the treaty of versailles

2

The Karabiner 98B,

After being defeated in World War I Germany was forced to except a wide array of arms and military limitations designed to reduce the Germany military into a small defensive force that could be controlled by the Allied Powers.  For example, the German Navy could have only a handful of small warships and submarines were forbidden, the German Army could have no tanks, or large artillery, and was limited to 100,000 men, while a German air force was forbidden completely.  While these were strict regulations, often the German government found loopholes or used outright deceit to circumvent the provisions of the treaty.  One result of this was the German Karabiner 98B bolt action rifle.  

One provision of the treaty was that Germany was forbidden from producing any full length military rifles. At the time, the length of military rifles were almost as long as military muskets from the 19th century.  Carbines were seen as inferior, as rigid old military officers still believed in an outdated view of warfare and tactic, despite lessons learned from the previous war.  Thus, the Allied Powers sought to restrict rifle length in the Germany Army.  The Germans, however, conducted a simple deception to circumvent the rules by producing the Karabiner 98B.  The Karabiner (carbine) 98B was not a carbine, even though it was named so.  Rather it was a full sized Gewehr 98 bolt action rifle with a few minor modifications.  It was labeled as a carbine merely to confuse Versailles Treaty arms inspectors.  The K98B differed from the Gew 98 only in that it  had a tangent rear sight as opposed to the original “Lange” ramp sight, a wider lower band with side sling attachment bar, a side butt attachment point for a sling, and a turned down bolt handle. Most were merely re-arsenals of older Gewehr 98 rifles, or produced from surplus parts.

The K98B was first introduced in 1923, and became the common arm of the Weimar era German Army.  By the 1930s, military doctrine began to change, and what was once carbine length during World War I, became standard rifle length during World War II.  Thus in 1935 the German Army phased out the K98B for the Karabiner 98K.  Most K98B’s would be disassembled, the parts salvaged for use in the manufacture of newer rifles. As a result the Karabiner 98B is a very rare rifle today, and highly sought by collectors.

so i made this post because even the laziest people in existence still have to study ha ha these are just some things i’ve been doing for my revision!

1. you don’t need to rewrite notes to memorise them

i know tons of people say that rewriting notes is a form of memory retention but honestly!!! i don’t have the energy/patience for that ha! for me, the best method to memorise things (especially content-heavy chapters/subjects) would be to record yourself talking. i don’t think this is especially catered to auditory learners, because i know for a fact that i’m not an auditory learner but this still works especially well for me so!!

 i usually open up the voice recorder app and talk as if i’m teaching someone! i’d recommend you use a guidebook as reference and not the actual textbooks. guidebooks are more vague, so when you’re speaking about a particular point, you can sort of expand on the point given in the guidebook from your knowledge of the subject! this really helps for revision because you’re basically forced to remember things. you don’t necessarily need to replay your recordings. to me, the “recording” bit of this method is psychological, it makes me feel like i’m actually memorising and not just talking to myself haha.

this recording method is honestly one of the most helpful things i’ve ever started doing and i can do a more in-depth post on it if anyone asks haha

2. use different highlighters for different sections

i know literally everyone has been told this tip in their lifetime but honestly!!! it’s EXTREMELY helpful, especially if you want to do timelines for history! use different colours for things like dates, people, treaties, etc! 
okay but one thing about this tip that’s sort of different from others is that when you highlight dates, highlight the entire event and not just the date! so for example, instead of highlighting “28 June 1919″, highlight “The Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28 June 1919.” that way, you know the WHOLE event and the date and you’ll be more likely to remember both! 

i learnt this the hard way - i used to highlight dates by themselves (maybe i was just totally dumb) and i could NEVER remember what happened on the dates lmao 

3. the internet is there for you

it’s a bad habit of mine, but being a very last-minute person, i ALWAYS have doubts even the night before exams. since it’s too late to actually contact anyone, i usually have to rely on the internet. the internet has a myriad of wonderful wonderful resources that are so incredibly useful! 

some youtube channels that have helped me are khanacademy (literally anything), mathbff (math), keith hughes (history), j brierly (literature) 

i also recommend watching documentaries (for history/social studies) because even though it’s a more in-depth version of what you have to learn, it’ll help you understand everything better + make your essay stand out :) 

4. find a suitable study space

a good study space is probably the first thing you should ensure if you want to get anything done at all. i usually never study at home, simply because i’m always distracted by trivial things such as “i’m hungry, i’m gonna get food” or “i’m so tired i’m going to sleep for five minutes”. 

