazing Women of the Revolutionary War
  • History of Massachusetts - The Roles of Women in the American Revolutionary War
  • Women History Blog - Women’s Role in the American Revolution
  • Social Studies - Roles of Women in the American Revolution and the Civil War
  • Independence Hall Association - Revolutionary Changes and Limitations: Women
  • Annenberg Media - Women of the American Revolution (PDF)
  • About.com - Women and the American Revolution
  • The Examiner - The Role of Women in the American Revolution
  • Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media - Women and the Revolution
  • Prezi - Women’s Roles During the American Revolution Outlined by Hannah Schierl (Video)
  • United States Army - Women in the Army
  • Atlanta Blackstar - 5 Extraordinary Black Women Who Played Major Roles In The American Revolution
  • Women History Blog - Women’s Rights After the American Revolution
  • Journal of the American Revolution - Top 10 Marriages Gone Bad
  • National Women’s History Museum - American Revolution
  • American In Class - Civilians in the American Revolution
  • National Humanities Center - Religion and the American Revolution
  • New York University Libraries -  The American Revolution: Religion
  • Library of Congress - Religion and the American Revolution
  • U.S. National Park Service - Religion and the American Revolution
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - Religion and the American Revolution
  • Social Studies For Kids - Religion and the Church in the 13 American Colonies
  • Social Studies For Kids - Education in the 13 American Colonies
  • New York University Libraries - The American Revolution: Education
  • Oregon State University - Education in the Revolutionary Era
  • Prezi - Education During the Revolution Period (Video)
  • Wikipedia - Education in the Thirteen Colonies
  • Chesapeake College - Early National Education
  • Mackinac Center for Public Policy - Early Colonial Period to the American Revolution
  • Noah Webster House - Life in 1770s Connecticut
  • Rutgers University - The American Revolution in New Jersey 
  • Wikipedia - New Jersey in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - South Carolina in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Pennsylvania in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Virginia in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Maryland in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Georgia in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Massachusetts in the American Revolution
  • United States History - Massachusetts and the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Connecticut in the American Revolution
  • Connecticut History - Revolutionary War, 1775-1783
  • United States History - Delaware and the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - New Hampshire in the American Revolution
  • United States History - New Hampshire and the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - North Carolina in the American Revolution
  • United States History - North Carolina and the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Rhode Island in the American Revolution
  • United States History - Rhode Island and the American Revolution
  • Internet Archive - New York City during the American Revolution
  • Early America - New York City During the First Year of the Revolution
  • AM New York Newspaper - NYC Has A Lot More Revolutionary War History Than You Might Think
  • Wikipedia - Germans in the American Revolution
  • McGill University - Why Canada Did Not Join the American Revolution
  • Canadian War Museum - The American Revolution, 1775-1783
  • History Net - Invasion of Canada During the American Revolutionary War
  • Biography - Famous People in the American Revolution
  • Wikipedia - George Washington in the American Revolution
  • Ducksters - American Revolution: Life as a Revolutionary War Soldier
  • Independence Hall Association - The War Experience: Soldiers, Officers, and Civilians
  • The Countryman Press - Soldier of the American Revolution
  • PBS - Liberty! American Revolution: Military Perspectives
  • Prezi - Daily Life of an American Soldier During The Revolutionary War (Video)
  • Independence Hall Association - American Revolution: Selections from the Diary of Private Joseph Plumb Martin
  • JSTOR Database - Journal of a British Officer During the American Revolution 
  • U.S. National Park Service - Privateers in the American Revolution
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - What did the people of Great Britain think of men like George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson during the American Revolution?
  • Reddit: Ask Historians - What was popular British opinion of the American Revolution?
  • Reddit: Ask - British Redditors, how were you taught the American Revolution?
  • Study - British Loyalists vs. American Patriots During the American Revolution (Video)
  • Ducksters - American Revolution: Patriots and Loyalists
  • Independence Hall Association - Loyalists, Fence-sitters, and Patriots
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History -  A patriot’s letter to his loyalist father, 1778
  • Wikipedia - American Revolution: Patriot
  • Wikipedia - Patriots in the American Revolution
  • Independence Hall Association - The Boston Patriots
  • Wikipedia - American Revolution: Loyalist
  • United States History - The Loyalists
  • Wikipedia - Loyalists in the American Revolution
  • University of Groningen - Loyalists During the American Revolution
  • Women History Blog - Loyalist Women of the American Revolution
  • PBS - After the Revolution: A Midwife’s Tale
  • Journal of the American Revolution - Top 10 Facts About British Soldiers
  • History.com - Tea Act: American Revolution
  • National Endowment for the Humanities - After the American Revolution: Free African Americans in the North
  • West Virginia Division Culture and History - Revolutionary War and Its Aftermath
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - American Revolution- Part 6: A Troubled Aftermath
  • Brown University - The American Revolution and its Aftermath
  • About.com - The Effects of the American Revolutionary War on Britain
  • Prezi - The American Revolution and its Aftermath (Video)
  • NPR (National Public Radio) - What Happened To British Loyalists After The Revolutionary War?
  • The Atlantic - What If America Had Lost the Revolutionary War?
  • Teachinghistory.org - What If…? Reexamining the American Revolution
  • The Huffington Post - What If We’d Lost the American Revolution?
  • How Stuff Works - What if America had lost the Revolution?