when i started studying outside (usually at starbucks/the library), my productivity level increased so much it blew my mind a little. even though it’s a bit troublesome because you may not be completely sure what materials to bring, you’ll still get a lot done trust me on this lmao

5. always, always plan what you want to do

i find it really taxing to plan out my entire day down to the hour, so i usually just set a certain number of things i want to complete for that day, and just let things naturally flow from there.

for example, i write the things i want to do on my calendar (finish a set of math papers, read a chapter of lit, etc.) and then i just get everything done on that day w/o planning the exact time i’m going to do it! it makes things less stressful in my opinion :)

i’ve tried planning things by hour but it usually never works out so i just stopped doing it and honestly it’s not necessary! what’s important about planning is just knowing what you need to do and then getting it done. 

6. handwrite your notes whenever you can

writing your notes by hand triggers your memory more effectively than typing them out. even though i’m tempted to type out notes since i’m the laziest person in existence, i still try (most of the time) to write notes because at the end of the day, you’ll be more proud of your handwritten notes than your boring typed out ones :)

7. study with people who usually do well

this is a rather…shady….method of learning but honestly!!! when you know how the top students function, you can learn from them as well! 

i’ve discovered that top students usually perform so well because they review their content regularly, unlike people like me who wait three days before the exam to start cramming everything into my brain.

keep some pictures of your notes or some flashcards with you, so that when you have pockets of time (eg. waiting for a friend, waiting for the bus, etc), you can whip them out and start reviewing :) 

these people also act as tutors, so you can clarify your doubts with them and it’ll be less awkward as compared to asking an actual teacher. i know i prefer asking classmates than teachers hahaha.


OKAY i hope this helped :-) please also reblog/like this if you’re a studyblr, i’m new to the community and i wanna follow more people!! 

IMPORTANT EVENTS AND THEIR DATES IN MODERN EUROPEAN HISTORY

1453  Constantinople is sacked by Muslim forces

1488  Bartolomeu Diaz rounds the Cape of Good Hope

1492  Columbus encounters the Americas (God, Glory and Gold.)

1517  Martin Luther’s posting of the 95 Theses

1520  Diet of Worms declares Martin Luther an outlaw

1524-1525  The Peasants’ Revolt takes place in Germany

1534  Act of Supremacy passed in England → Henry VIII becomes head of the Anglican Church

1545  Council of Trent begins The Counter Reformation

1555  Peace of Augsburg (cuius regio, eius religio →whose region, his religion)

1585-1589  War of the Three Henries in France

1588  Spanish Armada destroyed by the English and “The Protestant Wind”

1603  Elizabeth I Dies → Tudor Dynasty Ends and the Stuart Dynasty Begins

1618-1648  The Thirty Years War (Treaty of Westphalia ends the war in 1648)

1642-1646  English Civil War (Roundheads vs. the Cavaliers)

1649  Charles I is executed → Oliver Cromwell begins his rule

1660  Stuart Restoration in England through Charles II

1688-1689  Glorious Revolution in England→ William and Mary of Orange replace James II and sign the English Bill of Rights

1643-1715  Era of Louis XIV  The Sun King (l’etat c’est moi)

1689-1725  Reign of Peter the Great in Russia

1756-1763  The Seven Years War

1789-1799  Era of the French Revolution (Radical Stage → late 1792-1795)

1799  Napoleon comes to power

1805-1815  Napoleonic Wars are waged

1814-1815  The Congress of Vienna meets (Main principles: Legitimacy, Conservatism, Compensation & Balance of Power)

1819  Peterloo Massacre in England

1830  Belgian Independence

1832  Reform Bill in England Passed

1848  Revolutions break out across Western Europe (France, Austria, Italy and Germany)

1861  Serfs emancipated in Russia under Alexander II

1870-1871  Germany and Italy Unification

1884-1885  Berlin Conference is held (“Scramble for Africa”)

1894  Tsar Nicholas II comes to power in Russia (the last of the Romanovs)

1905  Sunday Bloody Revolution in Russia → “The Dress Rehearsal”

1914  Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated → WWI starts

1917  March and November (Bolshevik) Revolutions in Russia

1918  Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is signed →Russia withdraws from war

1918  WWI ends

1919  Treaty of Versailles is signed

1918-1921  Russian Civil War (Reds vs. Whites)

1922  Mussolini comes to power in Italy and establishes the 1st Fascist government

1922  Russia officially becomes known as the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) → The Soviet Union

1923  Adolf Hitler leads the Beer Hall Putsch in Germany

1924  Lenin dies

1928  Stalin is firmly entrenched as the leader of the Soviet Union → begins the first of several 5 year plans

1929  Stock Market Crash in the US → The Great Depression begins

1933  Hitler comes to power in Germany

1938  Munich Conference (Peace in our time→Neville Chamberlain)

1939  World War II starts with Germany’s invasion of Poland

1945  World War II ends (V-E Day → May 8, 1945 and V-J Day → August 15, 1945)

1945  First session of the United Nations is held

1945-1989  Cold War (U.S. vs. S.U. begins and begins to end in Poland)

POST WW II  Decolonization → European colonies become independent

1946  Winston Churchill gives the “Iron Curtain” speech

1948-1949 Operation Vittles→the Berlin Airlift

1949  USSR successfully tests first atomic bomb

1951  European Coal and Steel Community formed (sounds like the Zollverein)

1953  Stalin dies and is succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev → destalinization begins

1954  French forces defeated in French-Indochina at Dien Bien Phu

1956  Hungarian revolt against the Soviet Union → it is crushed by the Soviets

1957  Rome Treaty is signed → The European Economic Community (EEC) is created = Common Market

1957  Sputnik is launched by the Soviet Union → the first space satellite

1958  The fifth Republic is born in France and Charles de Gaulle becomes President

1961  Berlin Wall built → dividing East and West Berlin

1961  Soviet Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space

1962  Cuban Missile Crisis → 90 miles off the coast of Florida

1963  Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique is published

1964  Leonid Brezhnev becomes leader of the Soviet Union

1966  Under President Charles de Gaulle, France withdraws from the common NATO military command

1968  “Prague Spring” occurs in Czechoslovakia → it is crushed by the Soviets

1968  Student revolt in France (Paris)

1978  Pole Karol Wojtyla elected Pope → Pope John Paul II → 1st non-Italian in 455 years

1979  Margaret Thatcher becomes the first female Prime Minister of England (“The Iron Lady”) (Mags loathes no one more than this heinous twat)

1979  The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan (eventually becomes their own “little Vietnam”)

1980  1st independent labor union in the Soviet Bloc formed  “Solidarity” led by Lech Walesa of Poland

1980  Ronald Reagan elected President of the US (calls the Soviet Union an “evil empire”)

1985  Gorbachev becomes Soviet leader (implements policies of perestroika and glasnost)

1986  Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in the Soviet Union (specifically the Ukraine)

1989  Berlin Wall comes down

1989  The “Velvet Revolution” occurs in Czechoslovakia → Vaclav Havel becomes President

1989  The Soviet Union withdraws its forces from Afghanistan

1989  Romanian leader Nicolai Ceausescu is overthrown and killed

1990  Lech Walesa becomes President of Poland

1990  East Germany and West Germany reunify into one Germany

1990  The first McDonalds opens in Russia

1991  Attempted coup attempt in the Soviet Union → The Soviet Union begins to disintegrate

1991  Boris Yeltsin becomes President of Russia → former 15 republics of the Soviet Union form the Commonwealth of Independent States (C.I.S.)

1991  Yugoslavia begins to break apart

1992  Maastricht Treaty signed

1997  Tony Blair becomes Prime Minister of England → 1st Labor Party leader in 18 years

1999  Eurodollar becomes the single currency of the European Union (EU)

6

Bergmann-Haenel MP18.1

Designed by Hugo Schmeisser c.1916, manufactured by Bergmann Waffenfabrik c.1918-20′s, modified by C.C.Haenel afterward - serial number 5279.
9x19mm Parabellum 20-round removable box magazine, open bolt blowback full automatic.

The Haenel modification gave the MP18 a new double-stack single-feed magazine to replace the complex and heavy Trommel magazine originally designed for Luger P08 pistols.
Despite common belief, this weapon wasn’t immediately banned in the Treaty of Versailles.

anonymous asked:

Why did so many women at court aspire to become the king's mistress?