Commerce

  • JSTOR Database - Prices and Inflation During the American Revolution, Pennsylvania, 1770-1790
  • The Food Timeline -  Colonial America & Fare
  • Wikipedia - Financial Costs of the American Revolutionary War
  • British Library - The American Revolution: The Costs of Empire - The Seven Years’ War and the Stamp Act Crisis
  • Smithsonian Center for Education and Museum Studies - Revolutionary Money
  • Independence Hall Association - Following the Money
  • Ludwig von Mises Institute - Inflation and the American Revolution

Entertainment & Food

  • Massachusetts Historical Society - Newspapers from 1765 
  • Mount Vernon - Reporting the Revolutionary War
  • Journal of the American Revolution - Top 10 Revolutionary War Newspapers
  • Assumption College - Newspapers in Revolutionary Era America & The Problems of Patriot and Loyalist Printers
  • Wikipedia - American Literature: Revolutionary Period
  • The Examiner - Literature of the American Revolution
  • New York University Libraries - The American Revolution: Music
  • University of Houston - Music and the American Revolution
  • PBS - Liberty! American Revolution - Revolutionary War Music
  • Independence Hall Association - Songs of the Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Songs of the American Revolutionary War
  • Smithsonian Folkways - American Revolutionary War Songs to Cultivate the Sensations of Freedom
  • Smithsonian - The Food the Fueled the American Revolution
  • National Museum of American History - What did soldiers eat during the Revolutionary War?
  • Wikipedia - Cuisine of the Thirteen Colonies
  • American Revolution for Kids - Revolutionary Recipes
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Colonial Foodways
  • Independence Hall Association - Firecake Recipe
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Drinking in Colonial America
  • Serious Eats - 5 Colonial-Era Drinks You Should Know
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Dessert: A Look into the World of the 18th-century Confectioner!
  • Social Studies For Kids - Food in the 13 American Colonies
  • Wikipedia - 1760 in Poetry
  • Wikipedia - 1765 in Poetry
  • Prezi - Leisure Activities and Sports During the American Revolution (Video)
  • Journal of Sport History - Sports and Games of the American Revolution (PDF)
  • National Museum of American History - What did Revolutionary War soldiers have in their pockets?
  • Journal of the American Revolution - The Role of Dancing
  • Encyclopedia Virginia - Dance During the Colonial Period

Hygiene, Health & Medicine

  • New York University Libraries - Health and Medicine in Revolutionary America
  • United States Department of the Air Force - Military Medicine During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
  • Tredyffrin Easttown Historical Society - Medicine in the Revolutionary War
  • Prezi - Health and Dental Care During the American Revolution (Video)
  • The Dallas Morning News -  Medical Care in the American Revolution
  • PBS - Liberty! American Revolution - Medicine
  • Office of Medical History - Medical Men in the American Revolution
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Medical Men in the American Revolution 1775-1783
  • JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association - Naval and Maritime Medicine During the American Revolution
  • MedPage Today - George Washington, Smallpox, and the American Revolution
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information -  Drug Therapy in Colonial and Revolutionary America
  • Minnesota Wellness Publications -  The Revolutionary War: The History of Medicine
  • American Revolution - George Washington: A Dental Victim
  • Mount Vernon - The Trouble with Teeth
  • Project Gutenberg - Drug Supplies in the American Revolution
  • Colonial Williamsburg - To Bathe or Not to Bathe: Coming Clean in Colonial America
  • Revolutionary War Museum - Medicine and Hygiene
  • Independence Hall Association - Surgeons and Butchers
  • eHow - About Hygiene in Colonial Times
  • Legacy - Life and Death in The Liberty Era 1750-1800
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Revolutionary Fever: Disease and War in the Lower South, 1776–1783
  • Wikipedia - Disease in Colonial America
  • Army Heritage Center - A Deadly Scourge: Smallpox During the Revolutionary War
  • PBS - The 9 Deadly Diseases That Plagued George Washington
  • Mental Floss - Biological Warfare in the American Revolution?
  • Prezi -  Health Care And Hospitals During The American Revolution (Video)
  • Wikipedia - Physicians in the American Revolution
  • Journal of the American Revolution - Surgery
  • Campbell University - The Colonial Family In America
  • Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation - Colonial Medicine (PDF)
  • WebMD - Warm Up to Ginger
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Apothecary
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Th Art and Mystery of Apothecary
  • ehow - What Tools Did Apothecary Use in Colonial Times?
  • Williamsburg Tours - 18th Century Medical Practices in Colonial Williamsburg, VA.
  • ehow - How Did Colonial Doctors Work?
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Eighteenth-Century Medical Myths