For one, being the king’s mistress could be rewarding on a personal level, as kings were known to lavish great wealth on their favorites. Alice Perrers, mistress to Edward III of England, was granted robes and jewels belonging to the dead Queen Philippa (the jewels were worth over six million pounds in today’s money), as well as over a dozen manors, by her royal lover. Barbara Palmer and Louise de Kerouaille, mistresses of the lascivious Charles II, were granted dukedoms in their own right, with their requisite lands and incomes, and Barbara was given Henry VIII’s Nonsuch Palace. Louis XIV was so entranced by Athenais, the Marquise de Montespan, that he granted her a suite of 20 rooms in Versailles (compared to the queen’s 10), and had built for her the Chateau de Clagny, spending millions of livres to do so. Leopold II of Belgium shocked and angered his subjects by the wealth the aging monarch lavished on his teenage mistress, Caroline Lacroix, including millions of francs (Caroline once bragged about spending three million in a single shopping spree) and estates in Belgium and France. Even foreign visitors would know to flatter the king’s favorite: when the future Gustav III of Sweden visited the court of Louis XV, he presented the king’s mistress, the notoriously luxury-loving Madame du Barry, a collar for her little spaniel, made of diamonds and with a ruby leash. 

Being the royal mistress could also be an avenue to power. Henry II of France was so devoted to his lifelong passion Diane de Poitiers that the two would often collaborate on government letters and documents, even signing the bottom “HenriDiane”. The Protestant (later Catholic) Henry IV of France relied on his beloved mistress Gabrielle d’Estrees to make peace with the noble Catholic families of the country, and it was under her influence that he created the Edict of Nantes, which gave significant rights to French Huguenots (indeed, so trusted was Gabrielle that Henry gave her a seat on his Council of National Policy). Too, as an intimate of the king, a royal mistress would be expected to have the king’s ear in private moments ordinary courtiers could never dream of sharing, and could be a useful intermediary between the king and his courtiers. Such was the power and influence of Madame de Pompadour on Louis XV that Empress Maria Theresa of Austria’s ambassador approached her for aid in the negotiations that would lead to the Treaty of Versailles and the Diplomatic Revolution that would bring Austria and France together in alliance. Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany and second son of George III, was not a king, but he was commander in chief of the army from 1795 - a position he was forced to resign in 1809, when his mistress, Mary Anne Clarke, was brought before the House of Commons and testified that she had, with the duke’s knowledge and assistance, been selling army commissions (even pinning the names of those desiring commissions to the curtains in the home they shared).

Nor should family ambition be discounted; having great influence over the king meant that a mistress could secure boons for her kin as well as herself. While sleeping with Mary Boleyn and thereafter pursuing sister Anne, Henry VIII granted a number of honors to the Boleyn family: Sir Thomas Boleyn (father to Mary and Anne) was made Viscount Rochford in 1525, Earl of Wiltshire in 1529, and Lord Privy Seal in 1530; their brother George was knighted and made a Gentleman of the Privy Chamber in 1529 (at which time he was also granted the courtesy title Viscount Rochford), held several key offices in Henry VIII’s court, and was made an ambassador to France, doubtless via his sister’s influence. The family of Anne, Duchess of Etampes, benefited greatly from her affair with Francis I of France, as her uncle, Antoine Sanguin, was made Bishop of Orleans and a cardinal and named Grand Almoner by Francis I when the post became vacant and two brothers also rose high in Church hierarchy. (However, when Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, suggested that his daughter Mary - widow of Henry VIII’s illegitimate son, Henry Fitzroy - become the king’s mistress to wield similar influence she pointedly refused.)

And there was always the chance, however small (and however politically meaningless), that the king would make his mistress his wife. Indeed, Henry IV had come extremely close to marrying Gabrielle: in 1599, after writing to Pope Clement asking for an annulment from his marriage to Margaret of Valois, Henry gave Gabrielle his coronation ring and promised to wed her (unfortunately for Henry, she died on April 10 of that year, probably from eclampsia). Alexander II, Emperor of Russia, actually did marry his mistress, Catherine Dolgorukova, a little more than a month after his first wife, Marie of Hesse and by the Rhine, died, and gave Catherine the title Princess Yurievskaya and the status of “Serene Highness”; although the marriage was morganatic, there were fears, particularly within the imperial family, that Alexander would strive to put his children by Catherine in the succession (particularly as Catherine claimed Alexander had placed the imperial crown on her head in a private ceremony, and as Alexander had legitimized the children and made pointed comments about his son by Catherine, George Alexandrovich - commenting that George was a “real Russian” and introducing him to his heir, the future Alexander III, as George’s “eldest brother”). Louis XIV was far more secret about his marriage to Madame de Maintenon; although the marquise was never formally acknowledged as his wife, her presence at court was substantial, and for the roughly three decades their marriage lasted, Madame de Maintenon exerted far more influence over the Sun King than her predecessor, Maria Theresa, ever had.

anonymous asked:

What is it like to learn about the Holocaust in German schools? I'm not asking to be disrespectful, but I'm genuinely curious. All counties have things that must be taught even if they aren't proud of it, but I've always wondered about this situation.