Fashion

  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Outfitting an American Revolutionary Soldier 
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Introduction to Eighteenth-Century Clothing
  • American Revolution - Clothing 1770 - 1800
  • History of American Wars - Revolutionary War Uniforms
  • Ducksters - American Revolution: Soldiers Uniforms and Gear
  • American Revolution - The Revolution And The New Republic, 1775-1800: Colonial Clothing
  • Massachusetts Department of Higher Education - Men’s Clothing from the 1770s
  • Massachusetts Department of Higher Education - Women’s Clothing from the 1770s
  • Massachusetts Department of Higher Education - Girl’s Clothing from the 1770s
  • ehow - Makeup & Hairsyles of the 1700s
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Stuff and Nonsense: Myths That Should by Now Be History
  • Wikipedia - 1775-95 in Western Fashion

Dialogue

  • Ducksters - American Revolution: Glossary and Terms
  • Colonial Quills - The Art of the Olde-Fashioned Insults
  • History of Redding - Exploring Period Vocabulary & Slang
  • Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation - Military Slang of the Revolutionary War Era
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Puttin’ on the Dog: Adventures in the Idioms of Our Mother Tongue
  • Shmoop - The American Revolution Terms
  • HyperVocal - 38 Vulgar Terms From the 19th-Century Urban Dictionary

Justice & Crime

  • Wikipedia - Prisoners of War in the American Revolutionary War
  • Mount Vernon - Prisoners of War
  • Wikipedia - Militia Generals in the American Revolution
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Colonial Crimes and Punishments
  • History.com - Redcoats kill sleeping Americans in Paoli Massacre: September 20, 1777
  • H‑Net: Humanities and Social Sciences Online - The Fate of Britain’s Convicts after the American Revolution
  • Early American Crime -  An Exploration of Crime, Criminals, And Punishments From America’s Past
  • Colonial Williamsburg - Cruel and Unusual: Prisons and Prison Reform
  • Slate - Did the Brits Burn Churches?
  • Encyclopedia Virginia - Convict Labor During the Colonial Period
  • Wikipedia - Laws Leading to the American Revolution
  • Sam Houston State University - Military Punishments in the Continental Army
  • History.com - Pennsylvania militiamen senselessly murder Patriot allies: March 8, 1782
  • Mount Vernon - American Spies of the Revolution
  • Wikipedia - Boston Massacre
  • National Archives and Records Administration -  The Declaration of Independence: A Transcription
  • Wikipedia - United States Declaration of Independence
  • Independence Hall Association - Declaration of Independence
  • University of Groningen -  The Final Text of the Declaration of Independence July 4 1776
  • Library of Congress - Declaration of Independence
  • History.com -  Declaration of Independence: American Revolution
  • Independence Hall Association - When Does the Revolution End?
  • Study - Effects of the American Revolution: Lesson & Quiz
  • Net Industries - The Early Years of American Law - Colonial Freedom, Britain’s Push For Greater Control, A New Start, A New Criminal Court System
  • Journal of the American Revolution - 10 Facts About Prisoners of War
time.com
Trump's DOJ to Probe Discrimination Against White Students
The civil rights division of the Justice Department is planning to investigate and potentially take legal action against universities over affirmative action admissions policies that critics say discriminate against white applicants, according to a new report.
By Katie Reilly

“The New York Times, citing an internal document the newspaper obtained, reports that department leaders announced a new initiative involving “investigations and possible litigation related to intentional race-based discrimination in college and university admissions.” The report sparked backlash among civil rights groups and fueled concerns about a rollback of civil rights protections under the Trump Administration, as many argued the project would be a step back for minority students who are underrepresented on college campuses.

“We wholly condemn this latest attempt by the Justice Department to attack the use of race-conscious admissions policies in the higher education context,” the Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law said in a statement Tuesday. “We will not stand by idly as this administration continues to hijack and obstruct the civil rights division’s core mission to address discrimination face by racial minority groups in our country.”

Controversial affirmative action policies have recently prompted lawsuits at Harvard University, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the University of Texas at Austin. The Supreme Court ruled last year that officials at the University of Texas could continue considering race as one factor in admissions.

Those who considered that ruling a setback welcomed the Justice Department’s internal announcement this week.

“The civil rights laws were deliberately written to protect everyone from discrimination, and it is frequently the case that not only are whites discriminated against now, but frequently Asian-Americans are as well,” Roger Clegg, president of the conservative Center for Equal Opportunity, told the Times.

Clegg, who was previously an official in the civil rights division during the Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush administrations, called the development “long overdue.“”


This could get interesting

3

New 3-D Printer Uses Light to Build Objects in Minutes

The next generation of desktop 3-D printers might do away with the excruciatingly slow process that current units use. Researchers have unveiled a printer that replaces the current extruder nozzle that squeezes out melted plastic one layer at a time with light and oxygen. 

The makers of the Carbon3D printer have demonstrated a technique they call continuous liquid interface production (CLIP), which grows 3-D printed parts out of a liquid resin bath. Ultraviolet light and oxygen work to build a stronger part in layers just tens of microns wide. Build times can be reduced from hours to minutes, they say.

Their work builds on the process called stereolithography, an additive manufacturing technique developed in the 1980s that builds parts layer by layer with liquid resin cured by light. 

“By rethinking the whole approach to 3-D printing, and the chemistry and physics behind the process, we have developed a new technology that can create parts radically faster than traditional technologies by essentially ‘growing’ them in a pool of liquid,” said University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill chemistry professor Joseph DeSimone, who coinvented the technique and is also Carbon3D’s CEO. See more images and learn more below.

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Writing Research - The Roaring Twenties

The Roaring Twenties is a term sometimes used to refer to the 1920s in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, characterizing the decade’s distinctive cultural edge in New York City, Chicago, Paris, Berlin, London, Los Angeles and many other major cities during a period of sustained economic prosperity. French speakers called it the “années folles” (“Crazy Years”), emphasizing the era’s social, artistic, and cultural dynamism.

Normalcy returned to politics in the wake of hyper-emotional patriotism after World War I, jazz music blossomed, the flapper redefined modern womanhood, and Art Deco peaked. Economically, the era saw the large-scale diffusion and use of automobiles, telephones, motion pictures, and electricity, unprecedented industrial growth, accelerated consumer demand and aspirations, and significant changes in lifestyle and culture. The media focused on celebrities, especially sports heroes and movie stars, as cities rooted for their home team and filled the new palatial cinemas and gigantic stadiums. In most major countries women won the right to vote for the first time. Finally the Wall Street Crash of 1929 ended the era, as the Great Depression set in, bringing years of worldwide gloom and hardship.

The social and cultural features known as the Roaring Twenties began in leading metropolitan centers, especially Chicago, New Orleans, Los Angeles, New York City, Philadelphia, Paris and London, then spread widely in the aftermath of World War I. The United States gained dominance in world finance. Thus when Germany could no longer afford war reparations to Britain, France and other Allies, the Americans came up with the Dawes Plan and Wall Street invested heavily in Germany, which repaid its reparations to nations that in turn used the dollars to pay off their war debts to Washington. By the middle of the decade, prosperity was widespread, with the second half of the decade later becoming known as the “Golden Twenties”.

The spirit of the Roaring Twenties was marked by a general feeling of discontinuity associated with modernity and a break with traditions. Everything seemed to be feasible through modern technology. New technologies, especially automobiles, moving pictures and radio proliferated “modernity” to a large part of the population. Formal decorative frills were shed in favor of practicality in both daily life and architecture. At the same time, jazz and dancing rose in popularity, in opposition to the mood of the specter of World War I. As such, the period is also often referred to as the Jazz Age. [1] [2]

Names

  • Social Security Administration - Top Names of the 1920s
  • About.com: Popular Baby Names in 1920s
  • Nebraska Health and Human Services - 50 Most Frequent Names in Nebraska, 1920-2013
  • Baby Name Science - Popular New Jersey Boy Baby Names in 1920
  • Baby Name Science - Popular New Jersey Girl Baby Names in 1920
  • British Baby Names - The Top Names in England and Wales 1924
  • Naming Across the Pond - Best of the Twenties
  • eHow - Jewish Names in 1920
  • The NY Times - Baby name data from 1920-2008 from New York City’s Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
  • BabyCenter - Most Popular Names in Spain (Pre-1920 and 1920s)
  • GlobalNews - Interactive: 93 Years of Ontario Baby Names, 1917-2010
  • BabyMed - Top German Baby Names, 1920s