As of a somewhat young age we learn about what happened and why it was wrong, and later in school we learn about the technicalities of how it happened - the social, political and economic factors that led first to WWI and then to the rise of the NSDAP.* We then learn a little but not as much about what actually happened during the war, and also read a load of books set either during the war or after the war in the GDR. Basically no one denies it happened and very few people deny that it was a terrible thing, which is a good system, and also why I find it horrific how America teaches (or doesn’t) the colonialist genocide of Native Americans, or the civil war.

*(To simplify a tonne: because of the Treaty of Versailles and because German banks had the genius idea of printing more money to get out of recession - which only led to possibly the worst case of inflation in the world; there are literally pictures of people bringing wheelbarrows containing 27 trillion Mark in banknotes just to go to the bakery - there was lots of insecurity and resentment in the country. Hitler seized on that resentment and managed to convince a solid amount of the population that this was all happening because there were so many Jews in the country. He gained power in 1932 by a non-majority vote and the promises he made to Germans did not include gassing Jewish people or rounding them up in ghettos, instead he used language like “I shall deal with the problem”. That sort of direct violence didn’t begin until I believe 1939, 7 years later.

Wooden, Cardboard and Inflatable Tanks

There’s always not enough tanks to go around.

German Simulants

After WWI, the newly formed Weimar Republic was stripped of most of its military capability. It was denied tanks, airplanes and ships as well as various other machinations. As such, Weimar Republic’s military had to make do with faux tanks, either wooden and immobile as seen here, or constructed around a motor vehicle. (Above, a German wooden replica of a British landship for training purposes, seen here in 1918)

German soldiers push tank simulators during exercises in 1925. 

Cardboard German tanks around 1928. These appear to be mounted on a tricycle. Though nonfunctional, the faux tank maneuvers the Germans performed would give them an edge in WWII.

Canvas tanks on the tricycle mount, 1926.

In 1931, an increase in the Panzer Corp’s budget allowed for all tanks to gain one extra wheel.

Probably the most sophisticated faux tank the Germans came up with was mounting tank-like structures on a car. 1931.

1932. German infantry maneuvers with tank simulants, creating the basic frames for future tank-infantry warfare. 1933 would be the last year of the German simulant tank; Adolf Hitler would be elected in 1933, and he swiftly repudiated the Versailles Treaty and ordered mass production of the Panzer I. By 1934, Panzer Is began entering Nazi Germany’s arsenal.

  

Deception Tactics

All war is based on deception and faking out the enemy. One of the more popular methods (at least prior to satellite surveillance) of deceiving your enemy was inflating the number of vehicles or soldiers you had at your disposal. One could use signals and radio messages to give the impression there’s a large concentration of soldiers, or present fake vehicle/troop concentrations for your enemy to see.

Inflatable M4 Sherman. Inflatables were popular with the Allies due to their rapid set-up and ease of transportation. Inflatable vehicles were positioned opposite Calais in 1944 to give the Germans the impression Operation Overlord would land at Calais, rather than Normandy.

British soldiers literally inflate the number of tanks in Britain. With France gone, the Brits needed every edge they could get. 1940.

A dummy cruiser tank is assembled at a camouflage school. 1940.

In North Africa, British soldiers move a Stuart mock-up. 1942.

Sometime in 1944, an inflatable meets its counterpart.

US soldiers examine a German-made wooden T-34 on a truck chassis, while advancing through France. 1944.

A US marine peels off a wooden board from Japanese dummy tank on Okinawa. This tank is only marginally less protected than an actual Japanese tank. 1945. 

A US soldier peeks inside wooden German tank near Köln. It somewhat resembles a Churchill.

WWII was the last conflict to see major use of inflatable tanks, but the dummy tank lived on for another decade, as this inflatable Centurion in 1954 proves.

2

The Model 1920 French Police Contract Broomhandle Pistol,

One of the rarest contract models of the Broomhandle pistol was the M1920 French contract.  Produced by Mauser Works in Germany, 1,000 of these pistols were manufactured for the French Gendarmie Nationale in 1920.  Chambered for 7.63x25 Mauser and holding ten rounds in a fixed magazine, the French contract model only had two differences between regular German issued broomhandle pistols.  First, the French contract featured a 3.9 inch barrel, as the post World War I Versailles Treaty banned the production of pistols with barrel lengths 4 inches or longer.  Secondly, instead of wooden grips, the French contract grips were made of ebonite, a type of vulcanized rubber. 