Society & Life

  • HISTORY.com - The Roaring Twenties
  • BBC - The 1920s Overview
  • Ohio State University - 1920s Introduction
  • Indiana Historical Society - 1920s and the Great Depression
  • Maine Historical Society - An Evening in the 1920s
  • Scholastic Press - The United States Turns Inward: The 1920s and 1930s
  • University of Houston - Overview of the 1920s
  • University of Houston - Chapter 2: The Roaring Twenties (PDF)
  • Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History - The Roaring Twenties
  • Lone Star College - American Cultural History: Decade 1920-1929
  • Stanford History Education Group - World War I and the 1920s
  • Study Notes - Chapter 32: American Life in the “Roaring Twenties,” 1919-1929
  • American History: ‘Roaring Twenties’ a Time of Economic and Social Change
  • Iowa Public Television - The Great Depression Begins: The 1920s
  • United States Department of Labor - Chapter 2: The 1920s and the Start of the Depression, 1921-1933
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Women in the 1920s
  • BBC - The Changing Role of American Women in the 1920s
  • Ohio State University - New Women
  • National Women’s History Museum - Women in the Progressive Era
  • University of Minnesota Duluth - Jazz and Women’s Liberation
  • Academia.edu - Flappers and Mothers: The Women’s Movement and Feminism in the 1920s
  • New York Public Library - Everyday Life and Women in America, 1800-1920
  • American History - Working and Voting: Women in the 1920s
  • West Virginia Division Culture and History - “Women’s Work, Never Done”: West Virginia Farm Women, 1880s-1920s
  • Telegraph - Diary of a 1920s Bridget Jones
  • About.com: Flappers in the Roaring Twenties
  • U.S. History - Flappers
  • Smithsonian - The History of the Flapper, Part 1: A Call for Freedom
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill - Pets in America
  • Kansas Historical Society - Children in Kansas: 1890s - 1920s
  • Library of Congress - Children’s Lives at the Turn of the Twentieth Century (PDF)
  • Prezi - Children and Schooling in the 1920’s
  • University of Iowa - Children Playing. Lebabon, Ohio, 1920s
  • HISTORY.com - Child Labor
  • Public Schools in the 1920s in the New York City and Virginia
  • Vintage Kids and Babies Ads in the 1920s
  • University of Toronto - Education in the 1920s
  • Prezi - Canada in the 1920s: Teenagers and School Life and Discipline
  • Prezi - Teenagers of the 1920s
  • 1920s American Culture: City Life & Values - US History II
  • Wessels Living History Farm - 1920s Farm Life
  • Dhahran British Grammar School - Farming in the 1920s
  • The Living City - New York City: Life in the 1920s
  • An Amazing Photographic Tour of New York In The 1920s
  • Digital Harlem Blog - Harlem in the 1920s
  • The New York Times - Listening to the Roar of 1920s New York
  • Smithsonian Institution - American on the Move: New York Connected, 1920s
  • BuzzFeed - Then Vs. Now: 1920s New York City
  • W. W. Norton & Company - Chapter 5: New York in the 1920s
  • Prezi - New York City in the 1920s
  • Britannia - Distorted: Europe in the 1920’s
  • NPR - Let Frivolity Reign: London’s Roaring 1920s
  • The Guardian - Color footage of London in the 1920s (Photos)
  • 1920-1929: Explore the 20th Century London
  • Historic UK - The 1920s, the Roaring Twenties, in Britain
  • My London Life - London Life in the 1920’s
  • BBC America - Snapshot: 21 Photos of 1920s London
  • Daily Mail Online - Open-topped Buses, Flat Claps and Bobbies on the Beat: Color Video of 1920s London
  • History Today - Wish You Were Here? Britain Between the Wars
  • Daily Mail Online - On the production line in the 20s and 30s: Forgotten photographs chart the progress of industry at castings company in Derby
  • Nature Travel Egypt - Egypt in the 1920s
  • BBC - Travelling to Egypt - the culture of 1920s exploration
  • National Geographic Society - Curse of the Mummy
  • National Geographic Society - Port Said, Egypt, Circa 1920
  • Tutmania in the Roaring Twenties: When Ancient Egypt was in Vogue
  • University of California, Santa Barbara - 20th Century Archaeology
  • British Airways - Explore Our Past: 1920 - 1929
  • BBC - The Romance of 1920s Train Travel (Photos)
  • Fordham University - The Fate of Ocean Travel
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Transportation improvements in the 1920s
  • France: The Parisian Life in The 1920’s
  • Wikipedia - 1920 in France
  • Youtube - Seeing Paris in 1920s: Part One (Video)
  • Prezi - 1920’s in Paris
  • Americans in Paris - Paris in the 1920s: Changes in Society Lead to Changes in Fashion
  • Chicago Tribune - Ah, Paris of the 1920s
  • Indiana University - Paris and Berlin in the 1920s
  • The National - Berlin in the 1920s: Anything but Calm Before Storm
  • Wikipedia - 1920s Berlin
  • International Center of Photography - Berlin Street Photography, 1920s-30s (Photos)
  • The Wall Street Journal - Experiencing the 1920s in Berlin, Germany
  • Texas State Historical Association - Texas in the 1920s
  • The Huffington Post - What The 1920s Was Really Like
  • City of Clarence: Tasmania, Australia - Life in Clarence in the 1920s and 1930s (PDF)
  • Belfast Telegraph - Pictures of Northern Ireland in the 1920s
  • Waterloo Region Record - The Great Depression hit Canada the Hardest
  • Prezi - Canadian Lives in the 1920s and 1930s
  • Wikipedia - 1920s in Canada
  • Canada in the 1920s
  • Bentley Historical Library - Detroit and the Great Migration 1916-1929
  • 1920’s Garden: Privacy, Shelter, and Unified Design
  • Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales - A 1920s Garden Revisited
  • 1920’s Interior Decorating: Simplicity in Design
  • 1920’s Residential and Commercial Architecture
  • BBC - 1920s Homes
  • Bricks & Brass: Designs of the Period House - 1920-1929
  • American Vintage House Styles: A Brief History of Middle-class American Residential Architecture from 1900 to 1960
  • American Vintage House Styles: 1920s Bathroom Design
  • American Vintage House Styles: Gallery of 1920s Bedrooms
  • American Vintage House Styles: Gallery of 1920s Kitchen
  • Vintage Household Ads of the 1920s
  • Vintage Household Furniture Ads of the 1920s
  • 1920’s Automobiles: Auto Industry Consolidation and Vehicle Mass Production
  • Brigham Young University - Love and Romance in the 1920s
  • Prezi - Marriages in the 1920s VS, Marriages Today
  • NPR - Interracial Family Prevails in 1920s Alabama
  • Northern Kentucky University - Prosperity of Urban Families in the 1920’s
  • Prezi - Family Life in the 1920s
  • The Huffington Post - Dating in the 1920s: Lipstick, Booze and the Origins of Slut-Shaming
  • The Gloss - What Dating Was Like in the 1920s
  • Prezi - Dating in the 1920s and early 30s
  • University of Oxford - The Sex Age: Gender, Sexuality and Culture in 1920s Britain
  • History Today - Sex and the Automobile in the Jazz Age
  • Ohio State University - Sexuality
  • University of Michigan - Lesbian History: Between the World Wars
  • Prezi - Homosexuality in the 1920’s
  • US Today - In 1920, Harvard purged Gays…
  • American Psychological Association - History of Lesbian, Gay, & Bisexual Social Movements
  • The Guardian - Pride and Prejudice in the 1920s
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Harlem Life: Black Families and Everyday Life in the 1920s and 1930s
  • Prezi - How did Life Change for African Americans in the 1920s?
  • Ohio State University - African American New Women
  • HISTORY.com - Great Migration: Black History
  • University of Houston - The Great Migration
  • Yale University - The Harlem Renaissance: Black American Traditions
  • Vintage Car Ads of the 1920s
  • Wikipedia - 1920s Automobiles
  • Vintage Oil and Gas Ads of the 1920s
  • British Pathe - Cairo 1920s-1960s (Video)
  • BBC - The Journey to Egypt: Travelling to Egypt & the Culture of 1920s Exploration

Commerce

  • The Cost of Living - 1920
  • The People History - Food, Groceries and Toiletries Prices in the 1920s
  • The People History - Electrical Goods and Appliances Prices in the 1920s
  • The People History - Examples of Houses for Sale in the 1920s
  • The People History - Fashion, Clothing and Accessories from the 1920s: Prices and Examples
  • The People History - Furniture Prices in the 1920s
  • Bryant University - Consumer Prices of the 1920s
  • Vintage Money, Insurance and Banking Ads of the 1920s
  • Statistics Canada - Prices of a Family Budget of Staple Foods, Fuel, Lighting and Rent, for 60 Cities in Canada: 1920 to 1936
  • Vintagedancer - What Clothing Cost in the 1920s

Fashion

  • 1920’s Women Fashions: Freedom from Corsets
  • Victoriana - 1920s Clothing
  • Fashion Era - 1920s Flapper Fashion History
  • Fashion Era - 1920s Photography of Flappers
  • Fashion Era - 1920-1930 Wedding Fashion History
  • 1920’s and 1930’s Hairstyles: Transition from Long to Short Hair
  • The Huffington Post - 1920s Hairstyles That Defined The Decade, From The Bob To Finger Waves
  • Fashion Era - Hats and Hair Fashion History in 1920s
  • 1920’s Jewelry: Classic Geometric Jewelry Designs
  • University of Vermont - Women’s Clothing: 1920s
  • Vintage Jewelry and Watches Ads of the 1920s
  • Vintage Perfume Ads of the 1920s
  • Glamourdaze - The History of 1920s Makeup
  • ELLE UK - 1920’s Make-up Looks
  • Smithsonian Institution - The History of the Flapper, Part 2: Makeup Makes a Bold Entrance
  • Duke University Libraries - Cosmetics of 1920s Ads
  • Glamourdaze -  The Beauty Secrets of 1920s Parisian (French) Women
  • Wikipedia - Cosmetics in the 1920s
  • Houston Chronicle - Swimsuits from the 1920s to Today (Photos)
  • Fashion Era - Women’s Swimwear from 1920 to 2000
  • Victoria and Albert Museum - Dating Clothes & Photographs from the 1920s
  • University of Brighton, England - 1920s Fashion
  • Vintage Clothes/Fashion Ads of the 1920s
  • University of Vermont - Men’s Fashion: 1920s
  • BBC - 1920s Fashion
  • The People History - 1920s Children’s Fashion