9/11 > ks
The Holocaust > ks
The Gulags > ks
Pearl Harbor > ks
Racism > ks
Saddam Hussain > ks
The treaty of versailles screwing germany in the ass so hard that they were desperate for retaliation and thus allowed hitler to rise to power > ks
Killing women in the salem witch trials > ks
Human traffickers > ks
Slave owners separating mothers and children > ks
The irish potato famine > ks
WW2 > ks
Choir boys being molested > ks
Someone killing their loved ones with a grin whilst humming a fun tune and licking the blood off of their hands > ks
Jeffery Dahmer > ks
The columbine shooting > ks
Communism > ks
The current state of north korea > ks


:) :) :) killing stalking is absolutely the worst thing that has happened or will ever happen to the world :) :) :)

History Time!

I said I would, so today I’m going to talk to everyone about German Expressionism, a distinct cinema style that emerged from Germany in the 1920s.

But first, a brief introduction to film history:
Before the 20s filming was mostly a novelty hobby. A few feature films did exist, some pioneering complex editing techniques (like we’re used to now; in the beginning it was just one shot of something happening until the film ran out!). By the time World War I rolled around, film cameras were used mostly to make recordings of the war or were dropped altogether (people quickly saw the use of film for propaganda reasons). But after the war ended, it became more of an art form and was really used for self-expression.

Now for a brief look into German history:
World War I was settled through the Treaty of Versailles, which made Germany responsible for paying back all the war debts to France and England. Germany was driven into economic ruin and debt and closed its borders in a period of isolation. 

Classic German Expressionism arose from the anguish of the people. Their money was worthless and they felt isolated and trapped within Europe. 

Sets like this (from the film The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, dir. Robert Weine, 1920) were common in Expressionist films. They were shot at low, odd angles with a high contrast between very light and very dark. The sets themselves were very Tim Burton-esque, being odd and distorted. Nothing seemed real, but this was reality in the film: dark and twisted.

(From Nosferatu, dir. F.W. Murnau, 1922)
German Expressionism also uses a lot of shadows and silhouettes to build an eerie kind of suspense and thrill, making it the ancestor of the modern horror/thriller movie. The use of contrast and shadows also makes it a predecessor to American detective films (Film Noir), but it is most notably the birth of the horror film. 

Essentially what directors were trying to do was share to the world what the German people felt; they felt helpless and alone, gripped at the throat of the rest of Europe.

In the 1930s with the rise of the Third Reich, films became most widely used for propaganda and very few Expressionist films were being made in Germany. However, most German Expressionist filmmakers fled Europe for America and brought their ideas about film with them, allowing for these dark and suspenseful themes to become part of American cinema (examples include F.W. Murnau, Fritz Lang).

The Treaty of Versailles

After the First World War, the Allies assembled in Versailles to create a treaty. The German people knew that they would have to pay a price for peace, but they did not expect it to be as harsh as it was. Most Germans thought the Treaty of Versailles was unfair and far too harsh.

The terms of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles were as follows:

War Guilt

Germany had to take responsibility for the First World War (Article 231). Many Germans thought this was grossly unfair because in their view, Germany’s actions had been in self-defence.

Reparations

Germany had to pay compensation for the war (reparations) to fix the damage caused by it. In 1921, the figure was set at £6600 million, which had to be paid in annual instalments. It was unclear whether Germany could actually afford to pay this.

Military Restrictions

Germany’s army was reduced to only 100,000 soldiers.

Germany’s air force was disbanded.

Germany’s navy was limited to only 15,000 sailors, 6 battleships and no submarines at all.

Territorial losses

Germany lost 13% of its land – in which lived 6 million people – to the Allies.

France took Alsace-Lorraine; Poland took West Prussia and Posen (the Polish corridor) and part of Upper Silesia; Belgium took Eupen and Malmedy; Denmark took Northern Schleswig; The League of Nations took Danzig, Memel and the Saarland. The Allies also occupied the Rhineland, and no German troops were allowed inside it.

Germany also lost its overseas colonies.

Many Germans were very angry about the Treaty of Versailles, feeling that they had never really lost the war and the Treaty was unjust.