Entertainment & Food

  • PBS - The Devil’s Music: 1920’s Jazz
  • PBS - Jazz in Time: Roaring Twenties 
  • New York Historical Society - Jazz of the 1920s and '30s
  • University of Minnesota Duluth - A New Jazz Culture
  • Academia.edu - The Influence of Jazz on Women’s Fashion and Society in the 1920s
  • 1920’s Food: Introduction of Processed Foods
  • University of Chicago Press - Recipes from the Twentieth Century: 1920
  • The Food Timeline - 1920s: Prohibition-era Foods & Speakeasy Dining
  • The Guardian - Downton, Parade’s End and British food between the wars
  • Vintage Food Ads of the 1920s
  • HISTORY.com - Prohibition, Speakeasies and Finger Foods
  • HubPages - A 1920s Menu: What Did People Eat in the 1920s?
  • Global Post - Desserts From the '20s
  • Old Time Candy - 1920s Candy
  • Vintage Candy Ads of the 1920s
  • Texas State Historical Association - Soft Drink Industrial
  • Telegraph - Cocktail Recipes: Drink like it’s the 1920s
  • Vintage Drinks Ads of the 1920s
  • Vintage Coke/Coca-Cola Ads of the 1920s
  • Vintage Alcohol Ads of the 1920s
  • Bonjour Paris - Paris Jazz Age: New Generation Explodes in Paris, 1920s
  • Prezi - Entertainment in the 1920s
  • Atlantic City Weekly - Atlantic City Nightlife Circa 1920s
  • Wikipedia - Speakeasy
  • Mail Online - Inside the Speakeasies of the 1920s: The hidden drinking spots that transformed New York City’s
  • Prezi - The Party Life of the 1920s
  • Vintage Movies, Theater, and Entertainment Ads of the 1920s
  • University of California, Berkeley Libraries - Vamps, Flappers, and Shieks: Films of The 1920s
  • IMDb: Most Popular Feature Films Released 1920 to 1929
  • Hollywood Movie Memories - 1920’s Movie Stars
  • Elon University - 1920s-1960s: Television
  • Vintage Electronics/TV Ads of the 1920s
  • University at Albany, The State University of New York - Movies, Music, and Sports of the 1920s
  • University of Minnesota Duluth - The Great Jazz Musicians of 1920s
  • North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources - America’s Music in the 1920s (PDF)
  • 1920’s Music: Jazz, Ragtime, and Musical
  • Vintage Music Ads of the 1920s
  • 1920’s Literature: Books Reflected Changes in Society
  • University of California, Berkeley - The Books of the Century, 1920-1929
  • Stylist Magazine - The 50 Best Books of the 1920s
  • Wikipedia - 1920 in Literature
  • Ranker - Bestselling Novels of the '20s: 1920 to 1929
  • Toronto Public Library - Roaring Times: 1890s to 1920s
  • Vintage Books, Magazines, and Newspaper Ads of the 1920s
  • eHow - American Writing Styles of the 1920s
  • Montgomery College - The Lost Generation: American Writers of the 1920’s
  • 1920’s Toys: New Materials and Mass Production
  • 1920’s Art: The Are of Surrealism and Art Deco
  • Scholastic Press - Surrealism: 1920s-1940s
  • 1920’s Dancing: New Styles of Dancing and Music Evolved
  • BBC - About BBC News
  • Wikipedia - 1920 in Sports
  • York University Library - The Golden Age of Women and Sport in Canada (PDF)
  • Prezi - Canadian Sports Heroes of the 1920s
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Sports in the 1920s
  • George Mason University - The National Pastime in the 1920s: The Rise of the Baseball Fans
  • Prezi - Popular Pastimes of the 1920s
  • Ask About Ireland - Games Children Play on the 1920s
  • Victoriana -  1920s Party: Correct Behavior on a Picnic

Dialogue

  • The Huffington Post - Flappers’ Dictionary: How To Talk The 1920s Talk
  • Antique Automobile Club of America - Slang of the 1920
  • OxfordDictionaries.com - 20 Words that Originated in the 1920s
  • KCTS 9 Public Television - Flapper Slang: Talk the 1920s Talk
  • The Wired - How to Sound Like the Bee’s Knees: A Dictionary of  1920s Slang
  • BuzzFeed - The A-Z’s Of 1920s Slang
  • Thought Catalog - 59 Quick Slang Phrases From 1920s

Health, Hygiene & Medicine

  • University of California, Berkeley - Life Expectancy in the USA, 1900-98
  • Australian Bureau of Statistics - Life Expectancy Trends, 1881-2009
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Life Expectancy in Canada: An Overview
  • Statistics Canada - Life Expectancy at Birth, by Sex, by Province
  • University of Alcalá - The Pharmaceutical Century: 1920 to 1930
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Prematurity as a public health problem: US policy from the 1920s to the 1960s
  • United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Tobacco Use in the United States
  • Social Security Association - 1900s to 1920s
  • Vintage Medicine Ads of the 1920s
  • HISTORY.com - Drink Some Whiskey, Call in the Morning: Doctors & Prohibition
  • Ohio State University - Medicinal Alcohol: Temperance & Prohibition
  • 1920’s Medicine: Nobel Prize Winning Medical Discoveries
  • Cambridge University Press - Health and Health Services in British Malaya in the 1920s
  • Canadian Public Health Association - Milestones in Public Health: 1920 to 1929
  • Chicago State Hospital History
  • History Museum - History of Canadian Medicare: 1914-1929
  • Reddit: AskHistorians - I’m a patient at a psychiatric institution in the 1920s. What types of treatment would potentially be used?
  • Prezi - Mental Asylums in the 1920’s
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Psychiatry and the General Hospital in an Age of Uncertainty
  • State Records Authority of New South Wales - Asylum Records
  • University of Michigan Health System - A Century of Improving Mental Health Care at Michigan
  • Prezi - Medical Breakthrough in the 1920s
  • Science Museum - Mental Institutions
  • Mail Online - Sent to the Asylum: The Victorian Women locked up Because they were Suffering from Stress, Post Natal Depression and Anxiety
  • South Shore Hospital, South Weymouth; Boston, Massachusetts - The 1920s
  • The Stockton State Mental Asylum from the 1890’s to 1920’s
  • Mississippi State Department of Health - Public Health Nursing 1920-1949
  • University of Rhode Island - Syphilis from 1880 to 1920: A Public Health Nightmare and the First Challenge to Medical Ethics
  • Duke University Libraries - Timeline: Medicine and Madison Avenue 1920s
  • PBS - A Social History Of America’s Most Popular Drugs
  • North Carolina Encyclopedia - Headache Powders
  • Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine - The 1920s
  • Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC - 1920s
  • BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia - Anaesthesia in the 1920s (PDF)
  • London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine - 1920 History Timeline
  • Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand - The Polio Era, 1920s to 1960s
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - Immigration, Ethnicity, and the Pandemic
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - British Maternal Mortality in the 19th and Early 20th Century
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Timeline
  • National Institutes of Health - The History of the Pregnancy Test Kit: Timeline
  • Family Planning Association - Contraception: Past, Present and Future Factsheet
  • National Center for Biotechnology Information - The Politics of Birth Control , 1920-1940
  • Museum of Menstruation and Women’s Health - Ad for Hickory Sanitary Napkin Belts, 1920s
  • Duke University Libraries - Feminine Hygiene: 1920s Ads
  • Vintage Beauty and Hygiene Ads of the 1920s
  • Vintage Shaving Ads of the 1920s

Law Enforcement & Crime

  • 1920’s Law and Order: Criminal gangs the Legacy of Prohibition
  • Crime Library - Harlem Gangs from the 1920s and 1930s
  • New Jersey State Police - History in 1920s
  • Trenton Police Museum - 1920-1939
  • Gothamist - 16 Grisliest Crime Scene Photos From 1920s New York
  • Huffingtonpost - Crime Scene Photographs From The 1920s-1960s Give A Glimpse Into America’s Dark Past
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) - New York History
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) - The FBI and the American Gangster, 1924-1938
  • Anaheim Police Department History: 1920
  • New York State Police - History: 1917 - 1929
  • Los Angeles Police Department - The LAPD in 1900-1925
  • Gothamist - Photo: In 1920s NYC, Police Stopped Traffic For Crossing Cats
  • NPR - Eerily Beautiful Mug Shots From 1920s Australia
  • HiConsumption - Dapper Criminals in 1920s Police Mugshots
  • Palm Beach Daily News - Police Ledgers from 1920s Capture Unvarnished Details of Palm Beach Life
  • University at Albany, The State University of New York - Laws ad Major Events of the 1920s
  • University at Albany, The State University of New York - Organized Crime and Prohibition
  • About.com - The United States Prohibition of Alcohol: 1920-1933
  • Office of the Historian - The Immigration Act of 1924 (The Johnson-Reed Act)
  • About.com - Prohibition
  • University of Michigan - Organized Crime: How it Was Changed by Prohibition
  • The Finer Times - Organized Crime in the 1920’s and Prohibition
  • BBC - Was the 1920s a Decade of Organized Crime and Corruption?
  • Encyclopedia of Chicago - Organized Crime in 1920s Chicago
  • HISTORY.com - Mafia in the United States
  • Australian National University - Melbourne Crime: From War to Depression, 1919-1929
  • Cato Institute - Alcohol Prohibition Was A Failure
  • Prezi - Crime and Punishment in the 1920s
  • Death Penalty Information Center - Part 1: History of the Death Penalty
  • Wikipedia - 1920s Crimes
  • History Today - Hitler and the Law, 1920-1945
  • Crime & Investigation Network - London Gangs
  • The Guardian - Girl Gang’s Grip on London Underworld Revealed
  • Prezi - We So Gangsta’: Canadian Organized Crime in the 1920’s and 1930’s
  • Prezi - Mafia Weapons of the 1920’s
  • The Guardian - Did American Gangsters in the 1920s and 1930s really carry guns in violin cases, or was that characteristic invented by movie script writers?
  • NY Daily Times - As many as 20 boys in Wineville, Calif., die at the hands of sadistic sex manic Gordon Stewart Northcott in the late 1920s
  • Baltimore City Police History - 1920 to 1940
  • Australian Police - Uniforms of the NSW Police 
  • Metropolitan Women Police Association - History of Women Police Officers
  • Ohio State University - Women’s National Committee for Law Enforcement: Temperance & Prohibition
  • National Center for Women & Policy - A History of Women in Policing
  • Reddit: AskHistorians - Was cocaine legal during the 1920s in Germany?
  • Texas State Historical Association - Prostitution
  • Prezi - Prostitution in the 1920’s
  • University of Michigan - Organized Crime: The Status before Prohibition
  • University of Michigan - The Corrupt City
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) - FBI Versus the Klan, Part 2
  • PBS - The Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s
  • Oklahoma State University - Ku Klux Klan
  • San Diego History Center - Ku Klux Klan 1920-1980
  • University of Washington - Ku Klux Klan in Washington State, 1920s
  • Encyclopedia Virginia: Racial Integrity Laws of the 1920s